ETL503 Part B: Reflective Practice

ETL503 Part B: Reflective practice

Through ETL503 I built on my prior knowledge, understanding and experience of resourcing the curriculum and the role the library collection plays in teaching and learning in schools. Some of my practices have been confirmed, and I have learnt or expanded my understanding of others. The readings and resources are useful, and I will note them for future reference and further reading.

Knowledge and Understanding of the Role and Nature of School Library Collections

My initial thoughts (2021, March 24) on what I hoped to get out of this topic indicated that I already had a strong idea about the role of school library collections; they are designed to support teaching and learning, and provide interest items for leisure reading. I would like to reflect on several areas which stood out to me during this subject.

Balanced Collection

The balanced collection is a concept I was aware of, but had not put a name to. The balanced collection will vary between sites, and is always context specific. My previous TL role had me considering if digital resources were the best way to support teaching and learning, as we had unreliable internet and shared-use devices. In defining my balanced collection, I identified an online encyclopedia for acquisition, and ways to support students in searching smarter. The balanced non-fiction collection here was mainly print, and supplemented by curated web resources. In a previous blog (2021, April 28) I supported the use of Graphic Novels and print non-fiction to assist reading and learning. The discussion by Crowley and Fleishhacker interest me to consider further what types of graphic novels could support curriculum offerings.

Selection Criteria

Looking through selection criteria examples from National Library of New Zealand and Tasmania School Libraries , and reviewing Collection Development Policies, I see the need for general and specific criteria on which to base resource selection. Exploring these highlighted the variety of different criteria which can emerge based on different resource formats. I have not previously recorded my selection criteria, but generally follow the ideas of recent publication, relevance to curriculum or student interests, connection to series, and accessibility. I understand how having clear criteria for fiction (and a genre collection map) would help me to fill gaps in the collection and provide a better balance. The resources provided on selection criteria will certainly help me to create some specific criteria for my next site.


The role of the library collection is to support teaching and learning, providing users with resources to meet their needs. I believe this can be fully achieved with appropriate processes in place to support ongoing weeding of the collection. Module 5’s introduction to collection evaluation and deselection brought the CREW method to my attention. My previous reflection (2021, May 10) indicates my positive opinion of this resource, I believe the level of detail provided, and the continuous nature of the process will be beneficial in maintaining a current collection. I have found the resources provided by the National Library of New Zealand to be valuable. I will use those resources and deeper reading into CREW to support my current weeding project.

Collection Development Policy: A Strategic Document

A strategic document is explains what is supposed to happen, and why. The CDP is designed to outline policies for the library (what) and ensure the reader understands the reasons for actions (why). In this way, I believe a correctly created CDP can be an effective strategic document.

Several areas come across as important in describing strategy for the CDP. The role the CDP plays in providing the basis for selection and deselection of resources is the first area. Johnson’s (2018) description of a CDP highlights its role in strategic planning through collection evaluation, ensuring that resources always meet user needs. Including criteria aligned to school values, library purpose and user need will help to fit library processes into the school setting and support coordination.

Currency and transparency are equally important in forming the CDP. Johnson (2018) discusses the need for a clear understanding of the library’s role for its users into the future, and creation of defined parameters to guide library initiatives. Transparency ensures readers are aware of why library staff do what they do, and how it relates back to site priorities. Currency in this document ensures content is always relevant and the priorities being met are accurate. For me, updating the CDP should be a task which is completed in line with strategic Site Improvement Goals. By maintaining the same timeline, the document will always be relevant to site goals and can be used to support teaching and learning in the most effective manner.

 Collection Development Policy: Future Proofing the Collection

The Collection Development Policy can help future-proof the library collection through maintaining accurate and current information about resource selection. The selection criteria identified in the CDP support future-proofing as they are updated to reflect the needs of the school and the users. Australian Library and Information Association (ALIA) (2014) highlights managing digital resources effectively as a theme for future libraries. If the CDP refers to digital resources and includes details about selection, storage and access, then the document could be well placed to future support digital management into the future.

Accessibility of resources outside of the library is another trend to consider (ALIA, 2014), and is support by the 2017 Horizon Report comments on the need to expand access and convenience. A CDP which includes details about off-site resource access will be more beneficial into the future than one which does not. I consider off-site user access to be integral in the library maintaining relevance. As such, it is important for users to be taught how to use the resources efficiently and effectively, otherwise they will revert back to ‘Google bashing’ (ALIA, 2014, p.9).

A CDP supports future-proofing the library collection when selection criteria are actively maintained to relate to the current user base, and when content reflects the current digital offerings. Details about weeding schedules and methods being used are key to supporting ongoing collection maintenance.


ETL503 has helped to solidify my knowledge and understanding of collection management within a school library. There have been several areas which I would like to explore further in my next TL position. This will start with the development of an up-to-date Collection Development Policy which will support any selection and deselection projects. I believe the Collection Development Policy is the most important document within the school library, and if compiled accurately it provides a connection to school priorities and ensures the collection maintains its relevance into the future.



Australian Library and Information Association. (2014). Future of the Library and Information Science Profession: School Libraries. ALIA Futures.

Crowley, J. (2015). Graphic novels in the school library: using graphic novels to encourage reluctant readers and improve literacy. The School Librarian, 63(3). 140-142.

Fleishhacker, J. (2017). Collection Development. Knowledge Quest, 45(4), 24-31.

New Media Consortium. (2017). NMC/CoSN Horizon Report: 2017 K-12 Edition.

Johnson, P. (2018). Fundamentals of Collection Development and Management. American Library Association.

Larson, J. (2012). CREW: A weeding manual for modern libraries. Texas State Library and Archives Commission.

Libraries Tasmania. (n.d.). Selection and ordering.

National Library of New Zealand. (n.d.). Selecting and purchasing resources. National Library of New Zealand Services to Schools.

National Library of New Zealand. (n.d.). Weeding your school library collection. National Library of New Zealand Services to Schools.


Module 6 Reflection: Collection Development Policy

Module 6 had the focus on policies and procedures, and censorship. Policies and procedures looked specifically at Collection Development Policies (CDP) and potential inclusions into them. Censorship looked at further potential sources of censorship and how it can be catered for within policies.

The distinction between policy and procedures (as outlined in 6.1) is an important one, and should be remembered when creating library documentation. This distinction highlights policies as broad, public documents, which should include goals and principles and what will happen. Procedures identify how things happen, are very specific, and generally for use of library staff only. Procedures are used to fulfil the goals and principles outlines in policies. I found when creating my own CDP that it was difficult to know exactly how much detail to go into. Based on my understanding of this module, criteria for selection and weeding may be outlined in a CDP and allow for transparency into library operations; however specific processes should be kept for procedural documentation. The only specific process outlined in the CDP would be the challenges process – to allow for transparency into the process.

The different types of censorship mentioned in 6.2 add on to those discussed in 2.6. Module 6.2 brings a focus on legislated censorship, restricting access, and internet filtering, it also brings to light specifics around responding to challenges. I found the details for responding to challenges useful, I have not had any resources challenged, so this is not an area I am familiar with.

This module has highlighted necessary inclusions for a CDP and challenge policy. Through reviewing the example policies available I will be able to create my own CDP which supports selection, deselection, challenges and development of a library collection. Creating a suitable CDP will be one of my first tasks when I take on a new TL role.

Module 4 Reflection: Legal and Ethical Issues

Module 4 was focused on Copyright Law and Creative Commons Licensing. Many of the readings and resources were from the SmartCopying and Creative Commons websites. I have used these sites previously and found them easy to use and clear with explanations.

The content from this module connected directly to the Copyright Professional Development I completed a few years ago. In this way, I found this module to be a good recap of relevant information, and with a stronger focus on school needs. I was not aware of the need for a separate film license to play movies which are not curriculum based, or the rules around streaming sites.

I have also previously explored the Creative Commons website in the same PD, and also when introducing the topic to students. I think it is important for students to be aware of Creative Commons and also know how to find resources that fit these licences. My resources for exploring this topic need to be updated to better help students and staff better in locating items.

Internet Filtering is an interesting topic for schools. I have personally found internet filtering makes tasks more difficult for students, particularly when they have been provided with a list of websites to explore and they cannot access them. I believe it is integral for students to understand how to critically evaluate information and sources, and to use a variety of search terms to find what they need, and the TL can help them to achieve this.

I will explore SmartCopying and Creative Commons further to identify key areas which students and teachers should be aware of. I would also like to build on my teaching resources for Creative Commons and identify the best way to support staff and student use.



Creative Commons. (n.d.). Creative Commons.

National Copyright Unit. (n.d.). Smartcopying: The official guide to copyright issues for Australian schools and TAFE.

Module 5 Reflection: Evaluating Collections

Module 5 explored collection evaluation and collection analysis. This is an area which I have explored a little myself when completing a weeding project at a previous school. After reading the module material and articles I am more aware of specific evaluation tools and criteria.

The Module material provided an overview of several areas which make up collection evaluation – including analytics, weeding, and responsibility. While I have experience in weeding collections, I have not fully considered the ways in which data and analytics can support this. Grigg and Johnson covered a variety of evaluation methods, including quantitative and qualitative methods. Johnson also separates methods into ‘collection-based’ or ‘use- and user-based’, which provides a useful breakdown of where certain types of tasks relate. Grigg focuses on 6 main methods of assessment which could apply to both print and e-books. The methods which stood out to me as effective and simple to implement were ‘usage data’, ‘focus groups’/user observation/user opinion surveys.

Larson’s CREW method for weeding was also of interest. This is not a method I was previously aware of.

C- Continuous

R- Review

E- Evaluation

W- Weeding

The design of the CREW method integrates collection analysis into an item’s life cycle. Larson states that CREW enables information to be gathered in collection strengths and weaknesses. I consider this a useful resources which I hope to come back to and review fully.

I hope to incorporate a variety of qualitative and quantitative collection evaluation methods into my future library positions. I would like to use opinion surveys and focus groups to direct purchasing towards filling gaps of student and curriculum interest. I would also like to identify the best reports in my LMS to assist with weeding, and integrate the CREW method into how I weed.



Grigg, K. S. (2012). Assessment and evaluation of e-book collections. In R. Kaplan (Ed.), Building and managing e-book collections: a how-to-do-it manual for librarians (pp. 127-137). American Library Association.

Johnson, P. (2018). Fundamentals of Collection Development and Management. American Library Association.

Larson, J. (2012). CREW: A weeding manual for modern libraries. Texas State Library and Archives Commission.

Module 3: Budget Considerations

Should teacher librarians have the responsibility of submitting a budget proposal to fund the library collection to the school’s senior management and/or the school community? Or should such proposals come from a wider group such as a school library committee?

I think the responsibility of library budget proposals should be a combined effort between TL, library staff and a library committee. The more people who are involved can provide different perspectives and creativity into how the budget could be used to support teaching and learning. It is important that teaching and learning requirements are met and that collection maintenance can be pursued. Ultimately the budget proposal will fall to the TL, but the support given in formulating it can support the presentation to administration and show that the proposal takes into account school goals and the needs of users. Larger project proposals could be identified and developed by the library committee for inclusion into budgeting. Perhaps it lies with the TL to identify which aspects of the project are achievable for the given year, around other smaller projects they have identified.


Is it preferable that the funding for the school library collection be distributed to teachers and departments so they have the power to determine what will be added to the library collection? 

I think it is important for faculties to have input into resources within the library collection. I also think ordering should be the sole responsibility of library staff. If teaching staff identify a resource they think would be useful, they need to share that with the library. Library staff are then able to check the collection (in case it is already there), and explore the resource to meet selection criteria and usability. Once approved the item can be ordered. There is option here for different payment methods – the item could be solely purchased by the faculty or the library, or the cost split 50/50. Whichever payment method is used, the item is still catalogued and processed by the library. This ensures all resources within the school are in the library system, and borrowed out to ensure accountability. In a previous site I have had faculty leaders borrow out a wide range of teacher resource books to house in the faculty office, allowing teachers to access resources without coming to the library. This means ease of access for staff. But items are only borrowed under the leader’s name – not individual teachers, and staff are not exposed to the entirety to the faculty collection in teacher resources – leading to potential lost and unused items.

Module 3 Reflection: Accession & Acquisition

Module 3 had a focus on the areas of accession and acquisition in school libraries. Specifically looking at funding, workflows and licensing arrangements.

3.1 discussed funding in school libraries and how effective budget management is key to maintaining a balanced collection and ensuring resources can be obtained. The module initially refers to the ASLA Policy Development Manual and the steps to developing a budget policy. I have found this document invaluable in the creation of my own collection development policy.

Sources of funding were also reviewed. This is not an area I have considered much past provision of budget from my site. I am aware that grant proposals are quite common in the USA for library funding, however, have not explored any of these options in Australia. I think it would be worth developing my understanding in these areas in case I need to seek extra funding in the future.

Using a budget to maintain a balanced collection means that funds are allocated towards areas of need. The balance of funds may likely vary from year to year; however, the long-term observations should be in the development of resource sections. The balancing of funds should relate back to proposed library projects and sections for renewal. The module also relates this to developing an annual report. Budget allocation, progress on projects, and teaching and learning opportunities can all be shared in the annual reports. I created an annual report one year. This is a project which I should start planning for at the beginning of the year, so I can ensure relevant data is available for the report. I find the resources provided by the National Library of New Zealand to be very detailed and a good starting point for a wide range of library activities. I will need to remember to view their resources for annual reports when I next complete this task.

3.2 focussed on the acquisition workflow and how this differs from print books to eBooks. I consider acquisition to be an area I am pretty confident with, so I found the content here to be confirming processes I have done in the past. Previously I have focussed more on print resources than eBooks (as my sites have not had resources to support this). Key areas in the workflow included selecting resources, evaluating suppliers, obtaining MARC data, labelling wish-list items, and potential outsourcing (to standing orders/packages).

3.3 expanded on acquisition of digital and eBook items through the discussion of licensing arrangements. It is important to consider pros and cons to the use of free and paid digital resources, and of course, the context of the school site as to if it can cope with digital resource hosting and usage. Licenses play a large part in digital resource selection and usage. The discussion by Morris and Sibert surrounding eBooks was very detailed and informative. When I was reading, I was thinking about how it would be good to have a mixture of a range of business models and acquisitions methods, because they each had different pros and cons. I guess this is where knowing your audience and context helps to make an informed decision. They follow on from 3.2 with an outline of workflow for eBooks. This has many similar elements to a print workflow, but with further issues regarding access and licensing. I think re-reading this chapter or exploring some concepts further with a particular site in mind would be beneficial.

Ultimately Module 3 covered some topics which I was already familiar with. But I found a few areas here which would be useful to explore further in my next TL role. This includes models around eBook purchasing and licenses, and ideas for annual reports.



Australian School Library Association & Victorian Catholic Teacher Librarians. (2017). A manual for developing policies and procedures in Australian school library resource centres. (2nd ed.). Policy Development Manual.

Morris, C. & Sibert, L. (2009). Acquiring e-books. In S. Polanka (Ed.), No shelf required: e-books in libraries (p.85-107). American Library Association.

National Library of New Zealand. (n.d.).  Annual report. National Library of New Zealand Services to Schools.

Module 2 Reflection Activity

Discuss how the Teacher Librarian’s expertise and role is different from that required by all teachers:

The role of the teacher librarian is different from the role of a teacher because the Teacher Librarian’s role encompasses teaching and library management. The teacher librarian is skilled in teaching and learning strategies, and classroom management. In addition to understanding 21st Century literacies (information, digital and traditional), effective search strategies, evaluation of resources, curating digital and print resources for curriculum and leisure, team teaching, promoting reading for pleasure, informing about copyright and Creative Commons, managing the acquisition and access to all resources.

The teacher librarian is able to support the teacher through collaboration on units/lessons of work, and provision of resources. Both can work independently, but student learning is boosted with the expertise and experience of both teachers and teacher librarians.

Teacher-librarians are ultimately responsible for resource selection, however they complete this task with the support and collaboration of all classroom teachers. Asking faculties/year levels what topics they will be covering across the year, gives the TL vital information for them to check that the library collection has items which will meet the content and learning needs of the students.

Resource selection can also be shared with the students. When identifying items for pleasure reading, students can indicate favourite authors, genres, reading levels, interests – in general or pick specific books from a book choosing display.

I think when resource selection becomes a collaborative effort then resources are more likely to be used and appreciated by the school community.

Module 2 Reflection: Developing Collections

Module 2 covered a large amount of content directly related to developing library collections. This was a long module, which frankly, I struggled to get through. Topics included ‘selection and the school context’, ‘the balanced collection’, ‘eResources’, ‘selection aids’, ‘selection criteria’, and ‘censorship. Most of these topics held direct relevance to my first assessment task, and the readings suggested here we useful in that way.

2.1 focused on resource selection with reference to school context, and introduced the term ‘patron-driven acquisition’. This has different meanings depending on context. For example, I would have taken the term to mean patrons are assisting with acquisition through purchase suggestions. Whereas, in reference to digital resources it could refer to eBook acquisition through patrons initiating a purchase by viewing an item.

2.2 looked at the balanced collection and the need for up-to-date policies which are in line with the school’s mission, and which support collection development. A number of areas were discussed for consideration of a balanced collection – content vs container, ownership vs subscription, single title vs bundled sets, physical vs digital, fiction vs non-fiction, and quality vs popular. The decision for each of these areas is dependent on the school context and what is right for the resource users. Several readings discussed the use of graphic novels or non-fiction texts to support student learning. I agree with Crowley that graphic novels could be considered a ‘gateway book’ towards more traditional novels. But also that they hold value as texts which support inferencing and using pictures to understand the text. The wide range of types of graphic novels also support wide interests and curriculum links. McEwan’s comments on the usefulness of print nonfiction also hold true with me. I think a balanced collection definitely holds selected nonfiction – perhaps at easy readability and curriculum aligned. In some cases, the right nonfiction text can provide quicker and easier answers than a web search.

Key considerations raised in 2.3 about eResources were about access and promotion. With a variety of eBook vendors and platforms available it is important that the TL makes an informed decision based on ease of use and what the school can support. I learnt that some platforms can be integrated into the school Library Management System. I think this would make searching for resources more efficient, as all items can be searched in one place. Promotion of eResources can be more difficult than print, as you do not have a physical item you can put on display. Displaying eResources on the school library webpage/LMS home page would make them more visible to users. In addition digital scrolling displays could be used as screen savers or on a projection screen. I think promotion of digital resources is highly important. If users do not know you have resources, then they will not use them.

2.5 covers selection criteria. Selection criteria is how the TL ensures that resources are useful to the user and meet teaching and learning content, and library goals. Through this topic I learnt that selection criteria have layers, from very general to very specific, and they can vary depending on the format of the item or fiction vs non-fiction. I found the National Library of New Zealand information on selection criteria very helpful in exploring examples.

Censorship (2.6) relates directly to selection criteria. I think that if I had a purchase challenged that I would be wary with purchasing in the future, particularly if the challenge was by leadership. I think identifying the merits of the text and how it fits the selection policy before purchasing would provide a good background for possible challenges.

A primary school library I worked in had a ‘Year 6/7’ section which contained longer books and those with more mature themes, I suppose this could be censorship by labelling (Moody). These items needed notes from parents if you were in Year 4 or 5 to read them, and if students were younger they were not allowed to borrow them. From a school library perspective, if a student really wanted access to a book ‘out of their age range’ then it could be accessed with parents at a public library.

While I found this module difficult to get through a few points did stand out to me. The idea of a balanced collection is clearly very important to ensure adequate resourcing for teaching and learning, and also equitable access through format variety. I would also like to explore the National Library of New Zealand further to support future policies and criteria I will create.



Crowley, J. (2015). Graphic novels in the school library: using graphic novels to encourage reluctant readers and improve literacy. The School Librarian, 63(3). 140-142.

McEwan, I. (2018). Trending now. Teacher Librarian, 45(3). 50-52.

Moody, K. (2005). Covert censorship in libraries: a discussion paper. Australian Library Journal, 54(2). 138-147.

National Library of New Zealand. (n.d.). Selecting and purchasing resources. National Library of New Zealand Services to Schools.

Module 1 Reflection : The School Library Collection & Back to Study

Deedee86 / Pixabay

After deciding to come back to my Masters degree this year, I thought a few of the subjects at least would be more of a refresher for me than new learning, so I came into ETL503 this session thinking I would be recapping my prior librarianship learning and experiences. In the few weeks since the session has started, I have realised it’s not ‘easy’, and have wondered several times ‘why am I doing this?’. I need to switch back into organised study mode and plan my time and workload – at least I am only doing one subject this time. I have learnt that I still need to be in the moment and paying as much attention as I would if this was a topic I was new to.

I agree with much of the discussion provided in Module 1.1 that the digital climate is impacting how Teacher Librarians maintain school collections and provide resource access to students. I believe that technology can be embraced by school libraries and used to enhance the collection and engagement of students, and that the library is a space used by all types of people.

From my previous Teacher Librarian roles, I already understand Collection Development activities. I have always considered Collection Development and Collection Management as mostly interchangeable terms. I can see how Collection Management can refer to the big picture of access (digital and physical), and Collection Development focusing on ensuring identification and acquisition meet the needs of the user and context of the school.

I am finding the discussions around Collection Development vs Collection Management interesting, and I am looking forward to exploring the specifics of Collection Development in schools and related Policies.

INF533 Part C: Critical Reflection


Through INF533 my understandings of education in digital environments has continued to expand. Initially I was hoping to develop my understanding of using digital narratives in the classroom. I was thinking mainly from a literacy and reading perspective. Now I understand digital narratives to encompass presentation of information (flipped learning), and for student work creation and student engagement.

Digital Literature

The ideas discussed in Module 1 regarding what constitutes digital literature expanded on my prior knowledge somewhat. I have begun to explore beyond eBooks, towards interactive narratives. I have also been considering the narrative element of a variety of computer and role-playing games. They can hook in students who may be negative towards narratives, and provide the basis for their own as they explore the game. I can apply Walsh’s and Yokota and Teale’s criteria for literature evaluation to future collection development in my next library and to text selection for curriculum reading tasks. This would involve using a checklist of criteria and comparing potential texts against it. In addition, the text would need to be checked against curriculum and topic requirements. I strongly believe that using texts that relate well to task context and which students can connect to is integral to student engagement.

Digital Skills

I really connected with the ideas in Module 2 regarding effective use of digital tools and positioning students to be successful with digital learning. Leu, Forzani, Timbrell and Maykel and Serafini and Youngs highlighted an additional skill set for students to efficiently work and read in digital formats. Additionally, Walker, Jameson and Ryan noted the necessity for information seeking and information transfer skills. These authors are connected to 21st century and digital literacy skills. In collaboration with classroom teachers, I would like to be embedding digital literacy using a variety of digital narratives – to explore and to create.

Creation of Digital Narratives

Through Module 4 the ways in which digital texts can be created by students to share their knowledge and understanding was explored. My reflection explores the various readings. There is a lot of potential for using student created digital narratives in classes. I think it is necessary to balance digital work and analogue learning (face to face discussions and using pen and paper). Students need to see the value in what they create and using digital narratives consistently in all classes could become monotonous. I would like to begin using digital narrative creation in my classes. For example, in History students could create a day in a life story (written, visual or audio) to show understanding of different times and cultures. In English, students could turn a traditional narrative into a picture story or a video. Digital narratives provide opportunities to embed narrative structure in all learning areas, and provides a platform for students to express voice, choice and empathy. Student digital narratives create pride in their own work, and experience in creating something for a purpose.

Technology Integration

Module 5 focused on the integration of digital media texts into student learning, through merging creativity, narrative and technology, and empowering diverse learners. The TPACK and SAMR models are highlighted to support teachers in ensuring a balance and reason for technology use in the classroom. The concept of merging creativity, narrative and technology (Hall, 2012) connects with Technology and Content Knowledge, and providing multiple ways (choice) in which students can present their understandings. Within 21st century education I think it is more important than ever to ensure that technology is value adding to student learning and not just used because it is available. When used, the models mentioned ensure the educator is considering how the technology is impacting student learning. I will endeavour to focus on the value added in my classes by following the TPACK model. I prefer this model as it highlights how technology connects with pedagogy and content.


I enjoyed the opportunities to explore different styles of digital narratives. I have warmed to some more than others, based on how busy the text was to engage with. I have expanded my understanding and views on using digital narratives in education. I am more open to different types of digital literature and how they can be used for literacy development or expression of knowledge. I am looking forward to the opportunity to apply this understanding in a library or classroom in the future. I think the possibilities for use of digital narratives either for reading or creating are limited only by creativity.


AnneWithAnE. (2013, August 9). AnneWithAnE. Retrieved from

BradField Company. (2019) Inanimate Alice. Retrieved from

Hall, T. (2012). Digital renaissance: The creative potential of narrative technology in education. Creative Education, 3(1), 96-100. Retrieved from

Kingsley, K. (2007). Empower diver learners with education technology and digital media. Intervention in School and Clinic, 43(1), 52-56. doi: 10.1177/10534512070430010701

Koehler, J. (2019). The TPACK Framework. Retrieved from

Leu, D., Forzani, E., Timbrell, N., & Maykel, C. (2015). Seeing the forest, not the trees. The Reading Teacher, 69(2), 139-145. doi: 10.1002/trtr.1406

Schrock, K. (2018). SAMR and Bloom’s. Retrieved from

Serafini, F. & Youngs, S. (2013). Reading workshop 2.0: Children’s literature in the digital age. The Reading Teacher, 66(5), 401-404. doi: 10.102/TRTR.1141

Walker, S., Jameson, J., & Ryan, M. (2010). Skills and strategies for e-learning in a participatory culture. In R. Sharpe, H. Beetham, & S. Freitas (Eds.), Rethinking learning for a digital age: How learners are shaping their own experiences (pp.212-224). New York, NY: Routledge. Retrieved from ProQuest Ebook Central.

Walsh, M. (2013). Literature in a digital environment. In L. McDonald (Ed.), A literature companion for teachers (pp. 181-194). Marrickville, NSW: Primary English Teaching Association Australia (PETAA). Retrieved from

Yokota, J. & Teale, WH. (2014). Picture books and the digital world. The Reading Teacher, 67(8), 577-585. doi: 10.1002.trtr1262