INF533 Assessment 4: Part C – Critical Reflection

The digital learning environment is becoming even more saturated with opportunities to view literature using technology. This means that students in the 21st century are maintaining a strong connection with both their Classroom Teacher (CT) and the Teacher Librarian (TL) when they are exploring literature in different formats (Burns, 2020a). These formats are constantly changing as the student and educator is exposed to a variety of digital learning programs. When I first started teaching in schools, I was encouraged that smartboards are the main source of technology to integrate into classroom lessons. This piece of technology is still incredibly relevant in displaying lesson content and uses interactive digital features for productive learning. The student’s knowledge can be expanded using the smartboard but is overall limited in the approach to get them thinking collaboratively with their peers compared to using other interactive devices.

During my time working as a TL at my current school, I have found that all education professionals need to be constantly updating their technology skill levels to teach lessons that inform and challenge our learners. While teaching primary aged students in the library, I discovered that experimenting with programs such as Mindomo (Expert Software Applications, 2020) allows more opportunities for students to broaden and display their understanding of a certain topic (Burns, 2020f). Eyal (2012) encourages this idea of self-directed learning and that students are given opportunities to work collaboratively with their peers. This provides the opportunity for education professionals to observe and support students with any technology issues that they may face during lessons.

I have had conversations with my colleagues prior to working on technology-based units of work at my school. Having conversations around how our library lessons can be improved with the use of collaborative team teaching provides more opportunities to learn from each other. This method of teaching encourages a variety of technology-based activities to be incorporated which focus on broadening student knowledge about different topics (Burns, 2020c). Encouraging my colleagues for their opinion about new teaching units that centre on technology is something that I strive to do prior to altering or adapting previous units of work. For example, after exploring the term transmedia in this course I have inquired with my colleagues about developing lessons using a program called Metaverse (Shapiro, 2019) that explores open-ended storylines. These lessons will focus on linking to relevant topics in current units of work that are taught throughout the school year.

The term transmedia has been a concept that I wanted to fully unpack during this course. I particularly wanted to explore different types of digital literature that could be easily accessible for students at different reading levels. Kalogeras (2013) discusses that merging storytelling across visual and written media is just one way to incorporate different ideas that appeal to the learner. Engaging with a variety of online enhanced and interactive narratives has certainly provided more ideas that I can explore, particularly for those non-readers at my school. This is just one way that I want to integrate methods of viewing and interacting with literature for students with various reading abilities (Burns, 2020b).

Using augmented and virtual reality allows each student to experience alternative ways of understanding and immersing themselves in their learning through technology (Mystakidis & Berki, 2018). Integrating audio and visual effects in this type of media enables students to explore their learning in an updated and exciting format. I enjoyed exploring the different types of enhanced and interactive books during our second assessment task for this course. Since completing this assessment task, I have found more examples of digital literature that I plan to use with my students during library lessons. It was particularly interesting to discover the strong connection that students have to digital storytelling as their level of engagement increases over time (Burns, 2020e). Implementing digital literature in different formats allows all students to view and interact with their learning in new, alternate ways.

Engaging learners with a new way to read stories, whether it be a self-scroll or a read-to feature, shows how advanced our level of storytelling has become. Having access to literature across multiple forms of technology allows the learner to be provided with more opportunities for exposure to learning in the 21st century. I strongly believe that the education professional should be able to integrate various examples of literature into their own lessons. This means that students can become more familiar with the format and how to interact with these stories (Burns, 2020d). Creating these experiences allows students to observe new, exciting ways of interacting with literature in a format that is constantly being improved and adapted to suit the learner.


Burns, S. (2020a, 25 July). Assessment 1 – Online reflective blog [Blog post]. Retrieved from

Burns, S. (2020b, 3 August). Transmedia and integrating technology into our busy curriculum! [Blog post]. Retrieved from

Burns, S. (2020c, 10 August). Digital environments [Online discussion forum]. Retrieved from

Burns, S. (2020d, 23 August). INF533 assessment 2 part a: Enhanced book review [Blog post]. Retrieved from

Burns, S. (2020e, 23 August). INF533 assessment 2 part b: Critical reflection [Blog post]. Retrieved from

Burns, S. (2020f, 4 September). Digital artefact creation and interpretations [Blog post]. Retrieved from

Expert Software Applications. (2020). Mindomo (4.3.2) [Windows app]. Google Chrome. Retrieved from

Eyal, L. (2012). Digital assessment literacy—the core role of the teacher in a digital environment. Educational Technology & Society, 15(2), 37–49. Retrieved from

Kalogeras, S. (2013). Media-education convergence: Applying transmedia storytelling edutainment in e-learning environments. International Journal of Information and Communication Technology Education (IJICTE), 9(2), 1-11. doi:10.4018/jicte.2013040101

Mystakidis, S., & Berki, E. (2018). The case of literacy motivation: Playful 3D immersive learning environments and problem-focused education for blended digital storytelling. International Journal of Web-Based Learning and Teaching Technologies (IJWLTT), 13(1), 64-79. doi:10.4018/IJWLTT.2018010105

Shapiro, D. (2019). Metaverse (4.0.14) [Mobile app]. Google Play Store. Retrieved from 

INF533 Assessment 4: Part A – Context for Digital Story Telling Project

The focus for my digital story is to encourage students in stage two of primary school to build a love of graphic novels by understanding the imaginative writing structure for this form of literature. This digital story has been created to link with a stage two English imaginative writing unit in the New South Wales syllabus (NSW Department of Education, 2019). This story acts as a template that students can use to develop their own imaginative narratives using creative thinking skills and the graphic novel template. Having students view and interact with the completed story on the chosen program Book Creator (Tools for School Limited, 2019) allows them to understand and depict the writing process in a digital format.

Book Creator (Tools for School Limited, 2019) provides more opportunities for students to interact with elements of digital capabilities that is encouraged throughout the curriculum. Meyer & Jiménez (2017) encourage learners to integrate a variety of digital elements throughout an interactive story. These digital elements enable the graphic novel to act as a multimodal text that can be introduced throughout this writing unit. Focusing on digital capabilities that develop a sequential story will enhance the student’s own multimodal texts by including interactive features such as hyperlinks, videos and voice recordings. Each of these features provides an opportunity for students to experiment with the digital program after being shown the completed teaching example.

Organising and structuring a graphic novel is something that needs to be taught, particularly when the reader is developing an understanding of how to interpret this form of literature. Penguin Random House (2017) encourages the reader to determine the flow and movement of a story based on the structure of the panels as well as the position of the images and text on the page. Students need to be explicitly taught to use their eyes to scan across every panel to interpret new information in the story. This includes understanding what is happening in the narrative based on the visuals and how speech or thought bubbles are positioned on the page. Developing this skill takes practice as students can learn to do this by observing imaginative writing elements in my digital story telling project.

Graphic novels can act as just one pathway to exploring creative writing (Scholastic, 2018). There are many elements in a graphic novel that require explanation and experimentation. This is particularly important when shifting from writing narratives on lined paper compared to using interactive digital comic panels that incorporate pictures and words. Pantaleo (2018) highlights that when students discuss the different formats of a graphic novel with their peers and teachers, they can gain new understanding of this writing structure. There are many ways that a graphic novel can be compiled to create a cohesive narrative. Having students understand the basics of this writing structure prior to using the digital format will encourage them to explore how they organise their own narrative.

Motivating reluctant readers with graphic novels is another aspect that the Teacher Librarian (TL) and Classroom Teacher (CT) can strive to improve. Ensuring that these types of readers are exposed to short, humorous stories is often just one way to ignite an interest in reading (Hargadon, 2018). Providing opportunities for discussions about these stories can increase the reader’s motivation to explore other texts with the same writing style. Exposing students to a variety of graphic novels will encourage them to think about the format of their own digital graphic novel while they plan, draft and publish their writing.

Providing a teaching example for these stage two students will allow them to observe just one way that a graphic novel can be created. This means that the TL and CT can communicate and work collaboratively to encourage their diverse learners when implementing literary devices throughout their own presentations. Teaching each literary device in detail will encourage each student to choose a variety of imaginative writing features that enhance the narrative. Students can also experiment and work technologically to incorporate their own knowledge of the written and drawn components of their own stories (McClanahan & Nottingham, 2019). This allows all students to use creative thinking skills and have continual conversations with their TL or CT to improve their story before publishing it.

Creating interactive narratives will appeal to learners in 21st century learning environments and encourage future students to build their own digital literature based off previous writing units. Implementing interactive digital skills that students have learnt during this unit will also provide opportunities for the TL to explore further learning areas that can use this interactive program during library lessons. Establishing communication with members of the school community through social media presence will enable parents and caregivers to view their student’s work. This work will be accessible through the Book Creator (Tools for School Limited, 2019) website once each digital graphic novel has been published using student logins.


McClanahan, B. J., & Nottingham, M. (2019). A suite of strategies for navigating graphic novels: A dual coding approach. International Literacy Association, 73(1), 39-50. Retrieved from

Meyer, C. K., & Jiménez, L. M. (2017). Using every word and image: Framing graphic novel instruction in the expanded four resources model. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy61(2), 153–161. doi:10.1002/jaal.666

NSW Department of Education. (2019). Writing and representing 1. Retrieved from

Pantaleo, S. (2018). Elementary students’ meaning-making of graphic novels. Language & Education: An International Journal, 32(3), 242-256. doi:10.1080/09500782.2018.1434788

Penguin Random House Australia. (2017). Getting to know graphic novels – A guide to using graphic novels in the classroom. Retrieved from

Scholastic. (2018). A guide to using graphic novels with children and teens. Retrieved from

Tools for School Limited. (2019). Book creator online (5.3.2) [Chrome app]. Google Chrome. Retrieved from

ETL507: Professional Reflective Portfolio

Part A

I believe an effective Teacher Librarian (TL) is an individual who has a multi-layered approach to teaching and managing their library. They are an individual who constantly communicates with others, providing support and advice to their colleagues and members of their school community. The TL uses intrapersonal organisation skills to adapt their library program and integrate research-based learning that caters to 21st century learners. All aspects of the physical and digital library are managed by the TL as they combine both aspects to support their students in building a positive love of literature and learning.


Part B

Information Literacy

Information Literacy (IL) was a term that I was unfamiliar with prior to commencing my studies to become a TL. IL became a term that I continually wrestled to comprehend and understand throughout my first course ETL401. I explored the idea that our society continually needs to be aware of advances in technology in my blog post, The ever-expanding information society (Burns, 2019b). My first course certainly shifted my understanding of the role that a TL plays in maintaining a strong connection with their students as they implement technology to display information and research focusing on a chosen topic. I found that my perception of IL shifted significantly between how the learner interprets information and how they apply it with the use of technology when answering open-ended questions (Godwin, 2012).

Since starting my studies, my teaching career has changed from casual classroom teaching to working in my current school library at Greta Public School. This change has shifted my perspective of IL as I have gained flexibility, after a discussion with my principal and stage teams, to implement inquiry learning into my library lessons. Having this opportunity to build my own program around research-based learning has allowed my students to interpret and comprehend important information centring on individual thinking skills. I found that a lot of higher-order thinking needed to correspondence to our inquiry focus so that the students could branch out and research on their own (Gwyer, Stubbings & Walton, 2012). This often meant that I was enhancing what I already knew about integrating technology into a lesson but started to discover that the library environment can cater to the learner well beyond the use of physical resources (Burns, 2019d).

I really started to understand the adaptability of teaching research-based learning, particularly with my stage two and three students as a lot of their learning strived on finding new pieces of information. This way of learning provided opportunities to find new, interesting information and allowed my colleagues to observe any skills that their students needed further explanation or time to explore during library lessons. For example, in my stage three lessons summarising key facts needed further time to practise as each class developed this skill to scan for important information within non-fiction texts and listen for keywords during video links too. Demonstrating my own passion for a range of topics allowed these students to observe how a love of learning and searching for information that interests you can become fulfilling (Pendoley, 2019).

Once these skills were strengthened, students could start to experiment with finding information for themselves. I found that my first course, ETL401: Introduction to Teacher Librarianship, unpacked the connection between research and inquiry learning. This connection motivates the learner to explore and discover new information about something that interests them (Burns, 2019d). Following conversations with my primary teaching colleagues, they agreed to try using new technology programs that allowed more opportunities to interact with open-ended learning. The main program I chose to use was called Mindomo that allowed students to display their learning centring on our Geography inquiry topic about sustainability and the management of places (NSW Department of Education, 2019). Every student found this new program interesting to use as it allowed them to plan their ideas while also including hyperlinks about their chosen topic. This was fascinating as some students who often neglected coming to library lessons, would attend with interest and motivation to keep experimenting with the presentation of their research.

I found that during INF533: Literature in Digital Environments, my ability to teach about examples of literature strengthened after learning about transmedia storytelling. These stories shift between imaginative or informative texts, displaying different information in an open-ended setting. Kelly (2016) provided opportunities to branch out and explore the different ways that students learn, particularly focusing on the connection that technology-based activities have with Bloom’s Taxonomy. In my blog post, Transmedia and integrating technology into our busy curriculum!, I explored the different ways that working technologically can strengthen each student’s digital thinking strategies as a way to interpret information (Burns, 2020). Linking technology to areas of learning across the curriculum allows each student to explore new ways to research and present information.

Having students become more motivated to interpret information and include it in their own learning has been really fulfilling as this now allows for more open-ended tasks to be explored in our library time. Our school library does not have the most up-to-date technology, but the students are willing to work with what we have to offer. The small hub of ten laptops creates opportunities for small group activities to take place, which expands each student’s way of thinking as they listen and experiment with technology-based skills they have learnt during our lessons.



Prior to commencing my studies, I always thought that the main part of managing a library is the physical environment. I found that this is partly true as a lot of the borrowing and accessioning side does occur continuously throughout the school year. However, I discovered that the TL needs to take on an immense balancing act to maintain an innovative learning environment in the library (Mahat, Bradbeer, Byers & Imms, 2018).

I learnt a lot of useful information and skills in ETL503: Resourcing the Curriculum. Before commencing this course, I had a fair idea that the curriculum was incredibly crowded, with so many lesson and assessment commitments from each Key Learning Area (KLA). The need to integrate technology throughout lessons is a significant learning curve that is still being discussed as a lot of teachers are continually learning to implement it appropriately (Randall, 2019).

Collaborating with my colleagues was a skill that I wanted to transfer over into my new role as the TL at my school. In the past, as a CT I would communicate with my colleagues continuously and I wanted to maintain this while teaching in the library. In my blog post, Program administration, I focused on the relationship I have with my colleagues as I worked towards becoming a collaborator and a steward within my school environment (Burns, 2019c). This highlighted communicating with others and bringing forward new programs to use during library lessons. Discussing a variety of ideas ensured that our students had the opportunity to use technology effectively during library lessons and during classroom learning too.

The concept of a Collection and Development Policy (CDP) was a completely new idea during ETL503. ‘Smartcopying’ was an important phrase that I needed to get my head around as the CDP allowed for chosen materials to be used for a particular purpose. Establishing multiple uses for digital content is a new way that impacts on how the reader can interact with literature (Harman, 2018). I discussed this idea in Reflection on library collections and development policies, to interpret the benefits or disadvantages that digital libraries hold for the user (Burns, 2019e). This idea of a digital library collection is still quite non-existent at my school, but it is something I can work towards sharing, particularly how to access local council-based digital library services for our students.

I also found that ETL505: Describing and Analysing Education Resources was crucial in managing all the different types of resources in our school library. Unpacking the sub-sections of the Dewey Decimal System (DDS) during ETL505, was a key part of the course that really assisted with interpreting the different subsections of the library (Gordon, 2013). I often found that students would continuously ask about the different types of the non-fiction books that were available in our library. I managed these questions by incorporating a visual stimulus as a guide to interpret the pre-existing colour coding in our school library (Clarke, 2013).

Greta Public School 2020 (Non-Fiction Colour coding)

The concept that I absolutely loved learning about in ETL503 was ‘weeding.’ This concept was interesting to view in terms of the usability and the continual change that occurs in a library between the physical, digital and various subscription services (Burns, 2019f). Prior to my studies, I knew that one of the jobs of a TL is to remove old, out-dated resources from the library. I never fully understood how much of a turnover many information agencies have during this process until listening to Manuell (2020) during our virtual study visits. I am yet to complete this full process in my library but have undertaken the weeding of the teacher resource storeroom since starting in my temporary position. Chant (2015) encourages that using different methods of weeding creates an appeal to each TL as they benefit the library collection in a certain way. This weeded area has enabled teachers to quickly access this storeroom again and borrow relevant resources that will assist with their lessons.


Greta Public School 2020 (Weeded teacher resource storeroom)

During remote learning this year, our school encouraged each CT to record picture books using the features on PowerPoint to display a story in a new digital format. This enabled students to have a connection with their CT and build their love of literature as the feedback was positive from many families. Reflecting on this interaction, PowerPoint videos assisted students in viewing and appreciating literature, similar to the future I discussed in my ETL402 blog post The future of children’s literature (Burns, 2019i). This idea ceased for the most part following the return to school, which meant that a lot of students have gone back to using physical books and our school is yet to include any other source of digital literature for students. I really want to build on implementing digital literature again as there are connections to areas of the local community that can act as a starting point. This could further allow students to become more involved in how they view literature through a community source of ebooks.



In my first blog post The many roles of the teacher librarian, I highlight the idea that the TL takes on multiple roles within the library and school community (Burns, 2019a). These roles include components such as collaboration, community engagement and the learning and teaching side too. Each of these components focuses on just one part of how the TL can lead the school environment to utilise new pieces of technology and integrate them into lessons across different areas of the curriculum. Incorporating different technological skills into units of work across all KLAs will allow students to experiment and explore their learning using critical, creative thinking and general capabilities in the 21st century (Randall, 2019).

The concept that stuck with me during my studies has been ‘leading from the middle’ (Burns, 2019g). This concept was something I had never considered before as my prior knowledge of the role of a TL is to adjudicate and organise different events. This was a massive misconception on my part and this idea is still changing as I learn about more ways that the TL can inspire colleagues to work together. Leaders often have multiple qualities that develop over time as they integrate them into their chosen work field (Smith, 2016). A considerate and respectful leader in the library allows other people to have their say to work collaboratively and change areas of the learning environment, particularly the types of available resources.

A vision, passion and persuasion are important qualities that a strong leader should possess (Sutcliffe, 2013). When students and staff view the TL to have immense passion and drive in their profession, they will identify this learning space to be open and inclusive. Currently, our school library is used for lessons and during lunch or recess breaks. It is wonderful to have a small group of stage three library monitors that are also passionate about keeping our learning space ready for friends and other teachers to come and use.

During the year there has been various wall spaces in the library that I wanted to update. Following a conversation with my principal, I have been able to update these spaces, including new shelving for our fiction section, to make students aware of the different pieces of literature that are available in our library. This variety of literature is often taken straight off the shelf once they are on display. For example, my author focus space highlights one author or illustrator that has a variety of books that are situated throughout our library. This provides incentive for the students to build their own interest in reading by trusting recommendations from their TL, particularly when they often struggle to maintain a reading habit (Merga, 2019).




Greta Public School 2020 (Author Focus)

Maintaining constant communication with colleagues has enabled for more opportunities to branch out in my teaching style (Collay, 2011). Keeping contact with colleagues has enabled conversations for stage teams to “bounce” ideas off one another, particularly when focusing on library lessons. In Building collaborative practice with colleagues (Burns, 2019h), I highlight that new ideas and leadership towards integrating a vision for all students is just one way to work together collaboratively. This communication extends to not only moments when students are able to thrive on new informative research skills, but also during class time too. After remote learning, I wanted to teach using technology programs our primary aged students were familiar with while learning at home. For example, the program Seesaw became a new way to present and submit work during library lessons as they had used many interactive features, including video and voice recordings, to submit their work to their CT.

Resistance to change is something a TL needs to consider when trying to implement a new program that can be adapted to different learning areas throughout the school (Murphy, 2016). I have experienced a minimal amount of resistance when discussing new programs with the staff at my school. I believe it is mainly because I know how to use these new programs and there is a level of trust that I want all our students to demonstrate their personal best during library lessons. However, if I started to teach how to use certain new programs as mandatory professional learning, then some staff members might question the relevance of the software for their own teaching program. For example, the app Book Creator could be continually used in literacy groups for students in kindergarten through to year two. These students would be willing to use this app after being taught the basic functions during library lessons. Whereas teaching staff would be a bit more submissive as they would have to learn how to use the program and acknowledge its relevance in the classroom too.


Part C

This master’s degree has allowed me to learn new skills that encourage learning in the library as well as managing the resources and library space. These new skills include how to accession resources, develop understanding of the role technology plays in a 21st century library and flexibility in maintaining the library learning space. Having information from this course overlap with my workplace has allowed me to implement what I have learnt during this degree. It has been great to gain experience in my school library over the last two school terms while finishing my studies.

By having conversations and gaining advice from the colleague that I’m replacing while they are on maternity leave has allowed me to build my own library program. This program links with the integration of technology into my library lessons for all the students at my school (ALIA, 2004). My lessons have allowed students to understand the importance of literature and the role it plays in developing higher-order thinking skills. For example, using non-fiction texts as a starting point to gain a chosen research topic and then using technology to further explore that topic.

During the time in my school library, I have developed lessons that cater to information rich learning through the integration of technology (ALIA, 2004). This learning environment thrives as students are willing to explore and experiment with new technological skills that they didn’t already know. Having students question their learning allows them to become empowered in new topics that centre on inquiry-based learning (Gwyer, Stubbings & Walton, 2012). Acknowledging that my students can explore new ways to display information will build this love of learning, catering to an interest involving a range of topics.

I would like to continue striving to provide a range of technology-based literature that is available for staff and students to use in the library. This particularly focuses on the implementation and management of digital book subscriptions. Having this service available for students would also mean that policies and procedures would need to be put in place and planned accordingly (ALIA, 2004). Focusing on the idea that my leadership style would need to adapt accordingly as some colleagues may be unfamiliar with how to use these services. I would aim to become more of a transformational leader that encourages change and allows time to explain and unpack how these services would improve the library and school environment (Smith, 2016).

In the future, I would like to provide my colleagues with the opportunity to engage in professional learning that explores the range of software that the devices in our library have to offer (ALIA, 2004). This includes interactive software that provides more opportunities to use during learning time and links to real-life scenarios. For example, I would strive to implement technology-based programs, like Metaverse, that provide open-ended tasks linked to all KLAs and are readily accessible to use with whole class groups using laptops. I am very excited for my future as a TL and that I can continue to encourage students and colleagues to use the library as an active hub of interactive learning and sharing knowledge.



Australian Library and Information Association (ALIA). (2004). Standards of professional excellence for teacher librarians. Retrieved from

Burns, S. (2019a, 12 March). The many roles of the teacher librarian [Blog post]. Retrieved from

Burns, S. (2019b, 24 March). The ever-expanding information society [Blog post]. Retrieved from

Burns, S. (2019c, 18 April). Program administration [Blog post]. Retrieved from

Burns, S. (2019d, 24 May). Reflection of information literacy il models and inquiry learning [Blog post]. Retrieved from

Burns, S. (2019e, 26 May). Reflecting on library collections and development policies [Blog post]. Retrieved from

Burns, S. (2019f, 5 August). This library collection needs to be weeded! [Blog post]. Retrieved from

Burns, S. (2019g, 23 August). Leading from the middle [Blog post]. Retrieved from

Burns, S. (2019h, 29 August). Building collaborative practice with colleagues [Blog post]. Retrieved from

Burns, S. (2019i, November 24). The future of children’s literature [Blog post]. Retrieved from

Burns, S. (2020, 3 August). Transmedia and integrating technology into our busy curriculum! [Blog post]. Retrieved from

Chant, I. (2015, June 23). The art of weeding. Library Journal. Retrieved from

Clarke, R. I. (2013). Color by numbers: An exploration of the use of color as classification notation. School of Information Studies. 222-238. Retrieved from

Collay, M. (2011). Everyday teacher leadership: Taking action where you are. John Wiley & Sons, 75-108. ProQuest Ebook Central

Godwin, P., & Parker, J. (Eds.). (2012). Information literacy beyond library 2.0. ProQuest Ebook Central

Gordon, C.A. (2013). Dewey do Dewey don’t: A sign of the times. Knowledge Quest, 42 (2), 1-8. Retrieved from

Gwyer, R., Stubbings, R., & Walton, G. (Eds.). (2012). The road to information literacy: Librarians as facilitators of learning. 241-252. ProQuest Ebook Central

Harman, M. (2018, October 23). Importance of ebooks in education [Blog post]. Retrieved from

Kelly. (2016 March 1). The Evolution of Bloom’s Taxonomy [Blog post]. Instructional Design by Kelly. Retrieved from

Mahat, M., Bradbeer, C., Byers, T., & Imms, W. (2018). Innovative Learning Environments and Teacher Change: Defining key concepts. Melbourne: University of Melbourne, LEaRN. Retrieved from:

Merga, M. K. (2019). How do librarians in schools support struggling readers? English in Education, 53(2), 145-160. Retrieved from

Murphy, M. (2016, June). The tug of war between change and resistance. Educational Leadership, 73, 66-70. Retrieved from

NSW Department of Education. (2019). The Earth’s Environment. Retrieved from

Pendoley, R. (2019, April 17). The essential role of love in learning and teaching. Age of awareness. Retrieved from

R. Manuell (personal communication, May 11, 2020).

Randall, R. (2019, August 1). 21st century skills: Realising the potential of the Australian curriculum. Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER). Retrieved from

Smith, B. (2016). The role of leadership style in creating a great school. SELU Research Review Journal, 1(1), 65-78. Retrieved from

Sutcliffe, J. (2013). The eight qualities of successful school leaders. The Guardian. Retrieved from


Digital Artefact creation and interpretations

When thinking about the different digital tools, I certainly feel like I’m learning about more than using them sometimes (which is definitiely a good thing!). I know I have been building a list of digital resources since working through the module readings in our INF533 course. Seeing as I’ve started using different tools in my library lessons with the 3-6 classes at my school, I certainly think that I’m branching out and allowing these students to expand their interaction with digital tools.

The main digital artefact that has been the focus for my 3-6 lessons has been incorporating an inquiry learning Geography project that caters on displaying information through an application called Mindomo (2007). This application has allowed students to branch out and use their prior learning as well as link with research based learning to display what they have found through research. This program was something new that I wanted to implement into my teaching as the stock standard has been to use PowerPoint when exploring independent research tasks. After conversations with other teachers at my school, they agreed to give the Mindomo program a go to see how the students could display their learning.

We are still in the process of finishing these projects as they will be completed during the last few weeks of this term. This program has absolutely been a learning curve for myself and also the students as we all have had to learn how to use this program effectively. I am really looking forward to implementing more technology in the way of iPad apps such as Book Creator (2011) into my K-2 lessons next term too.




Book Creator application. (2011). Retrieved from

Mindomo application. (2007). Retrieved from

INF533 Assessment 2 – Part B: Critical Reflection

A digital text has the ability to engage the reader with a narrative and develop a personal connection to the storytelling (Sukovic, 2014). These texts serve a purpose of building the reader’s level of engagement and understanding their meaning in terms of storytelling or informative information. Many digital texts focus on improving the way that readers interpret information either as a transfer straight from a printed copy or presented as a layered transmedia narrative (Lamb, 2011). Having these texts presented in different digital formats, whether it be an interactive website or reading apps, will motivate the reader to expand their imagination and discover exciting new stories. It is interesting that so many of these digital texts rely solely on two things: a device with a screen and the ability to access the internet. Both factors present a whole new way of storytelling and engaging readers with all manner of digital content.

These digital texts present new ways to view and understand how a story can be structured as many open-ended narratives allow the reader to choose where they want the narrative to go. This allows the reader to have a choice in how they read interesting texts and what types of genres or series they become invested in. Scott (2013) encourages readers to incorporate the ability to alter font, size and the colour of text to improve their interaction with ebooks. This can be seen while borrowing books from their local library online site or purchasing texts to keep in personal digital library collections.

In the past, I have always strived to own printed copies of any text that I read in my personal library. Mainly for the nostalgia of the feeling of having a book in my hands, turning to the next page in excitement and especially having that new book smell! However, this concept that I have built in my head is now being balanced out with the idea of digital texts becoming a significant part of my life too. I used the app called Borrower Box to borrow the Andy Griffiths ebook through my local district library. I will use this method of borrowing more in the future to continue my digital reading habit. This method of borrowing has been an interesting way to view a digital collection that is readily available to the user at the press of a button. It is also interesting as ebooks are returned for you automatically once they expire at the return date.

Building my love and reading of quality literature can now be sourced from multiple places, whether it be from a book store or borrowing ebooks from my local library. Scardilli (2019) highlights that the popularity and appreciation of digital texts does not change as people are still engaged in reading their favourite narratives in a more flexible format (p. 13). This comparison of printed texts does limit readers with how a physical story is formatted when compared to an interactive digital text. Digital library collections certainly are more flexible in the management of a library. These digital collections reduce the amount of space and attention needed that physical collections continuously warrant when managing a library service.

The digital text I enjoyed the most was The Boat (Huynh, 2015) as it represented and displayed a time in history that was tough for so many people from Vietnam. I was able to fully immerse myself in the storytelling and view the entire narrative through the eyes of each character. It made me incredibly sad to know that this is what these people had to go through, and many people still are to this day as these refugee issues are still present in our society. I believe this digital text could be incorporated into a high school English or Creative Arts unit of work in years nine to twelve (Special Broadcasting Service (SBS) Learn, 2016). This digital text could be used to focus on the hardships that refugees have gone through in the past. Particularly the artworks and storytelling could be the primary focus for teaching about the hardships of refugees. The text could be further linked with the phrase known as ‘boat people’ to distinguish the struggle that refugees have faced during immigration periods.

Using this digital text as a starting point, students can research further into the historical impacts that refugees have experienced from all over the world. Murphy (2019) encourages libraries to share their resources, particularly when focusing on new ways to innovate readers to research and discover new information (p. 181). This causes readers to expand the way that they think and allows them to explore new sources of information that can assist them while searching a variety of library catalogues.



Huynh, M. (2015). The Boat. Special Broadcasting Service (SBS) Australia. Retrieved from

Lamb, A. (2011). Reading redefined for a transmedia universe. Learning & Leading with Technology, 39(3), 12-17. Retrieved from

Murphy, J. A. (2019). Ebook sharing models in academic libraries. Serials Review, 45(3), 176-183. DOI: 10.1080/00987913.2019.1644934

Scardilli, B. (2019). The state of ebooks in libraries. Information Today, 36(2), 12-14. Retrieved from

Scott, E. (2013). A look at eBook platforms for the school library. The School Librarian, 61(4), Retrieved from

Special Broadcasting Service (SBS) Learn. (2016). The Boat. SBS Australia. Retrieved from

Sukovic, S. (2014). iTell: Transliteracy and digital storytelling. Australian Academic and Research Libraries, 45(3), 205-229. Retrieved from


INF533 Assessment 2 – Part A: Interactive Book Review

The interactive book that I chose to explore is Icky Mr Fox (2014) by Aleksei and Alexander Bitskoff, which is available as a free download on the Google Play or iTunes store. This interactive story is presented through a downloadable app that is aimed at young readers and students in kindergarten. The app is easy to access and has its own series that young readers can choose to continue downloading after they finish each story. This story takes the reader roughly twenty minutes to complete, including all the interactive movements that are presented at different intervals throughout the story.

The three characters in this interactive story are Mr Rabbit, Mr Mole and Icky Mr Fox. Each character has interactive actions that are presented at certain intervals throughout the story. These actions are prompted with the use of moving animated arrows that assist the reader with progressing to the next part of the story. The characters are inter-connected, making sure that each action affects one or more of the characters. This imaginative story presents opportunities for young readers to interact with the storyline as each character displays human qualities that add to initial and future readings.

An audio read-to feature is used throughout the story so that young readers can listen to each page. This encourages young readers to concentrate on the printed text that is on the screen and follow along with their finger. Having both the printed font and the audio allows young readers, particularly in kindergarten to gain one-to-one correspondence by tracking where each word is placed in each sentence (Department of Education, 2018). Developing this tracking for reading is vital for these younger readers as it sets them up for future improvements in recalling and comprehending a variety of literature as they strengthen their reading ability.

When the story progresses, the background image changes according to the environment where the character is located. This also means that a lot of household items that are placed in the background are interactive for the reader. Each item can be tapped on, and a label appears with the audio being verbalised as well, telling the reader what that item is. There are between eight to ten items that can be pressed in each background. This interaction acts as a source of creative play that young readers often prefer when listening to an unfamiliar story (Ciffone, Weaver & Read, 2016). The reader listens to these new words that are being read to them, slowly building their own vocabulary by listening and viewing the spelling of the interactive words too.

Young readers would be able to enjoy this story as it is structured with animations that prompt them to click to the next part of the story using the arrow at the bottom of the screen. The characters also incorporate certain interactive actions into the storyline, which is prompted after the voice tells the reader about what the character is doing. For example, ‘Mr Fox was very close’ allows the reader to tap on the character and interact with the digging animation linked to this part of the storyline. These moments are shown by the phrases ‘tappy-tap’ and ‘swipey-swipe’ appearing on the screen. This encourages the readers to work on their phonological awareness, concept of print and vocabulary as the story echoes to them (Whittingham, Huffman, Rickman & Wiedmaier, 2013, p. 199).

Comprehension and understanding is an important feature of this interactive digital book. Young readers may struggle to fully comprehend what they need to do without adult supervision. This means that these types of digital texts can assist younger age groups with building their reading habit. Kelley and Kinney (2017) highlight that continual exposure to these types of digital texts will not solely improve the reader’s comprehension ability. The main difference in this situation, however, is that the readers are not questioned throughout this story and are just presented with the storyline as a source of digital media.

There are links to the interaction with digital stories in the English curriculum. This is a skill requisite that children in pre-school and kindergarten need to maintain as it is a different way of interacting with literature compared to physically turning a page (Department of Education, 2018). The other curriculum link that can be investigated by Classroom Teachers (CT) is brainstorming how each character would think and feel throughout the narrative. Demonstrating how a story is structured is also something that could be taught in library lessons for students to interact and experiment while gaining how to comprehend new information from a familiar digital text.



Bitskoff, A., & Bitskoff, A. (2014). Icky Mr Fox. [IckyPen app]. Google Play Store.

Ciffone, K., Weaver, & Read, K., A. (2016). The third voice: Do enhanced e-books enhance the benefits of shared story reading with preschoolers? Childhoods Today, 10(1). Retrieved from

Department of Education (DoE). (2018). Reading and viewing. New South Wales (NSW) Syllabus. Retrieved from

Kelley, E. S., & Kinney, K. (2017). Word learning and story comprehension from digital storybooks: Does interaction make a difference? Journal of Educational Computing Research, 55(3), 410-428. DOI: 10.1177/0735633116669811

Whittingham, J., Huffman, S., Rickman, W., & Wiedmaier, C. (2013). Enhanced picture books: Enhancing the literacy development of young children. Technological Tools for the Literacy Classroom, 196-218. Retrieved from

INF533 Assessment 2 – Part A: Enhanced Book Review

The Boat (2015) is an enhanced book that focuses on a non-fiction story about Vietnamese asylum seekers during the venture from their homeland to Australia. It is a harsh and intense story that explores the backstory of the characters Quyen and Mai, as well as the impact that fellow Vietnamese refugees experienced when fleeing their country. This enhanced book is free and easily accessible from the Australian Special Broadcasting Service (SBS) website with readers recommended to be fifteen years or older. The book incorporates a range of animated painting styles to display the full narrative. This art style also uses audio to make the story even more intense and captivate the audience with individual character moments and display of emotions.


The enhance book is split up into six chapters with an auto-scroll website feature that the reader can control by clicking the button at the bottom of the screen. This allows the reader to view the artworks and written text at their own pace while viewing the book. Having a table of contents for the chapter numbers allows the reader to navigate this enhanced book with ease (Browne & Coe, 2012, p. 290). The reader can choose to stop reading if they want to and come back to it by clicking on the chapter numbers on the right side of the website. This also means that the reader can navigate the book with a click of each chapter button to continue this reading experience.

In certain parts of the story there are also elements of interactive arrows that appear next to thought bubble photos that are often found in graphic novels. This ensures that the reader can interpret and use these multimedia arrows and their personal digital skills to fully understand how to access this part of the narrative (Jimenez & Meyer, 2016, p. 426). Each of these arrows provides further information about that character’s backstory and what they are thinking in that situation. This backstory establishes stronger connections to the characters and allows the reader to delve deeper into the storyline.

This enhanced book is displayed like a movie credit as the scrolling feature makes it seem like one continuous roll of film that is playing in front of the reader’s eyes. The book could be further adapted by including old footage of historical situations like this narrative. Providing the backstory for some these characters distinguishes the emotions they are feeling and contrasts what has been left behind. Having this option to view old footage would ensure that the audience has a variety of examples to refer to when researching further on a topic about refugees.

During certain sections of the book, the art style changes according to the situation. This means that instead of the simple left to right reading of written text, there are occasions when the text is completely turned on its side or spread out in single words. This use of image and text in this enhanced book is incredibly similar to graphic novels, which encourages the reader to view the story in multiple ways. With continual changes in 21st century technologies, readers will be able to gather information from this type of narrative and evaluate what the author is trying to say based on this style of literature (Moorefield-Lang & Gavigan, 2012, p. 32). The written text can change significantly too, being presented like a printed novel and then changing back to single phrases using speech bubbles.

The quality of this enhanced book is fantastic as it provides multiple perspectives from the characters throughout each chapter. The animation style corresponds significantly to the actions occurring in the narrative. The reader’s attention is continually focused on the thoughts of the character but provides audio to make a more impactful emotional response from the reader as you care what happens to them. For example, as the boat rocks to one side you get a sense of worry that something horrible is going to happen. This means that so much of the narrative relies on the animation style to encourage the reader to continue scrolling through each chapter.

The intrinsic motivation behind this story encourages the reader to use their personal graphic novel reading skills to fully understand what is happening. This means that readers must distinguish how the character moves and thinks in each panel and throughout all the corresponding print. McClanahan & Nottingham (2019) encourage that readers of graphic novels need to acknowledge the correct way to interpret information and storylines based on the visual literacy contained in a storyline. Having this personal interpretation allows the reader to develop more motivation to finish the story as they discover what this experience would be like for refugees.



Browne, G., & Coe, M. (2012). Ebook navigation: Browse, search and index. Australian Library Journal, 61(4), 288-297. Retrieved from

Huynh, M. (2015). The Boat. Special Broadcasting Service (SBS) Australia. Retrieved from

Jimenez, L. M., & Meyer, C. K. (2016). First impressions matter: Navigating graphic novels utilizing linguistic, visual, and spatial awareness. Journal of Literacy Research, 48(4), 423-447. DOI: 10.1177/1086296X16677955

McClanahan, B. J., & Nottingham, M. (2019). A suite of strategies for navigating graphic novels: A dual coding approach. International Literacy Association, 73(1), 39-50. Retrieved from

Moorefield-Lang, H., & Gavigan, K. (2012). These aren’t your father’s funny papers: The new world of digital graphic novels. Knowledge Quest, 40(3), 30-35. Retrieved from

INF533 Assessment 2 – Part A: eBook Review

I gained access to the ebook The 26-Storey Treehouse by Andy Griffiths (2015) from my local district library using the app called Borrower Box. I have read some ebooks in the past on my partner’s kindle, but they were all Amazon purchases. This was my first experience reading an ebook from my local library branch on my tablet. It was an easy process to borrow the story and I will absolutely use this online service again. I was quite happy with the digital presentation of the story but noticed some significant differences in the way a device is used to read the story. It was something that I wasn’t accustomed to and different to my previous experiences of reading ebooks using a kindle.

The navigation of this ebook is easy to use, tapping the right side of the screen to turn to the next page and the opposite way on the left side of the screen. The full menu can be brought up by tapping in the middle of the screen at the top, including going back and bookmarking favourite pages. The chapter search function is fantastic in navigating and tracking the reader’s progress at the bottom of the screen. Having this easy transfer from paper to screen means that different digital skills that can be used to explore this narrative (National Literacy Trust, 2014). This ebook can be read the same way as the printed copy of the fictional storybook. Children will be able to enjoy this storybook in digital form, particularly if there are limited copies available in their school or local library.

I discovered that changing the text size and zooming in on pictures was not a function that could be performed when reading the story on my tablet. It only worked on the font that was not linked to any of the pictures. This meant that any pictures that also had descriptions or labels included in the visual became a lot harder to read as you couldn’t zoom in on them. The simple transfer from paper to screen certainly limited this text function but allows the reader to closely analyse elements of the story on their device (Baldini, 2019). I wondered how children might handle this issue and whether the physical copy would be a better option for those that wanted to read the story.Another feature that an ebook contains is the ability to use an internet browser to search for any unfamiliar words. However, clicking and holding your finger over any of these words throughout the story only created one method of searching for them throughout the ebook. There was no function that allowed the reader to use a dictionary or thesaurus to identify the meaning of those words. Readers would need to understand that this is an important search feature in navigating ebooks before trying to test this (Browne & Coe, 2012, p. 289). The story is imaginative, but if the reader had not heard of any of these comparisons to nursery rhymes for example, then they could not use an internal internet browser on their device to assist them.


There is a lack of colour throughout this ebook, apart from the title page when you click on the title icon to open it. The ebook contains the same black and white art style that Terry Denton has illustrated in the same printed story. It kept me really engaged in the story and occasionally takes up most of the page due to the situation. For example, towards the end of the story Andy, Terry and Jill are trying to escape one of characters in the Maze of Doom. This presents several pictures being formatted onto one page, allowing the reader to view the physical direction that they are moving.


This storybook links to different areas of the curriculum that either Classroom Teachers (CT) or Teacher Librarians (TL) can unpack in their teaching. The main literary focus is the imaginative elements in the storytelling and the use of nursery rhymes that would benefit those readers in kindergarten to year two. The variety of animals could also be discussed and explored in Science lessons as there are themes exploring the care of marine life and how to dispose of rubbish or re-use items. The final link that could assist students in Mathematics is the topic of direction, which will particularly assist students in kindergarten.

I was very happy that I took the time to read this storybook as I had already read the first book and this ebook re-invigorated my interest in Andy Griffith’s writing style.



Baldini, M. (2019). Children’s literature and hypermedia. The digitalization breakthrough in the children’s publishing sector. Studi Sulla Formazione, 22(1), 101-114. DOI:10.13128/Studi_Formaz-25557

Browne, G., & Coe, M. (2012). Ebook navigation: Browse, search and index. Australian Library Journal, 61(4), 288-297. Retrieved from

Griffiths, A., & Denton, T. (2015). The 26-storey treehouse. Pan Macmillan Australia.

National Literacy Trust. (2014). The Impact of ebooks on the Reading Motivation and Reading Skills of Children and Young People. Retrieved from

Transmedia and Integrating Technology into our BUSY curriculum!

I thought it was incredibly interesting to explore this concept of ‘transmedia’ last week in our module readings. The definition of transmedia is actually focusing on: “a narrative or project that combines multiple media forms” (Techopedia, n.d.). I took a mental tally with some of my colleagues last week to see if anyone had heard of the phrase and unfortunately no one had… This certainly made for interesting conversations as I could explain what it meant for our curriculum and also for those disinterested readers that come into the library. Having a purpose of reading a short story such as (3:15 Season One – Things that Go Bump in the Night) makes it worthwhile to just try out small snippets of developing a narrative as well as integrating the technology side too. Many combinations of these different types of print and animation can certainly be explained to students as they are probably already using them at home or without even knowing it.

The other part that I’ve found particularly expansive, after continuing Module 2 readings, is the way that Bloom’s Taxonomy can now be interpreted for the purpose of the technology side of our Australian curriculum (Schrock, n.d.). The line start small OR think big certainly has stuck with me and I’d like to experiment further with a lot of these dynamics for how students interact and present their learning, particularly with the use of technology. I absolutely was thinking about the different students that I have taught in the past and how their way of thinking can fall under only a couple of these categories and not all. For one, the applying phase seems to be a constant as I noticed the example about making PowerPoint presentations has been a common trend for quite some time. I REALLY want to move past that program, but still use it when necessary, with some of those extension students that want to learn new ways of presenting information.

I will have to investigate even more examples of these transmedia texts and other ways of incorporating different styles of technology into my library lessons (I already have several ideas for lessons in next term’s library program). I’m quite excited to see what my students are able to achieve when they put their mind to it because they already have so much experience with technology they can bring their learning to the next level!



Techopedia. (n.d.). What is Transmedia? Retrieved from

Schrock, K. (n.d.). Bloomin’ apps | Kathy Schrock’s guide to everything. Retrieved from

Assessment 1 – Online Reflective Blog

The definition of digital literature is something that I am still continually building over time. With our first lot of reading for this course, I started reviewing how Walsh (2013) connected the trends for presenting digital forms of communication. The idea that when a person is presenting a storybook to an audience, particularly in video form, they are in fact just storytelling. This correlates with the idea that when a story is created as a digital narrative that media becomes a new interactive source of information. Creating these digital narratives is something new and exciting that will hook students into viewing and understanding stories.

Reading a physical copy of a novel certainly still has that nostalgia of turning the paper and the satisfaction of seeing how many pages you have read in a particular novel. However, stories can now be presented through kindles and tablets, which introduce a whole new way for the reader to access their favourite books as well as find new information. I have viewed different ways that literature in physical or digital format, is displayed across a variety of schools within my local region. It was interesting to observe how Teacher Librarians (TL) or Classroom Teachers (CT) maintain a strong reading or comprehensive connection for their students. Struggling readers would have access to a variety of storytelling through technology as listening to the audio built their own understanding of stories. Having the student interact with a digtial platform that they are accustomed to will bring more enjoyment and allow them to thrive with storytelling in a new way.

In my library space and previously in the classroom, students have found it easy to access methods of storytelling through services such as Vooks, Storybox Library or even the Reading Eggs library. I especially like the Reading Eggs library as it caters to the student’s reading age or ability and allows them to search for topics that interest them. This closely ties in with the idea of building the love of genres and interacting with stories that make our imaginations race.

Figure 1: Reading Eggs library (Family Magazines 2017)

The constant debate between the physical copy and the digital presentation of literature has become a question that has been answered in many different ways. Lamb (2011) questions the use of physical books in comparison to transmedia storytelling which has become a new way to link with fictional storytelling. A strong connection to ‘Choose Your Own’ stories is a new way of exploring how characters can develop their own plotlines, which I have experienced outside of school hours. Having this flexibility in creating stories, allows the reader to have more control of the narrative as well as give them the ability to choose what direction they want the overall story to go.

Moving forward, I would absolutely love to introduce some of my students to these examples of transmedia storytelling and see how they engage with digital formatting and the ability to diverge onto different pathways in a story. I also hope to build my understanding of the various tools that are easily accessible for incorporating digital literature into a school environment.



Family Magazines. (2017). ABC Reading Eggs Review Australia for Parents & Kids [Image]. Retrieved from

Lamb, A. (2011). Reading redefined for a transmedia universe. Learning and leading with technology, 39(3), 12-17. Retrieved from login.aspx?direct=true&db=ehh&AN=67371172&site=ehost-live

Walsh, M. (2013). Literature in a digital environment (Ch. 13). In L. McDonald (Ed.), A literature companion for teachers. Marrickville, NSW: Primary English Teaching Association Australia (PETAA).