Reflective practice – Assessment 2 Part B

The goal of collection development for a school library must be to provide the library with a collection that reflects students’ needs and supports the mission of the school as well as the particular needs of the members of the school community (Kimmel, 2014). One of the key present and future purposes of the school collection is to serve a 21st century online Australian Curriculum which “supports all young Australians to become successful learners, confident and creative individuals and active and informed citizens” (AEM, 2008, p. 13; Mitchell, 2011). Library collections and resources are designed to allow students to use information and digital literacy skills to leverage the power of technologies to ensure their voices are heard and to have opportunities to deal with issues that will affect them and future generations. Another key role of the school library is to help teachers become more inclusive so that they can incorporate resources that are both in print and in multiple online formats to maximise students’ engagement and learning (Tait et al., 2019).

The IFLA Trend Report (“IFLA Trend Report”, 2013) identifies that new technologies are transforming the global information environment. The IFLA Trend Report (“IFLA Trend Report”, 2018) states that the libraries can make the internet more useful for the users. These trends are shaping the school collection and the library services provided to the school community. The provision of a wide range of material across a range of technologies is a priority. Librarians also need to consider the information needs of the school community in the teaching-learning context of the school and to match the collection with the learner characteristics as well as ensuring that the collection is consistent with the current knowledge base (Hughes-Hassell & Mancall, 2005).

Keeping a balanced collection that is catered for the needs of the students who need physical books and virtual resources is the priority in the collection development. Hughes-Hassell and Mancall (2005) suggested a decision-making model for selecting resources that support a learner-centred collection. I discussed a selection model that I thought would fit in the context of my school library in my blog posting for Module 2.1 “Selecting my own selection decision-making model”. I also discussed the evaluation methods that would be feasible and practical to be implemented in my school library in my blog posting for module 5.1 “Models and methods for collection evaluation”. Selection and evaluation are integral parts of collection development. The traditional practice of just-in-case philosophy in anticipation of what might be needed by students need to be changed. Teacher librarians need to envision the current and future needs of the students and implement a working procedure for selecting and evaluating the e-book collection (Grigg, 2012). In my blog posting for Module 2.1, I have also discussed the tightening of budget across many school libraries which is limiting teacher librarians’ ability to select collections. Under such budget constraints, reassessment of the library’s role in the information access process within the school is required. Teacher librarians, as the makers of the collection development policy (CDP) need to become more proactive and be involved in feasible and realistic planning of the budget for sourcing the online resources, the subscriptions to which are often associated with high costs (Wade, 2005).

Collection Development Policy describes the underlying principles and parameters of the school’s collection of information resources and is essential for all school libraries (New South wale Department of School Education Curriculum Directorate, 1996, p. 24 – 25). CDP is a strategic document that assists in future proofing of the library collection. CDP addresses issues associated with censorship and intellectual freedom and the acquisition of controversial materials (Hoffman & Wood, 2007). Library collections are becoming multi-formatted; consequently, copyright and censorship issues in relation to e-collection are more prominent than ever in response to the change of the information landscape. Censorship in relation to restricted access and filtering are widely applied in school libraries to ensure students’ online safety. I exampled some common copyright questions students and teachers may have when using e-resources in my forum discussion for Module 4.1 “Copyright questions and answers for teachers and students”. The CDP provides direction or resources for finding answers for copyright issues and teacher librarians are the experts to respond to these queries.

A well thought out Collection Development Policy promotes collaboration between the school administrators and the teacher librarians in the planning of library collections that serve the current and future needs of the learners. The key factor determining the degree to which school librarians are permitted to be involved in decision making processes regarding intellectual freedom appears to rest more on professional intangibles such as the collegiate relationship with administrators (Hoffman & Wood, 2007). Teacher librarians and school administrators need to work collaboratively in order to develop a learner-centred collection (Hughes-Hassell & Mancall, 2005). The CDP sets out guidelines that stakeholders can all follow when discussing about controversial issues about the selection of materials. In my forum discussion for Module 6.2 “Key takeaway from your readings on censorship”, I discussed about collection selector’s self-censorship which can make selection a subjective exercise (Dawkins, 2018). The CDP helps teacher librarians avoid self-censorship and subjective selection of collections. CDP is “a public document concerned with what the collection will contain and why it exists” (New South Wale Department of School Education Curriculum Directorate, 1996, p. 24 – 25). It formalises all the procedures and practice undertaken by the librarians. When dealing with disagreements about selection decisions, the CDP works as a guideline and promotes constructive discussions between stakeholders who may also be involved in the planning and writing of the CDP (Dawkins, 2018).

Various models of CDP are available for the teacher librarians as references to write up their own CDP in the “voice” of the organisation and within the school context. In my two blog postings for Module 6 “Compare different models of collection policies” and “CDP content investigation” , and my forum discussion for Module 6.1 “Editing a CDP”, I analysed the different approaches adopted by the various models of CDP and identified the areas of concern for my school library’s CDP. Regardless of which model is chosen, the CDP must cover the issues in relation to electronic accessing of information and resources. The library needs to become a more vibrant entity and is capable of utilising and exploiting new electronic sources of information (Wade, 2005). The CDP needs to reflect this change in order to remain relevant as a guidance for the procedures and practice of the library.




Australian Education Minister (AEM). (2008) (n.d.). Melbourne declaration on educational goals for young Australian.


Corrall, S. (2018). The concept of collection development in the digital world. In M. Fieldhouse & A. Marshal (Eds.). Collection development in the digital Age. (pp.45-48). Facet.


Dawkins, A.M. (2018). The decision by school librarians to self-censor: The impact of perceived administrative discomfort. Teacher Librarian, 45(3), 8-12.


Education Services Australia (ESA). (2020). Find digital resources aligned to the Australian Curriculum.


GLAM Peak. (2016). Digital access to collections: framework.


Grigg, K. (2012). Assessment and evaluation of e-book collections. In R. Kaplan (Ed.), Building and Managing E-Book Collections (pp. 127-137). Neal-Schuman.


Hoffman, F. W., & Wood, R. J. (2007). Library collection development policies: School libraries and learning resource centers. Scarecrow Press.


Hughes-Hassell, S. & Mancall, J. (2005). Collection management for youth: responding to the needs of learners. ALA Editions.


IFLA (2013). IFLA trend report: Discover the trends.


IFLA (2018). IFLA trend report: IFLA trend report 2018 update.


Johnson, P. (2009). Fundamentals of collection development and management. ALA Editions.


Kimmel, S.C. (2014). Developing collections to empower learners. American Library Association.


Mitchell, P. (2011). Resourcing 21st century online Australian curriculum: The role of school libraries.  FYI: the Journal for the School Information Professional, 15(2), 10-15.


New South Wale Department of School Education Curriculum Directorate (1996). Handbook for school libraries. N.S.W. Dept. of School Education, Curriculum Directorate.


Tait, E., Vo-Tran, H., Mercieca, P., & Reynolds, S. (2019). Don’t worry, a school library with fewer books and more technology is good for today’s students. The Conversation.


Wade, C. (2005). The school library: Phoenix or dodo bird? Educational Horizons, 8(5), 12-14.

Module 6 – self reflection – what issues should be addressed for digital collection in the Collection Development Policy?

Module 6 – self reflection – what issues should be addressed for digital collection in the Collection Development Policy? 

Due to the rapid changes of information technology, more and more digital collections will become an integral part of the library collections. They are housed in the virtual library. Therefore, a prominent section in the collection development policy should specify the policy in relation to the digital collection. This section needs to address the following issues:

  1. The best formats for the digital collection kept by the library that are most likely to be used
  2. The ways the digital content address curriculum and student learning needs
  3. The ways the digital resources align with the available technology infrastructure of the school.
  4. Professional learning organised by the library and provided to the teachers
  5. The frequency of evaluating and updating the digital collections. This is because the digital collection is to provide the most up-to-date information meeting the changing needs of the curriculum and the learners.
  6. Funding resource to ensure the digital collection is sustainable over time due to the often-significant cost of digital resource subscriptions
  7. Selection criteria for digital collection
  8. Planning for collaborative work between teachers and TL to develop learning programmes to help students become competent users of the digital collections
  9. Evaluation measurements that are in place to ensure a good balance between printed books and digital collections
  10. Availability/access ‘terms and conditions’ of the digital collections, e.g. offsite and onsite access, students/teacher only access, access time and duration. This is particularly important considering the availability of device and Internet connect students can access during school time and after school time.
  11. Promotion of digital collections. Digital collections rely on significant promotion effort to increase the usage otherwise they are invisible to the users




Mitchell, P. (2016). Digital collections.


Braxton, B (2014). Sample ollection policy.


6. Compare different models of collection policies

Module 6 – Activity


Examine and compare a number of models of collection policies to gather ideas for writing your own. It is a useful exercise to examine and question areas of consistency and variation between models. A key area to watch for is the level of acknowledgement and inclusion of digital resources.

The “Manual for developing policies and procedures” (ALIA & VCTL, 2017) noted the changes made in the 2017 version from the 2007 version in the sections of “collection development” and “access and circulation”. These changes reflect the integration of e-resource as a core collection in the library in recent years. The section headings in the templates attached to the manual do not specifically mention about e-collection. Therefore, it relies on the teacher librarians who use the templates to create sections and contents in the Manual for developing policies needed for the development and management of the e-collection.

The “Queensland Public library standards and guidelines” (SLQ, 2013) is a very useful document for the librarians to use to determine the necessary policies and procedures in order to achieve the standards and benchmarks recommended in the Guidelines. Although the guidelines are written for the public libraries, school libraries can device their own standards by following the standards recommended in the Guidelines. Policies should be designed aiming at achieving the set standards and outcomes. The evaluation of the efficiency of the policies can also be based on the standards. The standards for “collection size” and “acquisition” apply to printed books and ebooks. In the school library, it would be more practical to work out separate standards for the two categories because the use of ebooks is largely dependent on the devices and Internet connection needed for using the ebooks. This factor can affect the collection size and the volume for acquisition. I also agree with the point raised in the Guidelines that the proportion of the e-collection varies according to user demands and acceptance. In the context of the school library, it refers to the students’ demands and acceptance.

The “American Library Association’s workbook for selection policy writing” (ALA, 2020) provides guidelines in addressing the collection selection issues. I think the guidelines are rather general and there is no special mention about the selection issues in relation to e-collection.

The “collection development policy” and the “collection processing procedures” in the school library I am currently working were written by the previous teacher librarian. It is a priority for me to review and update both of them. I will use the “Manual for developing policies and procedures” (ALIA & VCTL, 2017) and the “Queensland Public library standards and guidelines” (SLQ, 2013) and Barbara Braxton’s (2014) “Sample collection policy” as the references to revise the policy and the manual.



American Library Association (ALA) (2020). American Library Association’s workbook for selection policy writing.

Australian Library and Information Association (ALIA) & Victorian Catholic Teacher Librarians (VCTL) (2017). A manual for developing policies and procedures in Australian school library resource centres.


Braxton, B. (2014). Sample collection policy.


State Library of Queensland (SLQ) (2013). Queensland Public Library standards and guideline: Library collections standards.




6. Collection development policy content investigation

Module 6 – What should a collection policy contain?

Investigate – locate a school library collection and consider its purpose, users and usefulness.

The St. Andrew’s Cathedral School Collection Management Policy is a simple policy. Compared with the example written by Barara Braxton (2014), some sections are briefly written and a lot of important sections are not included in the policy. The following sections can be added to the policy in order to make it more comprehensive:

  • Rationale
  • Mission statement
  • The nature of the users
  • The purpose and role of the collection
  • Priorities and goals
  • Development of the digital collection
  • Funding
  • Acquisition
  • Promotion
  • Collection evaluation
  • Policy review

St. Andrew’s Cathedral School is a K-12 school catering for students of all years. In my opinion, it needs a more extensive policy. On the other hand, collection management policy works as a foundation for developing the library collection procedure. The policy provides the goals and principles which the procedure should comply with. While the policy states the outcomes, the procedures describes how to achieve the outcomes. A comprehensive policy provides an important reference for library staff, administrators and teachers. It can be referred to as a defence when library decisions are challenged by the stakeholders including the students, parents and teachers.




Braxton, B (2014). Sample ollection policy.



St. Andrew’s Cathedral School collection management policy.


5.1. Models and methods for collection evaluation

5.1. Consider models and methods for collection evaluation which may effectively relate to the learning and teaching context, the needs of users and the school library collection within your school, or in a school which you are familiar with.

What are the practicalities of undertaking a collection evaluation within a school in terms of time, staffing, and priorities, as well as appropriateness of methodology?

Choosing the appropriate evaluation method is most important to make the routine collection evaluation feasible and practical in the school library. School libraries are always short of staff and time because the teacher librarians have a busy schedule of supervising students, managing classes attending the library and performing many administrative tasks.

I consider the following methods suggested by Grigg (2012) are most practical to be implemented in my school library:

  1. Usage data – this method can be undertaken as regularly as needed by using the statistics reports of the library management system. But it may not show the usefulness of the collection in details.


  1. Focus groups – this method can be used in conjunction with the “usage data” method when I want to find out the feedback about a particular collection from the regular user group but the “focus group” method can be time consuming because it can only be conducted within a small group. TL may find it hard to get the targeted group together for the interview due to time constraint. However, TL can try to interview students as they come to the library to borrow books from that collection during lunch time.


  1. Benchmarking – this method can provide a holistic view about a collection when compared with a similar collection in other school libraries. This method needs TL to proactively connect with other school libraries. Benchmarking provides an excellent networking opportunity. However, school libraries don’t usually exercise the purposeful planning that is required to generate reliable usage data needed for benchmarking.


  1. Survey instruments – this method will work well with teachers. Most teachers are willing to give feedback to the TL when the survey questions are clear, brief and relevant to the teachers’ needs. Therefore, well designed questions are most important in order to get more teachers to respond to the survey. Teachers are busy and would ignore the survey if they cannot see the relevance of the questions asked in the survey.

How does the need for, and possible benefits of an evaluation of the collection outweigh the difficulties of undertaking such an evaluation?

For many years, librarians employed the just-in-case philosophy in anticipation of what might be needed by students, teachers and the schools (Grigg, 2012). But today, library is not intended to be a permanent storehouse of society’s knowledge but rather a resource for students and teachers to explore topics beyond those found in classroom textbooks or teachers’ notes. The benefit of continuously evaluating the collection is that the Teacher Librarian can ensure the library management policy reflects the needs of the curriculum, the teachers and the students. The money is properly spent on the most required areas and topics.

All evaluation methods require staff efforts and their time. School libraries are always short of staffing resources. This makes it more important to evaluate the current collection to ensure staff time is spent on the most needed areas. For example, starting an e-book collection enables the staff to move away from many tasks associated with printed book processing, such as covering the books, cataloguing and shelving the books. A lot of time can be saved which could be used to help students find the appropriate ebooks for their assignments and research. The benefit of using non-fiction ebooks and databases is that all topics can be searched and retrieved instantly. Compared to searching information from the printed/physical books, it is a much faster process. Appropriate evaluation methods should be employed to find out the usage of didferent types of e-resources so that the library can start an appropriate e-collection to better cater for students’ research and reading needs.

What are the current priority areas for evaluation in your school library collection?

The priority areas are the most important services which the school library is providing to its users i.e. research and reading. Teaching is another essential school library service which is becoming more important because of the increased need for information literacy and computer literacy in the 21st century education paradigm. Both information literacy and computer literacy are directly related to the use of library printed books and ebooks. The secondary school library has two main roles: support for research and reading (Cobett, 2012).

The priority areas for evaluation in the school library I am working at are the fiction collection and the graded reader collection. Those are the two most popular collections students are borrowing. These collections also help students to improve their literacy skills. 30% of the students in the school are from non-English speaking or refugee background. The graded reader collection is heavily used by the E/ALD classes which attend the library regularly to have literacy lessons and to borrow books.

The other priority area for evaluation is the non-fiction printed book collection. The collection isn’t up-to-date due to budget constraint. I need to identify the gaps of the collection and provide databases and ebook collections to fill the gaps. The provision of up-to-date non-fiction materials in the forms of print books or e-resources is critical for students’ research and subject study needs.


Grigg, K. (2012). Assessment and evaluation of e-book collections. In R. Kaplan (Ed.), Building and Managing E-Book Collections (pp. 127-137). Neal-Schuman.

Cobett, T. (2012). E-books in a high school library – crushing academy. In R. Kaplan (Ed.), Building and Managing E-Book Collections (pp. 141-145). Neal-Schuman.


Module 2.1 Activity – create my own selection decision-making model

I will adapt the flowchart devised by Hughes-Hassell and Mancall (2005) to draft my own selection model within the context of the high school where I work as a Teacher Librarian. These features will be prioritised in the following order:

  1. The Library budget allocated by the school and specific resources that will be paid for with this budget
  2. Curriculum needs, learners’ characteristics
  3. Reading trends, student interests and characteristics

I will explain the above three priorities in the following section.

Priority 1

The Library receives a set budget each year. The amount is about the same each year and the library fund is quite tight and restricted. I need to be very selective of how I spend the budget. I need to use a combination of management methods of “the lump-sum budget” and “the line-item Budget” to manage the budget. The principal does not specify the allocation of budget to each category of collection, except for the requirement for a few online resources that must come out of the library budget. After considering priority 1, I need to consider priorities 2 and 3 as well to ensure the collection meets the need of the learning community and the school and the budget is used to achieve the best outcome.

Priority 2

Adapting the collection based on curriculum changes and development is most important to ensure the collection is up-to-date and will be used by the teachers. Quite a few subject areas including Maths, Science and English have undergone significant syllabus changes in 2018. The Library discarded 30 – 40% of the study guide collection. Therefore, the budget allocation for each type of collection was changed in an effort to give more budget for the replacement of the discarded study guides. On the other hand, the shift from the traditionally teacher-centred learning to student-centred inquiry-based learning required the library to provide collection and resources to support such initiative.

Tool 7, Matrix for Gathering Data about the curriculum recommended by Hughes-Hassell and Mancall (2005, p. 38) can be used as a collaboration working tool with the teachers. This tool will enable the TL to gain a more thorough understanding about the curriculum and identify the needs of teaching and learning.

Priority 3

Understanding the characteristics of students are important when making collection selection decisions. My school has 30% of EAL/D students and students of refugee background. The fiction and reader collection need to include a core collection of beginner level books to cater for these students and when they come in the library for their literacy and reading lessons. Table 4.2, Multiple Intelligences and Selection of Literacy Resources proposed by Hughes-Hassell and Mancall (2005, p. 39) provides guidance on the different learning styles and the direction for me as a TL to include different formats of resources when selecting collections. It is particularly important to stimulate EAL/D students’ reading interests by engaging them with collections suited to their learning styles.

The collection must reflect the current interests of the students and the reading trend. Course module 2.2 (FitzGerald, 2020) discussed the consideration for a balanced collection. The two considerations that are most relevant to my school library are “physical versus digital” and “quality versus popular choice”. Due to budget constraint, my school library has never had the budget to update the physical non-fiction collection. Nowadays students tend to use a lot of online resources for their study and assignments because these resources are up-to-date and can be accessed at any time. To meet the needs of study and student assignments, I have reached out to the public libraries and the State Library of NSW to help students and teachers to sign up for membership and use their databases. The library was never budgeted to subscribe to the databases. On the other hand, I have always managed to allocate a substantial part of the budget to the fiction collection, considering that it is our core physical collection which the students like to read.

Ensuring the collection is relevant and interesting to the students is the only way to attract students to use the library. Some school libraries have distinguished themselves in the digital space with ICT and no books because those school executives don’t believe in the necessity of having a library collection (CBC News, 2011). Therefore, providing students with what they want and in the format they like will ensure that the library remain relevant to the school and the learning community. However, this does not mean the quality of collection has to be compromised. In fact, a quality collection provides holistic support for its users.

To achieve a balanced collection, the strengths and weaknesses of the current collection need to be analysed. I can use qualitative techniques and quantitative methods noted by Hughes-Hassell and Mancall (2005) to analyse my collection. The yearly stocktake is a form of those methods that I have used in my school library in the past. Breaking down the collection further by using circulation-generated reports will be useful for analysing the collection.



CBC News. (2011, November 15). Libraries to return to Windsor Catholic schools. CBC/Radio Canada.


FitzGerald, L. (2020). ETL503, Module 2: Selection in the school context [Course materials]. Interact 2.

Hughes-Hassell, S. & Mancall, J. (2005). Collection management for youth: responding to the needs of learners. ALA Editions.





OLJ – Evaluation and Reflection

OLJ – Evaluation

The evaluation is on the use of social media in the public libraries I am familiar with. How is it adopted and the challenges of using social media in a public library setting (Penrith City Libraries).

Penrith City Library has been taking a proactive approach to apply new technologies in the library services. The library has a Facebook account to promote local events, holiday activities, and library news. It has established a significant collection of e-books, magazines, and audiobooks which patrons can access through apps like Overdrive and Libby.   The main branch runs a digital desk to provide technical training mainly targeting senior users. The recent technology added to the library is the RFID where users can borrowing and returning books with ease.  The effort of the library adopting social media is also reflected in the catalogue search. Users can share the book through Facebook, Twitter, email. and they can also review the resources available.  

Penrith City Library Facebook page.

Web 2.0 signaled a change in which the internet becomes an interactive experience, it encourages two-way or more conversations rather than the traditional one-way conversation.  Accordingly, library 2.0 is defined as “a change in the interaction between libraries and library users”. It also refers to “a change towards the increased use of social media” (Huvila et al, 2013, page 198).  According to Maness (2006), the theory of library 2.0 should have four essential elements, being user-centred, providing multimedia experience, being socially rich, and being innovative.  Penrith City Library’s adoption of new technologies and the involvement of social media are positive. Its practices have been in line with the Library 2.0 principle. However, it still has the potential to expand its existence on social networks. For example, Twitter has been a popular social networking platform used by many libraries, due to its different ways of affecting the aspects and functionalities of libraries. It may be worthwhile for Penrith City Library to explore the other social networking tools beyond Facebook.

Technology is evolving every day. Web 3.0, as the third generation technology upgrade, is about representing meaning, connecting knowledge and bringing these closer together to work in ways to employ intelligent agents, layered applications and interactive systems to provide a productive and intuitive user experience (Balaji et al, 2018). It will be likely that there is a growing diverse use of Web 3.0 in the libraries. 

Although the changes in the libraries brought by the technologies and social media are generally positive and exciting, they also create challenges for the libraries. 

First of all, the changes brought by Libary 2.0. will have a great impact on the skills and experience required by librarians, which is termed “Librarian 2.0” (Huvila et al, 2013). With the libraries transform in the web 2.0 or 3.0 era, it leads to a change in the professional identity and roles of librarians.  New skills and capabilities are required to adapt to the context of the digital age and social media.  Professional developments will be essential to help the information professionals to cope with the rapid changes.

A second challenge the library may face is the lack of policy support of Web 2.0. LIbrary policies are guiding documents on the integration of social media and also the conduct on these platforms. A complete formulation of these policies and constant monitoring them are essential to ensure the successful implementation of Web 2.0 tools in public libraries(Jerome et al, 2019).

Next, with the growing services provided through internet and mobile apps, there is a growing privacy threat.  Libraries and librarians should follow the ethical framework and take action to protect patron privacy and confidentiality.

Another challenge public libraries need to face is to bridge the digital divide. Despite of significant efforts, digital exclusion is still an international issue.  Even among developed countries, there is still a significant difference in the level of skills, Internet use, and uptake of digital services. Therefore, digital exclusion is an important factor that will shape the future activities of public libraries in these countries (Manzuch, 2019). Libraries, especially public libraries,  should focus on ways in which they can leverage their provision of technology access with other services and roles to move beyond the access and address broader technological inequalities.


OLJ – Reflection

The study of this subject is a learning journey that changed my view on social media.

My involvement in social media is very limited. Wechat is a social app  I used to connect my friends and family overseas. Youtube is the main source for me to learn information. I barely posted any information on social media and haven’t explored other social media tools before the subject. This is mainly due to two considerations. Firstly, privacy concerns – an unintended use of social media is the threat to privacy, including hacking, harassment, identity theft, etc (Heravi et al, 2019). Another concern is the information credibility – the growth of the internet helped the rise of the internet-based media, incorporating voluntary contributions from selected participants and consumers. This leads to information overload (Pentina &Tarafdar, 2014). However, a relative lack of professional gatekeepers to monitor content means that how to evaluate the information credibility an important issue for information users (Li&Suh,2015).

The first benefit of completing the subject is that it expands my understanding of web 2.0 and library 2.0 and the impacts of web 2.0 on libraries.  Web 2.0 allows two-way or more ways of communication, and it encourages online collaboration and information sharing. According to Gross (2012), Web 2.0 revolution leads to the transformation of libraries. The core business in the library has evolved from delivering information to creating learning communities.  The change of the libraries also demands the change of the librarians. The Librarian 2.0 concept requires that librarians should not be comfortable with being information consumption and collector roles. A competent information professional should embrace technologies and take an active role in the digital context (Huvila, 2013). My attitude of avoiding technology is not a proactive attitude that meets the requirement of the Librarian 2.0. From a personal career perspective, it is compelling to embrace new technologies, as the way librarians find new job opportunities and build their careers has changed because of the Web 2.0 social software(Gross, 2012).

Another change I experienced from completing the subject is my understanding of the digital inclusion issue.  Before studying the subject, I used to consider the digital divide as an issue only in developing countries, because of inadequate infrastructures(Lediga & Fombad, 2018). Digital inequality also exists in developed countries and it is not only a result of the lack of physical access but also lack of ICT literacy and skills and psychological or motivational reluctance (Yu et al, 2018).  Study shows that 80% of the public library users think that libraries should provide training on digital skills. In addition, there is also a demand for creative technologies like 3-D printers (Comito, 2019). Public libraries play an important role in bridging the gap. Digital inclusion, as the community needs to be created by the emerging technologies, should be one key value that public libraries hold. Public librarians should be proud to convey this value to the communities(Oehlke,2016).

The third change is the understanding of privacy. The popularity and web 2.0 tools mean that information sharing and self-disclosure has never been easier. This also raises the concern of digital privacy- the perception of losing control of one’s personal information, with possible secondary use by other parties(Elhai, 2017). However, avoiding social media is not the best solution to ease privacy concerns.  Ensuring digital information security is essential for public libraries to provide the best user experience while maintaining the public trust(Burton,2019). However, studies show that although librarians understand the necessity to keep privacy safe, they are not fully aware of the different forms privacy violations might take (Kim & Noh, 2014). Accessing social media does not have to come with the price of loss of privacy. Librarians must extend the traditional privacy doctrines to social media platforms (Lamdan, 2015).


Balaji, B., M.S., V., B.G., S. and J.S., M. (2018), “An integrative review of Web 3.0 in academic libraries”, Library Hi Tech News, 35 (4), pp. 13-17.

Burton, A. (2019). How the new york public library guards privacy in the digital age.  Dow Jones Institutional News.

Comito, L. (2019). Tech for all : moving beyond the digital divide. Retrieved from

Elhai, J., Levine, J. and Hall, B. (2017), “Anxiety about electronic data hacking: Predictors and relations with digital privacy protection behavior”, Internet Research, 27(3), 631-649.

Gross, J.(2012). Web 2.0 and your library career. In
J. Gross (Eds.), Building Your Library Career with Web 2.0,
(pp. 1-13). Chandos Publishing.

Heravi,A., Mubarak, S., Choo, K.R. (2018). Information privacy in online social networks: Uses and gratification perspective. Computers in Human Behavior, 84, 441-459.

Huvila, I., Holmberg, K., Kronqvist-Berg, M., Nivakoski, O., & Widén, G. (2013). What is Librarian 2.0 – New competencies or interactive relations? A library professional viewpoint. Journal of Librarianship and Information Science, 45(3), 198–205.

Jerome, I., Foluke, O., Ayooluwa, A., Sola, O., Toluwani, E., & Felicia, Y. (2019). Application of web 2.0 technology in library and information centres in developing countries: Challenges and way forward. Library Philosophy and Practice, 5, 1-9. Retrieved from

Kim, D.S., & Noh, Y. (2014). A Study of Public Library Patrons’ Understanding of Library Records and Data Privacy. International Journal of Knowledge Content Development & Technology, 4(1), 53–78.

KINNEY, B. (2010).The Internet, Public Libraries, and the Digital Divide. Public Library Quarterly, 29(2), 104–161. DOI 10.1080/01616841003779718.

Kritikos, K.C., Zimmer, M. (2017). Privacy Policies and Practices with Cloud-Based Services in Public Libraries. Journal of intellectual freedom & privacy, 2(1). Retrieved from

LEDIGA, M. M.; FOMBAD, M. C. (2018). The use of information and communication technologies in public libraries in South Africa as tools for bridging the digital divide: the case of the Kempton Park public library. Public Library Quarterly, 37(3), 296–305. DOI 10.1080/01616846.2018.1471964.

Lamdan, S. (2015). Social Media Privacy: A Rallying Cry to Librarians. The Library Quarterly: Information, Community, Policy, 85(3), 261-277. doi:10.1086/681610

Li, R. & Suh, A. (2015). Factors Influencing Information credibility on Social Media Platforms: Evidence from Facebook Pages. Procedia Computer Science. 72, 314-328. 10.1016/j.procs.2015.12.146.

Maness, J. (2006). Library 2.0 Theory: Web 2.0 and Its Implications for Libraries. Webology, 3(2).
Retrieved from:

Manžuch, Z, Macevičiūtė, E. (2019). Getting ready to reduce the digital divide: scenarios of Lithuanian public libraries. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 1– 13.

Oehlke, V. (2016). Libraries lead effort to bridge the digital divide. Public Libraries, 55, 5-6. Retrieved from

Pentina, I., Tarafdar, M. (2014). From “information” to “knowing”: Exploring the role of social media in contemporary news consumption. Computers in Human Behavior,35. 211-223.

Yu, B., Ndumu, A., Mo, L.M., Fan, Z. (2018). “E-inclusion or digital divide: an integrated model of digital inequality.” Journal of Documentation 74(3): 552-574.



OLJ Task 18: Thoughts for the future

The internet of things (IoT) refers to ” objects or “things” with sensors, computer chips, and a web-connected database” (King,2018). The interconnected environment is entering the next phase of potentially unlimited possibilities(Massis,2016) and this will transform the role of librarians as information professionals.

What is the potential for the future of libraries?

The new technologies from the IoT change the way libraries work.  King (2018) lists 5 ways libraries can incorporate technologies into their services. Some technologies, for example, RFID and self-checkout system has been adopted in my local public libraries. This is only a start. Many libraries are providing ebooks and e-magazines through apps like Overdrive or  Libby. These two technologies represent two directions libraries evolve. On one side, with the help of IoTs, libraries will become more intelligent, which information available instantly, management automation and intelligent service humanised(Lin, 2014), Even the building will become smart buildings, for example, lightings, heating/cooling and security can be controlled from a mobile phone. On the other hand, libraries will become digitized, which makes it

possible for those who can not physically access the library can enjoy the service from the libraries. It also means that patrons could access the library anywhere and anytime when they need to.

With the services of libraries are heavily relying on the IoTs. they need to cope with new challenges. With the privacy and security of the internet are on everyone’s mind, the vulnerabilities of the network and the trust factor from the service providers stand as the critical bond between the provider and the consumer. Security management will become one of the important tasks for the libraries, they need to ensure the security vulnerabilities are frequently addressed and communicating with the patrons on an ongoing basis(Massis,2016).


What impact might the future have on us as information professionals?

Technologies revolutions, especially  IoTs, will not only transform the way libraries work but also help create a smarter community. Public libraries will become the anchor in this smart community. Libraries in the future will just be a place of keeping physical books, it will be a place nourish a range of interactions between users.  as information professionals, we should aim to change the way we thinking and acting. some of the traditional tasks, eg. processing borrowing, shelving, will become less important. Librarians’ duties will be more likely related to IoTs, for example, analyzing reports from system about borrowings, answering questions from patrons about different technologies, perform all tasks with IoTs. The younger generations are digital natives, they grow up with technologies, In order to service them better, librarians as information professionals need to understand the need to and proactively embrace the change.


Baker, D., Evans, W. (2017). The end of wisdom? : the future of libraries in a digital age. Retrieved from

King, L.D. (2018). The Internet of Things (IoT) and Libraries.  Retrieved from 

Massis, B. (2016). New Library World,117, 3/4. DOI:10.1108/NLW-12-2015-0093



OLJ Task 13: Information trends

The video – The Social Media Revolution shows some very interesting statistics. Here are the 5 trends I identified from the video:

      1. Visual content is more likely to be shared,
      2. Social media is becoming the main source of news for young people.
      3. mobile phones are becoming the most popular platform people use to access social networks
      4. Social networking has become a place for people to look for employment opportunities.
      5. The young generation is the main user of some social networks.

Understanding these behaviours is important for the business to effectively make and implement the information policy and plans. According to Coles (2017), social influence, which occurs when a person’s emotions, opinions or behaviours are affected by others. For example, if a post with many likes and views, it is more likely that the post will be viewed by a person who browses the information.

When the libraries make the information policy, they will try to reach the targeted audience in the most effective way. When they put the effort to engage the patrons on the social network sites, they would like to achieve a high influence on the targeted groups. Understanding the behaviours of the targets is essential for the success of the information policy and campaign.

We can look at how the five examples help the library’s information policy and plans:

    • Visual content is very important. That is probably due to the fact that our brains typically process visual information 60,000 times faster than text. Study shows that people will retain 65% of the information if it includes a relevant image- compared to only 10% without (Hightail Inc, 2016). When librarians post information on social networking sites, it is probably a good idea to include relevant pictures or videos all the time.
    •  A significant number of young people between 18-24 uses social media as their news source. When libraries need to promote services targeting this age group, it may be worthwhile investing time and money to promote it on social media besides the traditional marketing strategies
    • Smartphones have become a necessity for digital generations. In order to reach the audience effectively, it is not enough to just build a traditional online existence with a website. It should aim to provide the best browsing experience on mobile phones too.
    • Social networking is not only used for sharing personal life but also can be used to establish professional networking. The best example is Linkedin. So part of the information policy of a library should be how to build professional connections with professionals from other libraries.
    • A major part of the library job is to provide services to young people. When considering promoting services on social networks, it may be more effective if it is promoted on Snapchat than just on Facebook.


Coles, L. (2017). Social Media for Business : Foolproof Tips to Help You Promote Your Business or Your Brand. Retrieved from

Hightail Inc. (2016). Why visuals are so important in content marketing and five ways to do them well. Retrieved from


OLJ Task 7: Embracing a Library 2.0 ethos

Library 2.0 describes the relationship between web 2.0 and libraries. it is defined as “a subset of library services designed to meet user needs caused by the direct and peripheral effects of Web 2.0” (William, 2018, page 1).

Carole (2016) proposes key points about digital libraries. 1) portability – a user can access the library anywhere, anytime. 2) wider accessibility – not just accessible for patrons who can physically access the library, but also by those who can not attend the library themselves. 3) less physical space. 4) a shift of the librarian’s role of curator to the navigator.

Penrith city library is a local library in Western Sydney suburbs.  Over the past years, a lot of changes have been brought in with the adoption of web 2.0 technologies. It hosts a large number of e-book collections through Libby and over 100+ electronic magazines through RBdigital.

Although it has established the existence on Facebook, comparatively, the penrith city council is present on a variety of platforms including Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Youtube, and Linkedin.   libraries have recognized the importance of their presence on social media but have not been able to take full advantage of social media. One reason is that, so far, libraries are focused on using social media as one of the tools only and not using social media to encourage user participation (Manzoor, 2017).

The effort of Penrith City Library to refine the catalogue is evident.  According to Sonawane (2018),  today’s library users in the web 2.0 age have different information skills and needs than previous generations.                                           Catalogue page from Penrith City library
The web 2.0  concepts like media on demand, social networking, tagging, blogs, wikis, and newsfeed seem to be impacting the view of future online library catalogues. It can optimise user service by community participation and social networking. From the search result from the library catalogue, it can be seen that a user can review and rate the book. They can also share the link with friends or families through a link of Facebook, Twitter, and email. All these features are included in the search results from the library.

Overall, Penrith City Library has been actively adopting social media into its services and is making satisfying progress in transforming the library.  However, it might be beneficial for the library to promote services on social network sites which are popular among youth, beyond Facebook and Twitter.


Cole, L. (2016). The Reimagined Library – Where will it Find You?   Retrieved from

Manzoor, A. (2017). Social Media: A Librarian’s Tool for Instant and Direct Interaction With Library Users. In R.K. Bhardwaj(Eds.), Digitizing the Modern Library and the Transition From Print to Electronic(204-223). Hershey, PA : Information Science Reference.

Sonawane, C.S. (2017). Library Catalogue in the Internet Age. In R.K. Bhardwaj(Eds.), Digitizing the Modern Library and the Transition From Print to Electronic(204-223). Hershey, PA : Information Science Reference.

Williams, M. L. (2018). The adoption of Web 2.0 technologies in academic libraries: A comparative exploration.Journal of Librarianship and Information Science.


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