Module 4 Reflection: Legal and Ethical Issues

Module 4 was focused on Copyright Law and Creative Commons Licensing. Many of the readings and resources were from the SmartCopying and Creative Commons websites. I have used these sites previously and found them easy to use and clear with explanations.

The content from this module connected directly to the Copyright Professional Development I completed a few years ago. In this way, I found this module to be a good recap of relevant information, and with a stronger focus on school needs. I was not aware of the need for a separate film license to play movies which are not curriculum based, or the rules around streaming sites.

I have also previously explored the Creative Commons website in the same PD, and also when introducing the topic to students. I think it is important for students to be aware of Creative Commons and also know how to find resources that fit these licences. My resources for exploring this topic need to be updated to better help students and staff better in locating items.

Internet Filtering is an interesting topic for schools. I have personally found internet filtering makes tasks more difficult for students, particularly when they have been provided with a list of websites to explore and they cannot access them. I believe it is integral for students to understand how to critically evaluate information and sources, and to use a variety of search terms to find what they need, and the TL can help them to achieve this.

I will explore SmartCopying and Creative Commons further to identify key areas which students and teachers should be aware of. I would also like to build on my teaching resources for Creative Commons and identify the best way to support staff and student use.

 

References:

Creative Commons. (n.d.). Creative Commons. https://creativecommons.org/

National Copyright Unit. (n.d.). Smartcopying: The official guide to copyright issues for Australian schools and TAFE.https://smartcopying.edu.au/

INF533 Part A: Digital Project Context

My digital story telling project will be a content for flipped learning. My artefact will be aimed towards a Catholic middle school in the inner southern suburbs of Adelaide. The school is co-educational and caters for years 7-9. It feeds into the associated senior school with year 10-12. Students have 1:1 access to Chrome Books which are used in most lessons. The school site uses Google Classroom as its main learning system, this is support by SEQTA for administration and pastoral activities. Students are experienced in the use of Google Classroom to access subject content and submit tasks online.

Subject Area:

The flipped learning task will be linked to the Australian Curriculum, Year 7 Civics and Citizenship. The task will cover the concepts of constitution and federation. Depending on past experiences, this may be revision of prior learning or development of new knowledge.

Purpose:

Flipped learning is the process of setting content-based learning for students to complete out of class (eg. homework). The use of flipped learning tasks enables class time to be used for discussions, exploration, analysis of content, and student questioning.

The task will be based around video content sourced through the Parliamentary Education Office (creative commons licensed). The task will be designed on Wix, and following some design elements from TED Ed Lesson Creator, such as the inclusion of think questions and discussion prompts. There are two sections to this task which could be completed by students at different times. The use of Wix allows for the sequential placement of videos, overarching introduction and conclusion, inclusion of student questions, and opportunities for collaboration between class members. The use of student questions will inform the teacher as to any areas of confusion and questions to respond to in future lessons.

Audience:

This task is aimed at a class of Year 7 students. The class has several students with diverse learning needs.

Value for program implementation:

Flipped learning is the process of delivering direct instruction to students in their individual learning space (FLN, 2014). According to Educause (2012), the value of flipped learning is in the reallocation of class time to provide opportunities for student to ask questions, apply knowledge and collaborate with others. Technology is often incorporated into flipped learning, but it is not a necessity (Shaffer, 2016). When technology is used a model such as TPACK (Technology, Pedagogy, Content Knowledge) is beneficial to ensure equal implementation of technology, content and pedagogy (Shaffer, 2016). In order to undertake flipped learning, it is necessary to follow 4 pillars to support full implementation.

Flexible Learning:

Successful flipped learning uses a variety of learning modes to get information across to students. This include videos, discussions, reading, and mini assignments (Hennick, 2014). Students now have choice over when and where they can learn.

Learning Culture:

The learning culture of flipped learning incorporates a learner-centred approach where students are actively involved in creating knowledge and meaningful learning (FLN, 2014). Hennick (2014) describes the inclusion of hands-on activities increasing student involvement in their own education. Shaffer (2016) agrees that students with active involvement in their learning are more able to retain information and skills, than students passively involved.

Intentional Content:

With intentional content class time is maximised, and conceptual understanding and procedural fluency increased (FLN, 2014). With more time in class to participate in project-based learning there is more opportunity for students to develop Higher Order Thinking skills (Hennick, 2014). In addition, students now have greater access to their teachers while applying their new knowledge (Hennick, 2014).

Professional Educator:

As a professional educator in a flipped learning classroom feedback can be given to students immediately, and teachers are constantly assessing knowledge (FLN, 2014; Hennick, 2014). Teachers are also able to connect and improve their content through professional discussions and acceptance of constructive criticism.

Value for diverse learning needs:

Flipped learning has benefits to all members of the class, not just those with diverse learning needs (Bergmann & Sams, 2012 in Shaffer, 2016:

  • helps busy or struggling students
  • students can re-watch or pause their content
  • more time for student-teacher and student-student interactions
  • increases teacher understanding of their students
  • changes how the classroom is managed
  • supports students who are absent

Value for community use:

Following the creation and implementation of a flipped learning unit or task the resources can be shared within the school community. This is highly valuable as it saves other teachers time and could be a stepping-stone for some teachers to try a flipped learning model. If teachers pool their time and resources together an entire curriculum could be developed as flipped learning.

 

References

Educause. (2012). 7 things you should know about flipped classrooms. Retrieved from https://library.educause.edu/-/media/files/library/2012/2/eli7081-pdf.pdf

Flexible Learning Network. (2014). What is flipped learning? Retrieved from https://flippedlearning.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/FLIP_handout_FNL_Web.pdf

Hennick, C. (2014). Flipped. Scholastic Administr@tor, 13(5), 38-42). Retrieved from ProQuest.

Koehler, J. (2019). The TPACK Framework. Retrieved from www.tpack.org

Shaffer, S. (2016). One high school English teacher: On his way to a flipped classroom. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 59(5), 563-573. doi: 10.1002/jaal.473

Module 3 Reflection: Leading Change

Module 3 focused on the process of implementing and leading change in an organisation. Ideas covered included management of change, impact of technology, internal and external forces of change, incentives, factors of stress, processes to lead change (eg. Kotter’s 8 step model), impact of specific teams and communication, conflict within organisations and teams, and how to be a change leader.

Through 3.1 (change in organisations) ideas about mandated change in education arose in the readings. Mandated change will always be around, but it is necessary to have a suitable mindset towards it. Clement’s (2014) discussion around the way change is introduced being highly important towards perceptions of the change is relevant. It is necessary to introduce change in a way which will encourage staff to embrace it. Mandated change should also be integrated into site priorities. In addition, change fatigue needs to be downgraded or eliminated if possible (as discussed by Dilkes, Cunningham and Gray, 2014). Through this discussion I can see the importance of implementing change slowly and not having too many initiatives being introduced at one time. Staff need the opportunity to learn and embed one change of practice before beginning another. I think it is also necessary for connection between potential initiatives to be identified. How does one initiative support the next etc? How do they support site priorities and improve teaching and learning?

3.2 (leading change) looked at the development of teams and the importance of good communication. Kotter’s 8 step model for change management was introduced here, along with 7 step problem solving. I think that together these models can support the implementation of change within an organisation quite well. Development of teams which support each other and work well together is necessary when leading change. Aguilar (2015) highlighted the importance of a clear purpose, alignment to school vision and team needs, and the provision of time to meet. Being willing to mix teams up if personalities are clashing or if there aren’t the right people in specific roles is sometimes necessary when building teams for a purpose. Having the right types of people in roles will make the team run a lot smoother and more efficiently than not. Discussion about conflict (organisational vs personal) also comes into leading change and the creation of teams. It is necessary to deal with conflict when it arises, not let it fester. The information given in this module about dealing with conflict is important to me. This is an area which I do not have much experience, and I am someone who would like to avoid conflict where possible. The problem solving and change models will be useful for implementation of change in the future, and in dealing with conflict.

3.3 (change leader) focused on innovation and management vs leadership. I think it makes a lot of sense for a leader to be a successful manager first, if you cannot manage your role and your people how can you expect to be able to lead a team through an innovative change. The reading by Oberg (2011) highlights how the TL can influence and change school culture. I think it is necessary to ensure changes still align to school priorities and vision/mission, and meet teaching and learning objectives.

This module has provided steps and information about how to implement change in a workplace. I now understand the pitfalls of too much change and implementing it too quickly. As noted in my earlier blog post, if I were to change the perception of the TL role I would do so over a 2-year period, providing opportunities for staff input and practice sessions.

 

References:

Aguilar, E. (2015, July 15). Cultivating healthy teams in schools [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://www.edutopia.org/blog/cultivating-healthy-teams-schools-elena-aguilar

Clement, J. (2014). Managing mandated educational change. School Leadership & Management, 34(1), 39-51. doi: 10.1080/13632434.2013.813460

Dilkes, J., Cunningham, C., & Gray, J. (2014). The new Australian Curriculum, teachers and change fatigue. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 39(11). Retrieved from http://ro.ecu.edu.au/ajte/vol39/iss11/4

Madsen, S. (2016, October 24). Kotter’s 8 step change management model [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/7qlJ_Y8w5Yk

Oberg, D. (2011). Teacher librarians as cultural change agents. SCIS Connections, 79. Retrieved from https://www.scisdata.com/media/1353/connections-79.pdf

Module 3 Blog: Implementing Change

A change I have been thinking about implementing is regarding how teachers use the library and the TL. I do not know where my next TL job will be or the specifics of the role (eg. is library considered NIT? Is it collaborative inquiry learning? Is it teaching skills just in time? Is the library just used by classes with no support from the TL?) My ideal library usage is one where teacher and TL are working collaboratively on units of inquiry and embedding information and digital literacy skills into the process. A process of change may be required to reach this goal.

To change how staff view the use of library time and library space I think it is necessary to show them what could be possible. Drawing on ETL401’s discussion of advocacy, I would consider getting a few people on side with the idea of collaborative learning and demonstrating the process with them. It is important here to show the Principal how working collaboratively through inquiry units adds to student learning and the ‘big picture’ of the school. Once a successful unit (or two) have been completed this can be shared with the Principal. Hopefully they will see the benefits from the test cases and want this to occur school wide. The next step would be to convince other teachers that this is the way to go – this could be done through a staff meeting presentation given by the test case teachers to share their experiences and what their students (and them) got out of the process).

While transforming the usage of the library and TL could be considered a top-down directive (the Principal now wants it this way), it would be directed from the TL, and teachers are encouraged by those who have worked this way to give it a go. There is also an opportunity to put it to the teachers: what else do you want from the TL? Things are going to change, what changes would you like to see? This adds in teacher voice and gives them notice that things will be changing.

A process like this could take 1-2 years to be fully supported and implemented by the staff. It could be introduced in stages.

  1. Get the principal on-side. Provide them with readings and data about collaborative inquiry learning
  2. Remove library as a NIT time (if it is this way)
  3. Brainstorm ways the library and TL could be used instead
  4. Get a few teachers on-side to work collaboratively with as test cases
  5. Share results and experiences with whole staff
  6. Work with a few more teachers
  7. Implement some of the brainstormed ideas – as relevant and applicable to circumstances
  8. The following year – start the year off fresh with collaborative inquiry units

Through this process staff voice is being heard, they can see the outcomes from the collaborative opportunities, the process can be tweaked and changed, and staff have the opportunity to ‘give it a go’ at any stage during the year prior to full school implementation.

Module 2 Reflection: Organisation Theory

Module 2 expanded my understanding and knowledge of theories behind management and leadership, and what makes an information service. I read about different theories including: Classical Management Theory, Mintzberg’s classifications for organisations, Situational, Transactional, Transformational, Servant, Distributed, Instructional and School Leadership. As well as why leadership is important for Teacher-Librarians.

I didn’t realise there were so many different theories behind leadership. During my reading I connected some theories to education and schools more than others. Classical Management theory relates to jobs being precisely defined, hierarchical structure and clear levels of command. I see this as teacher and leadership role descriptions, Principal at the top of the pyramid, and various middle and senior level leaders in the chain of command to deal with any issues or changes.

There was cross-over between levels of Mintzberg’s classification regarding where school’s sit. I think schools lie between Divisional and Professional, with a little bit of Innovation. They are under the banner of a large department (the state, catholic, independent systems) with centralised control. But they are also characterised by professional and competent teachers in specialised areas of expertise. Schools which have expanded to Distributed leadership could work towards becoming Innovative as other staff members begin to have control of decisions and direction.

In terms of leadership theories, I connected with situational, transformational and distributed.

Situational Leadership: I think it is necessary to be flexible in how to lead in a particular situations (context is important). However, for this method to be successful relationships with all members of the team are highly important as you could call on any of them to assist in a particular situation. This type of leadership calls for a good understanding of your team’s skills and the structure of the task at hand.

Transformational Leadership: I like the big picture direction required for Transformational Leadership. It is a focus on identifying what the next steps are to build on performance and success. I see this form of leadership in convincing subject teachers to team-teach with you. This is an opportunity to develop change in practice. Collaboration across all levels can be seen in team-teaching with different year levels and subject areas. There can be team building in preparing library staff for these opportunities (resource collection, online presence), and in working with faculties (what I can do to help you and your students achieve – inquiry and information literacy). There is also the opportunity to provide PD to staff about how a collaborative session can be planned and implemented.

Distributed Leadership: This form of leadership can be used within the Library team. It requires an understanding of the areas requiring leadership and the skill sets of the team members. Can other people take on leadership roles in their area of expertise? For example, someone working on explaining copyright practice to staff and students – they can also teach that understanding to all library staff.

I also understand further now that leadership for a TL could be leading by example, being visible, being a manager, knowing when to delegate, and integrating myself into teaching and learning. This connects to TL Advocacy (from ETL401), identifying how the TL can help other members of the school. Get them onside and then incorporate/suggest ways of working together to improve teaching and learning outcomes.

I found this module to be highly useful in expanding my knowledge and understanding. I have a greater picture of what how different types of leadership could be used as TL. Examples and explanations (particularly in Smith, and Bush & Glover) expanded on the basic concepts and highlighted areas to consider.

By better understanding leadership theories, I can identify what styles I connect with best and how I can use them in the future. In completing the case studies, I hope to better apply leadership understanding to the scenario, which, in turn, will assist with future leadership responsibilities. My knowledge about leadership styles can also direct me about what styles are not suited to my personality or situations.

 

References:

Bush, T., & Glover, D. (2014). School leadership models: What do we know? School Leadership & Management, 34(5), 553-571. doi: 10.1080/13632434.2014.928680

Smith, B. (2016). The role of leadership style in creating a great school. SELU Research Review Journal, 1(1), 65-78. Retrieved from www.selu.usask.ca

Part B: Critical Reflection of Digital Literature Experiences

Digital Texts

What makes a good digital text?

Within each of my reviews (50 Below Zero, Green Gables Fables, and 80 Days) I referred to the qualities of good literature as identified by Walsh (2013) and Yokota and Teale (2014). The key points of analysis of a digital text become how it engages the reader (Walsh, 2013) and how the reading experience is enhanced (Yokota and Teale, 2014).

A good digital text can mean different things to different reader groups. As Walsh (2013) comments, young readers require texts with solid narrative structure and a variety of vocabulary, whereas older readers need complex plots and characters for analysis. Yokota and Teale identify 3 questions which form the basis of their criteria, which are integrated into my reviews.

Through exploration of different types of digital literature, the application of these criteria have been observed in different ways. What is obvious throughout this exploration is that the digital elements used must add to the story and the reader’s experience.

What counts as a digital text?

A digital narrative is a story which has been designed and created specifically for viewing on a digital device. Unsworth (2006) and Lamb (2011) have similar points of view on what digital literature is.

According to Unsworth (2006), digital texts fall into three categories:

  • Digitally augmented
  • Digitally re-contextualised
  • Digitally originated

Lamb’s (2011) labels of eBooks, enhanced eBooks, and interactive storybooks fall into Unsworth’s (2006) final category. These are texts which are born digital and have no hardcopy format.

The important factor when identifying if a text would be considered digital literature would be to consider its origins and current format. There are many types of digital literature already, and there will be more to come.

What purpose do digital texts serve?

Digital texts can serve to increase access to reading material and opportunities to increase literacy and explore different formats of text.

Walsh (2013) highlights the world outside the books through discussion forums, author websites, research into books, and hyperlinks within texts. All these can help to engage students who might not necessarily be readers. Through digital texts, readers can use text to speech, hyperlinks, music, and interactive features to assist with comprehension. Students can incorporate the multimodal elements to become active participants in reading.

Experience Comparison

I am a print reader. I like the feel of a paper book in my hands, being able to flick back and forth as I make a connection to something earlier in the text, being able to see how much I have read versus how much still to go, I like the smell of a well-loved book, and looking at texts displayed on a bookcase. I think I will always prefer a printed book.

Jabr (2013) and Cull (2011) discuss some impacts of digital learning, and my experiences studying online suggest similarly that comprehension is impacted through reading course material on screen. Printing readings to highlight relevant facts by hand and copy notes from the screen is still beneficial.

While exploring various digital texts for this task, the ones I enjoyed the most were those which were most like print books (eg. your standard print to digital eBook). Except for the texts chosen for review, which were enticing because of the story they tell.

Contrary to several opinions (Walsh, and Skains), exploring Inanimate Alice as part of the semester content was not a pleasurable experience. As a digitally created text it contains many features which make it quality digital literature, including music, moving images and interactivity. But I found the whole experience quite distracting. It was difficult to focus on the actual text and take it all in. In contrast, 80 Days as a game-based narrative also included these elements but to a more subdued level, which enabled a high level of focus on the story being told.

Opinion and Application

The digital text I most enjoyed was the enhanced book Green Gables Fables. This text is a vlog adaptation of the story Anne of Green Gables by LM Montgomery. It highlights issues and themes from the original text and places them into a 21st century setting.

Green Gables Fables could be implemented into the Australian Curriculum English (literature strand) or Media Arts (or as a cross-curriculum topic). In English the videos could be used as part of a text study; and in Media Arts, as an example of script writing, filming and editing skills.

Due to the short nature (4-5 minutes) of each episode it would be possible to watch a selection of episodes within class time. Activities which could be undertaken include:

  • Making a comparison between issues and themes in the videos and their own experiences;
  • Analysing the vlog for narrative and language elements;
  • Comparing vlog to original text;
  • Analysing the vlog for media elements;
  • Creating their own vlog based on a book they are interested in;

By incorporating a different style of text into English (enhanced book, as opposed to book), a wider range of students may engage in the text and the activities. Incorporating a creative task, such as making a vlog, empowers students in their learning; they become ‘active knowledge developers’ (Hur & Sub, 2012, p.324). In addition, students are developing new skills for the future.

New digital texts and digital adaptations of old texts are on the rise. It is necessary to stay abreast of developments and be critical of digital text choices for use in the classroom.

References

AnneWithAnE. (2013, August 9). AnneWithAnE. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/user/greengablesfables/videos

BradField Company. (2019) Inanimate Alice. Retrieved from https://inanimatealice.com/

Cull, B. (2011, June 6). Reading revolutions: Online digital text and implications for reading in academe. First Monday 16(6). Retrieved from https://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/3340/2985

Hur, J. & Suh, S. (2012). Making learning active with interactive whiteboards, podcasts, and digital storytelling in ELL classrooms. Computers in the Schools, 29(4), 320-338. doi: 10.1080/07380569.2012.734275

Ingold, J. & Humfrey, J. (2014). 80 Days [Mobile application]. Cambridge: inkle.

Jabr, F. (2013, April 11). The reading brain in the digital age: The science of paper versus screens. Scientific American. Retrieved from https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/reading-paper-screens/

Lamb, A. (2011). Reading redefined for a transmedia universe. Learning and Leading with Technology, 39(3), 12-17. Retrieved from http://www.learningandleading-digital.com/learningandleading

Skains, RL. (2010). The shifting author-reader dynamic. Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, 16(1), 95-111. doi: 10.1177/1354856509347713

Unsworth, L. (2006). E-literature for children: Enhancing digital literacy learning. Oxon, UK: Routledge.

Walsh, M. (2013). Literature in a digital environment. In L. McDonald (Ed.), A literature companion for teachers (pp. 181-194). Marrickville, NSW: Primary English Teaching Association Australia (PETAA). Retrieved from https://doms.csu.edu.au/csu/file/863c5c8d-9f3f-439f-a7e3-2c2c67ddbfa8/1/ALiteratureCompanionforTeachers.pdf

Yokota, J. & Teale, WH. (2014). Picture books and the digital world. The Reading Teacher, 67(8), 577-585. doi: 10.1002.trtr1262

Review 3: 80 Days

80 Days by Inkle books is an interactive book based on the text Around the World in 80 Days by Jules Verne. It comes in a downloadable app format, for iOS, Android and PC. It incorporates fully interactive animations and harnesses the challenge of completing a round the world trip in 80 days. The application is rated M on the GooglePlay store, as such the age recommendation for this interactive book should be 15+ years. The quality of the content is high with interactive activities in each city, route planning and conversation. There is potential for this text to be used in the Geography or English curriculum.

80 Days harnesses the excitement of a choose your own adventure in an interactive app. There are many digital affordances and features which have been integrated into the storyline. At certain points of the text the user, playing as Mr Fogg’s valet – Passepartout, make choices regarding the next phrase of text, which impacts future options and potentially your standing in Mr Fogg’s eyes. The user interacts with a world globe to identify the next leg of the journey. They are also in control of finances and explore the bank to ask for a loan, or the market to buy and sell possessions. It is possible to see the routes which some other players are making in real time, although there is no interaction with them.

The app is presented in a clear and consistent format. All cities and scene changes use the same colours (mainly black, grey and white), images and font. While there are no clear instructions, how to guides or tutorials provided at the beginning of the game, most of the icons make it clear what their purpose is. Around the World in 80 Days is the basis of this text-based game. However, the focus of this app is more about the journey and end goal than the original story. As an app, the interactive book fits the screen of the device to the correct proportions in either landscape or portrait mode. While text appears on screen to help progress the game, creative license has been taken with the content and context. There is also no narration of the on-screen text.

As a game based on a written text, it may be best if the user has a general understanding of the original work. Without this, the pretence of the app, or the significance of places or objects may be lost on the user. However, use of the interactive book may encourage someone to seek out the original work to read. The interactive book can be enjoyed with or without the prior knowledge of the text.

The app is designed for user interaction with the storyline which provides a different experience each time it is played, as different choices are made (Itzkovitch, 2012). Kelly (2015) agrees with this as he highlights the replay-ability of the game due to the number of different routes around the world which can be taken. User intuition is a necessity to interpret comments from non-playable-characters for efficient actions.

An M rating limits the audience of the app. It is not clear why this rating was given, but through exploration, this reviewer has not identified any elements which warrant this. There is a one-off cost associated with the download. The version reviewed (Android) was $5.99. Being sold as a premium game is in contrast to current trends, where free app downloads, which utilise in-app purchases, are on the rise (Miller, 2018).

The integrity of the original text within this format is questionable. Artistic license is taken relating to conversations, travel routes, transport options, and the new Victorian steampunk setting. However, despite these additions, this reviewer agrees with Jayanth (2014), that the premise of this interactive text is accurate to the original. The digital features integrate narrative text, of a similar tone to Jules Verne, into the game environment seamlessly and encourage user participation through moments of choice in text direction and actions.

Elements of quality literature within this text include the need to consider various issues in making travel decisions, and the tone and vocabulary used. The user is guided to make decisions which will benefit Mr Fogg and their journey. There are consequences if poor decisions are made, such as Mr Fogg losing too much health, running out of money or taking too long to complete the journey. The tone used throughout the new text is similar to the 1871 original and created using similar language features.

80 Days is an interesting and engaging interactive book. It uses the digital environment to put a classic story in the hands of those more inclined towards apps and games. The main elements of the original text can be found within the app, along with multiple opportunities for user interaction. Overall, this text included a good amount of classical content while becoming updated for a different type of audience.

Ingold, J. & Humfrey, J. (2014). 80 Days [Mobile application]. Cambridge: inkle.

inkleStudios. (2014, May 14). Introducing 80 days [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/leHaJNhBn1M\

inkle Ltd. (2019). 80 Days. Retrieved from https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.inkle.eightydays&hl=en_AU

Itzkovitch, A. (2012, April 12). Interactive eBook Apps: The reinvention of reading and interactivity. UX Magazine. Retrieved from https://uxmag.com/articles/interactive-ebook-apps-the-reinvention-of-reading-and-interactivity

Jayanth, M. (2014, May 8). Verne and Victorian Futurism [Blog post]. Retrieved from https://www.inklestudios.com/2014/05/08/victorian-futurism.html

Kelly, A. (2015, October 13). 80 days review. PC Gamer. Retrieved from https://www.pcgamer.com/au/80-days-review/

Miller, G. (2018, December 10). How the rise of in-app purchases is influencing the mobile gaming industry [Blog post]. Retrieved from https://gamblingaffiliatevoice.com/news/how-the-rise-of-in-app-purchases-is-influencing-the-mobile-gaming-industry/?fbclid=IwAR3KFS6Ydmsu1S0l-6kXBaqEQSTi7CULsaw3LlUBGu2QkcN1htSJxlZ-1C8

Walsh, M. (2013). Literature in a digital environment. In L. McDonald (Ed.), A literature companion for teachers (pp. 181-194). Marrickville, NSW: Primary English Teaching Association Australia (PETAA). Retrieved from https://doms.csu.edu.au/csu/file/863c5c8d-9f3f-439f-a7e3-2c2c67ddbfa8/1/ALiteratureCompanionforTeachers.pdf

Part B: Critical Reflection INF530

My views, knowledge and understandings of an education professional in digital environments has developed over the course of this subject. I was hoping to better understand digital technologies which could be used to broaden student learning experiences and collaborative opportunities. This subject has given me some insight into this area, but I am not confident with my application of this knowledge at this time.

Module 1.3: Trends in Technology highlighted the various skills for the 2020 workforces, and the idea of a Global One Room Schoolhouse by John Seely Brown.

The ideas posed in Future Work Skills 2020 showed the importance of 21st Century graduates possessing a wide skill set. I found these ideas interesting and saw connections of the key skills to some of the Australian Curriculum General Capabilities and Cross-Curriculum Priorities. To ensure my students can become effective and efficient workers, I now feel more confident to incorporate the General Capabilities and Cross-Curriculum Priorities more explicitly into my classes.

The ‘Global One Room Schoolhouse’ is associated with the idea of connected learning through social or collaborative tools. From the video, I considered the potential of this type of learning to connect with experts in different fields and across the globe. I would like to try incorporating Skype meetings to engage students in first-hand commentary from professionals in fields of study.

Module 1.4 introduces Helen Haste’s concept of Problem Solver vs Tool User. She discusses how the tools we have available change how we approach a problem. I considered that problem solvers were tool users, just using a wider range of tools. To apply this understanding, I would have my students consider the tools and skills they have available to them and how they could be used to solve a problem or information need. In doing so, my students and colleagues become aware of what the student brings to the classroom, and can assist in developing other tools/skills to enhance learning.

Connectivism was a new concept to me this semester, but I have referred to it many times since learning of it. I think this concept has the potential to link to my previous comment of problem solver vs tool user. By using digital environments (tools), students can respond to information needs, and create and share new knowledge and understandings. I can apply this concept through using digital platforms (GoogleDocs, social curation tools, flipboard) for students to share understandings or questions for their peers to respond to.

Through Module 4: Globalisation of Learning, I discovered that globalising learning can challenge how and why we learn (Selwyn 2012) . We are now learning through digital interfaces from ebooks, online courses, including video-based lessons and online collaboration. The reason for our learning, and for teaching students to learn digitally, is to provide learners with the knowledge and skills to compete in a knowledge-based economy, where their learning here would allow them to work elsewhere.

Geo-spacial learning (Module 4.2) provided me with some ways to involve students in the world around them. I enjoyed learning of ways to do this in the set readings and the discussion forum. I had not heard of some of the tools before now. This is an area which I need to further research to better understand these tools and possibilities into inquiry learning.

I greatly enjoyed the content associated with digital literacy (1.5), information behaviour (2.2), Information Fluency (3.2), and curation (3.7). These topics showed the connections of library skills and behaviours to all aspects of learning. I have added these different perspectives to my own understanding.

In my role as an education professional in digital environments, I think it is important for students to know how to solve problems and use the tools available to them. They need to know how to learn. It is also important for students to have opportunities to interact with and explore the world around them to gain a bigger picture of the impact their learning could have on their lives.

 

References

Connected Learning Alliance. (2012, September 18). The global one room schoolhouse: John Seely Brown. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/fiGabUBQEnM

Davies, A., Fidler, D., & Gorbis, M. (2011). Future work skills 2020. Retrieved from http://www.iftf.org/uploads/media/SR-1382A_UPRI_future_work_skills_sm.pdf

Haste, H. (2009, June 25). Technology and youth: Problem solver vs tool user. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/YZRoS5QlJ44

Selwyn, N. (2012). Education in a digital world: Global perspectives on technology and education. [Routledge]. Retrieved from ProQuest Ebook Central.

Part C – Final Reflection

When I started this topic, I was aiming to expand my understanding of Information Literacy, and explore the role the Teacher-Librarian (TL) further. This has occurred, specifically in the area of advocacy. I have reflected on my past practice and how I could improve now with this extra growth in knowledge, application and understanding.

 

Information Literacy

Prior to undertaking this topic (ETL401) I understood the basics of Information Literacy (IL) to be research skills, referencing, and ethical use of digital information. I have come to understand that there are more than 3 types of literacy (Re-Defining Literacy), and the aim of IL skill development is to help students to develop skills for success in the 21st Century information environments.

One of my biggest take-aways from the readings and Module 5 discussions was the importance of context and purpose when defining IL and implementing it in the classroom. I have also been introduced to the concept of Information Fluency (IF). I have come to understand this as being associated with IL, but with a focus on fluency of application instead of just understanding and literacy. I am curious about this terminology and the implications of using different terminology within the field of IL. I lean towards seeing IF as an overarching term which encompasses IL and Digital Literacy (DL).

Within my practice I would like to explore IF further and compare it against IL and DL. I would do this to become more knowledgeable about different 21st Century learning processes, and to build my capacity to implement and advocate for a particular IL method. I think IF should be the aim of information skill develop in 21st Century teaching and learning.

 

Information Literacy Models

I was aware of some IL models prior to this topic, but have not had the opportunity to explore them thoroughly. Through readings and Module 5 discussions, I have come to understand some differentiating details between IL models. I have also found that there many similarities, and trying to identify in-depth reasoning behind not using a particular model can be challenging.

I found this area of learning relevant to my previous context where I was endeavouring to integrate inquiry units into HASS. For that task I chose the 5As as my IL model because another school in the region also used it and shared their resources. I now understand that the 5As are linked to Information Fluency. I was pleasantly surprised when I made this connection.

This module has caused me to re-think other IL models and the process of integrating them across the curriculum. Based on Lupton’s paper and various exemplars of practice in implementing an IL model from Module 4, I would like to explore GID, and the 5As further to identify which model would be best suited to my circumstances. As I mentioned, I think IF is a good way to achieve 21st Century skill development. I might explore this model first.

 

TL Role in Inquiry Learning

The role the TL must play in advocating for IL within schools has become clearer to me throughout this topic. This is in addition to developing relationships and collaborative opportunities with students and staff. This topic has solidified for me the need for the TL to be involved in faculty planning and curriculum development to ensure integration of IL skills. Discussion in Module 4.3 indicates a TL’s involvement in curriculum development is necessary as they can see the big picture and know where IL skills can be best integrated.

Advocacy is an area I do not have much experience in. These discussions in Module 3 and Bonanno’s video were significant to me as I began to consider data collection and advocacy as not just for usage statistics, but as a way to get staff and the Principal on-side with developing IL across the school. Module 3 also made me reflect on the ways I could have practiced advocacy with a supportive teacher audience and converted Principal.

Reflection and assessment tools to collect data on student learning is something I would like to explore further in the future. I would do this through the use of competency-based questionnaires and reflective toolkits, as discussed in Module 4. A common theme through 4.2 discussions was making yourself available in small ways and taking baby steps to convince staff that working collaboratively with the TL is a good idea. When I start in my next TL role, I will take this approach to ‘test the waters’ on staff opinion and practice.

 

While I thought I knew much coming in, I have added new areas to my TL knowledge which will enable me to provide a greater impact in schools, and better advocate for the use of a TL in schools. I am still learning to apply my critical thinking skills to a range of concepts.