Tag Archives: INF530

The hype and trends of technology

With technology becoming more pervasive in our everyday lives and being prevalent in classrooms it is interesting to stop and take stock and reflect on technology trends from the past to inform us on what worked well and what didn’t. By reflecting on this I believe that I can fix my sight on the future and move forward with knowledge.

Let’s look at the facts that not that long ago it was standard modern practice to use acetate overhead project sheets and Gestetner copies.

It is always the risk, should you be an early adopter of a technology on the forefront trying to work out how to fit it into a class, or should you sit back and wait for it to become mainstream and are forced to use it because your organisation has created a user policy. The key question to ask, as an educator is; Why should we use technology in the classroom? (Drager, 1, 2015)

As a teacher it is always important to think about the affordances to technology that you are considering implementing in the class. Bower (2008) outlined an affordance classification system, that is incredible useful to work through when deciding on technology for the classroom, a process I went through for the Moodle Learning Management System (Drager, 2, 2015).

As a trainer when I go to use a new technology I will put it through an affordance review and also reflect on my own TPACK (Drager,3, 2015) with the technology to ensure that I am not just using a trendy new technology for the sake of it but there are solid links to curriculum.

Reflecting on technology trends from the past 10 years has been an interesting undertaking, especially in relation to what I personally used in education. It is interesting that though LMSs have been around for over 15 years that they still remain a critical part of the e-learning landscape, but the question is for how long (Conole, 2012)? I can map how I have taught by the technology that I used personally. Some key highlights from the years include:

  • 2006 learning to develop web content for my Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) which opened up an awareness of digital creation and curation.
  • 2007 the year of Virtual Worlds and social networks, with exciting projects such as ‘Virtual World’s – Real Learning’ from the then Australian Flexible Learning Framework inspiring people from the VET sector which opened up a huge new realm for me.
  • 2010, mobile media tablets changed workplace training due to the simplicity of use and ease of integration.

Gartner every year puts out a Hype Cycle for Emerging Technologies. 2014 shows types of technology that have been around for a while but appear simply because they’ve gained mainstream attention, such as gamification.

Hype Cycle for Emerging Technologies, 2014 (Gartner, 2014)
Hype Cycle for Emerging Technologies, 2014 (Gartner, 2014)
Hype Cycle for Emerging Technologies, 2012 (Gartner, 2012)
Hype Cycle for Emerging Technologies, 2012 (Gartner, 2012)

The Hype Cycle for Emerging Technologies should be studied with a critical eye own in relation to education but linked to other important reports such as the Horizon Report to identify critical trends that will indeed support teaching and learning. When you compare 2012 to 2014 Hype Cycles you are able to see that BYOD was at its zenith in 2012, but does not even rate a mention in 2014. What does this mean to us in education and the trends in technology? Simply if there’s enough ‘hype’ around technology it can very quickly be adopted into mainstream and education.



Bower, M. (2008). Affordance analysis – matching learning tasks with learning technologies. Educational Media International, 45(1), 3-15. doi:10.1080/09523980701847115

Conole, G. (2015). Designing for Learning in an Open World (1st ed., pp. 47-63). Dordrecht: Springer. Retrieved from http://csuau.eblib.com.ezproxy.csu.edu.au/patron/FullRecord.aspx?p=1030803&echo=1&userid=Kw3jR%2bAhgEwAdjjiAfq0LQ%3d%3d&tstamp=1427684336&id=99B29BF9A978474F0ED16153A21450DBF7961F02

Drager, Y. 1, (2015). Affordances of Moodle – a multiplatform application. Yvette’s Reflective journal – A site of Discovery. Retrieved from https://thinkspace.csu.edu.au/yvette/2015/01/19/affordances-of-moodle-a-multiplatform-application/

Drager, Y. (2015). TPACK framework. Yvette’s Reflective Blog : A site of Discovery. Retrieved from https://thinkspace.csu.edu.au/yvette/2015/01/12/tpack-framework/

Drager, Y. (2015). Why should we use technology in the classroom?. Yvette’s Reflective Journal – A site of discovery. Retrieved from https://thinkspace.csu.edu.au/yvette/2015/01/12/why-we-should-use-technology-in-the-classroom/

Gartner,. (2014). Hype Cycle for Emerging Technologies 2012. Retrieved from http://www.gartner.com/newsroom/id/2124315

Gartner,. (2014). Hype Cycle for Emerging Technologies 2014. Retrieved from http://www.gartner.com/newsroom/id/2819918

The New Media Consortium,. (2014). NMC Horizon. Retrieved 30 March 2015, from http://www.nmc.org/nmc-horizon/

Web.archive.org,. (2007). Australian Flexible Learning Framework – Virtual Worlds – Real Learning!. Retrieved 30 March 2015, from http://web.archive.org/web/20070613001430/http://www.flexiblelearning.net.au/flx/go/home/projects/2006/newpractices2006/pid/368

Wikipedia,. (2015). Transparency (projection). Retrieved 30 March 2015, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transparency_(projection)

Wikipedia,. (2014). Gestetner. Retrieved 30 March 2015, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gestetner

The personalized puzzle of INF530

Personal baggage Image by Kolobsek http://www.morguefile.com/archive/display/851769
Personal baggage
Image by Kolobsek
# 851769

INF530 Critical Review

I came to INF530 with a very different perspective, as I had already completed three other units and this semester saw me working my way through a further two units, almost an information overload! In the past I have seen my previous knowledge almost as unwanted baggage, but in INF530 I think I have now checked my baggage into the plane’s cargo hold for the rest of the trip.

This subject has helped revisit and consolidate a great deal of learning that I’ve already completed. I was challenged and able to delve into topics that were of interest to me and my work such as the impact of the Internet of Things, Big Data, Personal Learning Environments and Blended Delivery.

Personal learning jigsaw cc-BY-NC license Yvette Drager
Personal learning jigsaw
cc-BY-NC license Yvette Drager

Throughout this course I have often felt that we are looking at a giant personalized jigsaw puzzle and we have to search to find the meaning and thus all the pieces will click into place.

The only way to discover what the personalized puzzle looks like is by engaging with the content and peers. Knowing how you learn and working to your strengths along with your peers is the way forward to successfully grapple the content into a manageable and meaningful form. This is why our tasks are designed to be authentic, active learning activities (Buzzard, Crittenden, Crittenden & McCarty, 2011; D’Aloisio, 2006; Day & Kumar, 2010; Herrington & Parker, 2013; Herrington, Reeves, Oliver, & Woo, 2010).
Learning by doing is almost the mantra of the whole of this course, and because of this fits with the makerspaces movement ethos well (O’Connell, 2015). In keeping with this philosophy of active learning and makerspaces to I try to challenge myself to create something different every unit with a new technology as part of my ongoing professional learning. The digital essay enabled me to trial Sway (Microsoft, 2015), so simple and I will be showcasing this again. I also created collage images using Adobe Photoshop and a nice simple jigsaw puzzle creation online software (BigHugeLabs, 2015). All of this means that I take away from this unit a new set of skills and a solid understanding of how these skills can supplement a VET practitioner’s bag-of-tricks in creating a satisfying digital experience for students.

I’m always happy to share snippets with others of information, such as around Digital Preservation – Snow Byte and the Seven Formats.

I featured this video in an INF443 assessment. Reviewing the Digital Preservation content from both INF530 and INF443 bought to light some serious issues in preservation of student’s digital content for audit purposes in the VET sector. This content has formed the basis of a webinar presentation I have created for the Department of Training and Workforce Development to inform organisations of their ongoing obligations.

The Big data topic really made me stop, think, research and reflect on the Unique Student Identifier code that has been rolled out for the VET sector. There is such an impact of big data and how we deal with it that this will be an ongoing issue into the future especially in relation to personal data which of course linked into the Internet of Things (IoT). I specifically chose a book about IoT for my scholarly review, to challenge and enlighten my throughs around this topic so I can inform others.

My journey is far from complete, and my puzzle still has more than a few pieces missing, (I may have to look under the table for them). The final destination of course is not where you learn. The journey and the people you meet and work with along the way will always be where you grow and learn. I look forward to moving onto the next step of my journey and finding the next set of puzzle pieces to help me finally complete my personal jigsaw.


BigHugeLabs. (2015). Jigsaw: Create jigsaw puzzles from your photos [Computer software].retrieved from http://bighugelabs.com/jigsaw.php

Buzzard, C., Crittenden, V., Crittenden, W., & McCarty, P. (2011). The Use of Digital Technologies in the Classroom A Teaching and Learning Perspective. Journal of Marketing Education, 33(2), 131-139. doi:10.1177/0273475311410845

D’Aloisio, A. (2006). Motivating students through awareness of the natural correlation between college learning and corporate work settings. College Teaching, 54(2), 225-230. doi:10.3200/CTCH.54.2.225-230

Day, J., & Kumar, M. (2010). Using SMS Text Messaging to Create Individualized and Interactive Experiences in Large Classes: A Beer Game Example. Decision Sciences Journal of Innovative Education, 8(1), 129-136. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4609.2009.00247.x

Herrington, J., & Parker, J. (2013). Emerging technologies as cognitive tools for authentic learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, 44(4), 607-615. doi:10.1111/bjet.12048

Herrington, J., Reeves, T., Oliver, R., & Woo, Y. (2004). Designing authentic activities in web-based courses. Journal of Computing In Higher Education, 16(1), 3-29. doi:10.1007/bf02960280 Retrieved from http://link.springer.com.ezproxy.csu.edu.au/article/10.1007/BF02960280

Microsoft. (2015). Sway [Computer software]. Retrieved from https://sway.com/

O’Connell, J. (2015). Hackerspaces and makerspaces [INF530 Module 5.4]. Retrieved 20 May, 2015, from Charles Sturt University website: https://interact2.csu.edu.au/bbcswebdav/pid-249314-dt-content-rid-635373_1/courses/S-INF530_201530_W_D/module5/5_4_Hackerspaces_makerspaces.html


Less screen more green – an adventure in blended delivery and games

Less screen more green flickr photo shared by CMIMMJYT under a Creative Commons (BY) licence
flickr photo shared by CMIMMJYT under a Creative Commons (BY) licence

I am fortunate enough to work with VET professionals to develop and implement methods for using elearning as part of a blended delivery program. It’s always a challenge when putting together a professional development session to ensure that there is a good blend of theory and hands on work to ensure that the participants go away with a solid understanding of the content of the session and how to use that content in their specific context.

I was asked recently to put together a blended delivery session that would engage TAFE lecturers from a variety of portfolios for Polytechnic West lecturers from Balga and Thornlie campuses. I really wanted to build a blended delivery session that made participants use personal learning networks, technology and had a game based element to it. What evolved was a very interesting and well received session that was engaging and really made the participants understand that technology can support all training packages.

The brief outline of the session was “So you are keen to engage your online students but do not like the thought of just getting them to sit at a computer. This face-to-face session will work through ways to motivate your online students to ‘experience’ the real world and not to rely just on spoon fed online information.” Being held on two campuses I made sure that sessions ran as close to concurrent as possible as my co-presenter and I wanted to split the participants into small groups with the groups being a mix of representatives from both campuses. The participants were placed in teams prior to the session commencing – based on the roll, however the groups mix was  tweaked in the session when it became apparent on the Thornlie campus that we had a mix from a third campus.

Participants began the session in a computer lab at both campuses with a short presentation and briefing from me and my co-presenter about what we were going to do in the session and the key learning objectives. The participants were then given a physical live task to perform at each campus, and needed to work as a group across both sites to achieve the end goal. Participants were given access to a virtual meeting room space in Blackboard Collaborate and could also use mobile devices to communicate with the other site. The workshop ended back at each “basecamp” for debrief and to un-pack the learning from the activity.

It was important to make the physical activity an authentic learning activity which was a learner centric learning design that supports a higher level of learning by participants. I used a mix of both synchronous – Blackboard Collaborate and asynchronous – sms messaging and Google documents, which enabled collaborative learning (Laurillard, 2008). This supported a dynamic learner centric learning process for the participants (Herrington & Parker, 2013), which is essential for adult learners.

As the professional development was for adult learners who benefit from real-world relevance (Herrington, Reeves, Oliver and Woo, 2004) the live physical activity linked to the Employability Skills Occupational Health and Safety area of training packages as well as a ‘get to know the campuses’ orientation. This ensured that the participants were not doing an activity just for the sake of it and could see the context in that related to training packages and their training.

The activity was a Scavenger Hunt around the two campuses with focus questions that the groups had to work together to answer, within a 40 minute time frame. Cunningly the Scavenger Hunt was designed so that general knowledge would take them so far and they actually had to physically move around the two campuses to get the information to complete the questions.

The teams firstly had access in the physical classroom to Blackboard Collaborate and worked through as much as they could together and formulated a plan of action; they identified what questions might relate to each campus and then worked out a way to chat to each other outside the class. Some of the mobile technologies teams used were: sms messages, Facebook instant messages, Twitter and one team setup a Google document live to add findings to. During the session I acted as an instructor, a guide and an evaluator (Hanghøj, 2013) to enable to participants success in game play and facilitated groups through to a successful conclusion of the activity.

Once they had collated the answers they nominated a team member to fill out a survey monkey quiz that replicated the scavenger hunt questions, which enabled the two presenters live to demonstrate how the answers and statistics show in this system. The team then had to email the presenters that they had finished. Two prizes were awarded:

  1. First team finished
  2. Team with most correct answers

The participants thoroughly enjoyed the game element to the session and as part of the session debrief unpacked how this type of activity could inform their future training. The blended element of the delivery, though technically challenging having two big groups online working at the same time, it was extremely rewarding for the participants.

Participant guide – Less screen more green



Hanghøj, T. (2013). Game-based teaching: Practices, roles, and pedagogies. In S. de Freitas, M. Ott, M. Popescu, & I. Stanescu (Eds.) New pedagogical approaches in game enhanced learning: Curriculum integration (pp. 81-101). Hershey, PA: . doi:10.4018/978-1-4666-3950-8.ch005

Herrington, J., & Parker, J. (2013). Emerging technologies as cognitive tools for authentic learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, 44(4), 607-615. doi:10.1111/bjet.12048

Herrington, J., Reeves, T., Oliver, R., & Woo, Y. (2004). Designing authentic activities in web-based courses. Journal of Computing In Higher Education, 16(1), 3-29. doi:10.1007/bf02960280 Retrieved from http://link.springer.com.ezproxy.csu.edu.au/article/10.1007/BF02960280

Laurillard, D. (2009). The pedagogical challenges to collaborative technologies. International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, 4(1), 5-20. doi:10.1007/s11412-008-9056-2

Unique Student Identifier (USI) and Big Data (the highs and lows)

A personal viewpoint

As of the 1st January 2014 all students, in the Australian VET sector, have been allocated a Unique Student Identifier. This code follows the student through their life and enables registered training organizations (RTOs) easier access to a student’s VET records and provides a simpler way for students to provide evidence for credit transfer makes it easier for students to transfer between training institutions (Mills, 2013).

But this got me thinking about Big Data and the relationship that this USI could offer in the future for RTOs. On the positive side there is the possibility of responsive training based on the needs of the client making it a system that can contextualize a learning journey through skill sets for the student to eventually achieve a desired goal, but it could also have a darker side the side where direct marketing and disreputable RTOs denying students training based purely on past performances in previous qualifications. Currently the USI does not store informal comments regarding student’s performance currently, but you have to ask yourself does that mean that the system will always stay like this, especially if K-12 students are eventually linked into it.

Education providers, if engaging in digital learning, have the ability to garner information about their clients easily through the technology that we use.  Every click a student does within a Learning Management System is recorded in the back end database, which will be archived along with the course in the VET sector for audit purposes. If utilizing social media every mention or micro-blog post can be saved to build a picture of the learners and their capabilities and needs. Now imagine this big picture that one RTO is able to build through, careful and critical analysis of the underlying data, an explicit picture of the student’s choices and make accurate predictions on the same students future study choices. If this data becomes part of public record then one bad grade somewhere in your past could in the future severely impact on what you are able to study in a dystopian world.

When you delve closer into USI there are some alarm bells that, for me, are set off. In the  Student Indentifiers Registers Privacy Policy (Office of the USI Registrar, 2014) it clearly states that the USI Registrar may disclose personal information to third parties, which is not limited to the list of third parties provided. Once these third parties have the information, then the student’s details are now no longer secure and safe behind the USI, a critical issue. Though there is a caveat on the USI site that it is finally the responsibility of the student to keep their login detail secure so no one can access their academic records if this data is shared with third parties, it begs the question what security measures are put into place by these other organisations and what data is actually being shared?

The Student Indentifiers Registers Privacy Policy (Office of the USI Registrar, 2014) clearly states that the content is held in a cloud computing solution, which adheres to the Australian Government Cloud Computing arrangements (Finance.gov.au, 2014). However, for me, personally there is also a big concern around security having all of the VET student’s qualification history in one place, no matter the security surrounding the system. Recently we have seen that big corporations using cloud computing systems have not been able to keep people’s personal data or content safe  such as Celebgate which saw celebrities iCloud accounts hacked in 2014 (BBC News, 2014). If this can occur to a high end security space then we do need to review this step into keeping the data in one repository held on a cloud based solution.

In all fairness the USI Registry System has been designed to keep training records and results safe, according to their website (Usi.gov.au, 2015) and goes on in subsequent pages to assure students that their information is safe. But the worry about security when it comes to student academic records is not an isolated concern for Australia but was raised in Education Week (Kamisar, 2014) that discussed issues around security for the organization inBloom which was touted as being the organization that would revolutionize personalized learning and target the needs of individuals based by synthesizing  student data. Admittedly there are marked differences between inBloom and the USI Registry System. One stand out difference is that currently the USI is not being managed by a private third party but by a Federal Government agency, however, given recent privatization and the push to consolidate services to reduce Government employment burdens it does beg the question if this will become outsourced in years to come.

Data mining is big business for organisations and more so the art of predictive analytics. Marketing departments in retails stores have been onto this for years as outlined by Duhigg (2012), so why wouldn’t the education industry want to start move into this field especially with a ready made supply of information. This could become a very lucrative market place with the value of this data being almost priceless, and we the consumers may never even realize that our information might have been shared. One must ask the question do students know that the information stored within the registry may be provided to third parties such as regulators, researchers current and former VET RTOs to name a few for a variety of purposes. When a student is enrolling is this ever explained in full to them and all of the ramifications, as in the current system you cannot enrol in a VET qualification without have a USI. I have to say that I could (if I wanted to) create a USI on the website (Usi.gov.au, 2015) and it would have been up to me to have explored all of the sub-pages to dig into what will happen to my results and who has access to my details, but I am not convinced that all of our VET students will do this.

We do not have a perfect VET system, but we are trying to put in place systems that will streamline workloads for organizations. But I do have to wonder who is looking out for the students? This blog post is really the start of my exploration into this very interesting topic and one that could have ramifications in years to come within all sections of the education industry.


BBC News,. (2014). Apple confirms accounts compromised but denies security breach – BBC News. Retrieved 1 May 2015, from http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-29039294

Duhigg, C. (2012). How Companies Learn Your Secrets. The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/19/magazine/shopping-habits.html?_r=2&

Finance.gov.au,. (2014). Cloud Computing | Department of Finance. Retrieved 4 May 2015, from http://www.finance.gov.au/cloud/

Kamisar, B. (2014). InBloom Sputters Amid Concerns About Privacy of Student Data. Education Week, 33(15), 1-13. Retrieved from http://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2014/01/08/15inbloom_ep.h33.html

Mills, A. (2013). VET Transparency Agenda – what’s in it for me. Presentation, Training Providers Forum, Perth, Western Australia.

MindCET,. (2014). MindCET Snapshot #2 – Big Data & Education. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7MrWQUMgcyk

Office of the USI Registrar,. (2014). Student Indentifiers Registers privacy policy v1.1 (pp. 1-8). Canberra: Department of Education and Training.

Usi.gov.au,. (2015). Skills Unique Student Identifier: Training Records and Results. Retrieved 1 May 2015, from http://www.usi.gov.au/Students/Pages/training-records-and-results.aspx

The Silent Intelligence: The Internet of Things

For INF530 Concepts and Practices for a Digital Age, Assessment 4, I reviewed a very interesting book The Silent Intelligence: The Internet of Things by Daniel Kellmereit and Daniel Obodovski (2013).

This is a nice easy read, that give a good solid base level introduction to the concept of The Internet of Things. The book itself is not primarily education focused, but you can apply some of the key points to the education space. Well worth a look at.

The Silent Intelligence The Internet of Things
The Silent Intelligence The Internet of Things











 Scholarly Review

Kellmereit, D. and Obodovski, D., (2013) The Silent Intelligence: The Internet of Things. DnD Ventures 1st edition, California.

The Silent Intelligence: The Internet of Things by Daniel Kellmereit and Daniel Obodovski (2013) presents an extensively researched analysis about the Internet of Things (IoT) which primarily was written for businesses looking to leverage on practical lessons and guidance from experts and companies in this field. Through interviews and case studies the readers are presented with both authentic examples and future forecast scenarios of use for both industry and individuals. The key objective of the book is for readers’ awareness to be raised about how connecting the physical world around us to the digital world can result in gains. Kellmereit and Obodovski (2013) also shared their own personal views with the reader on how to overcome obstacles with the IoT, which are specifically aimed at business investment and job opportunities.

Kellmereit and Obodovski (2013) pose five significant questions about the IoT: What is the Internet of Things? How is it coming about? What are the key trends? What is the potential? What needs to be done? The authors use these questions as a framework to explore the IoT concept. As part of this exploration three key ideas connecting the chapters: data collection; data transport; data analysis, especially around the issues of the role human interaction will play in the rapid expansion of this technology and the management of data produced by the IoT became apparent. These issues and ideas will form the basis to critique the theories developed in this book.

It becomes apparent thanks, to Kellmereit and Obodovski (2013), that the IoT is not a far-fetched vision of a digital utopia with the IoT incorporating machine–to–machine (M2M), machine–to–person (M2P) and  person –to–person (P2) networked technologies. All digital learning technologies currently used in education are part of the IoT, a point many educators may not be aware of yet as the IoT has not been extensively covered in popular media.

In the book there are four identified focal points that the technology industry has created encompassing networked nodes around; connected cities; connected homes; connected health; and connected cars. Connected cities, provide information to town planners for traffic management energy optimization and building automation is collected via sensor and wireless communication data collected. Connected homes are sensing if people are at home and assisting with for energy consumption and making people comfortable and safe. Connected health currently supports people with chronic illnesses and Alzheimer’s by collecting data and location information and providing this to caregivers. Finally connected cars, most cars have ‘drive–by–wire’ implemented. This provides valuable information to service technicians at a service, but also aggregated information can create better fleet management in transport industries. These connected digital technologies are all networked nodes of data collection outlined in this book.

The data is collected via networked nodes, discussed by Kellmereit and Obodovski (2013), and is stored as raw ‘big data’ that can either be used by the original collector or supplied to third parties, provided that the metadata schemas match to will allow simple and effective data mining. The authors believe that this information collection is going to help us all become better citizens and allow us to better manage our facilities, including educational facilities, this is supported by the current project between CISCO and Swinburne University (Johnson, Adams, Estrada, Freeman, 2015).

It is argued in the book that as ‘things’ around us become smarter machines will take over more tasks, the human error rate for activities will fall, for example the research and development Google X project for self-driving cars. However, in education, current technologies are successfully being employed that are filling a niche requirement. Technologies currently being used include radio frequency identification (RFID) tags in an elearning project using RFID tags in a cabinet making workshop (E-standards.flexiblelearning.net.au, 2008) and quick reference (QR) codes for map reading in an outdoor education class (Lai, Chang, Wen-Shiane, Fan & Wu, 2013). These project have had to overcome technology hurdles for successful real-world application.

Technology in the past has been problematic, according to Kellmereit and Obodovski (2013), as the uptake has been prohibited by the expense especially specialist scanning hardware. With the arrival of QR codes to the digital landscape and cheap simple smart technology production using, for example, Rasberry Pi (Raspberrypi.org, 2015) and Arduino (Arduino.cc, 2015) modules means that there is a change in the landscape. This is fast becoming a core topic in many universities computer science courses such as the Open University’s My Digital Life course (Kortuem, Bandara, Smith, Richards & Petre, 2013). The exponential growth of the IoT and M2M arena is being driven by research projects in both industry and educational institutions.

The IoT according to The Silent Intelligence: The Internet of Things (2013) is a rapidly expanding dynamic space and one which Moores Law (Mooreslaw.org, 2015) can be applied to technologies involved. With this rapid expansion of the M2M technology the central challenge, according to the authors, is that people do not understand the reference architecture that is required to grasp the potential of the IoT. Peggy Smedly, from connected Worlds M2M, in the book suggested increasing the profile of IoT in the mass consumer marketplace by packaging technology into something that is easy for both companies and consumers to use, so not only offering a complete solution but from known and trusted brands, which directly contradicts Kellmereit and Obodovski (2013) focus for technology start-ups who will bring the creative edge to the market rather than staid traditional trusted companies. Once again universities adjusting programs in a responsive manner and supporting students in learning about, engaging with and building IoT technology (Callagaghan, 2013; Kellogg, Parks, Gollakota, Smith & Wetherall, 2014; Zhang, Callaghan, Shen, Davies, 2011) they will support the creative edge needed in this new space that Kellmereit and Obodovski (2013) see crucial for success.

A key theme in the book is the phenomenal rate of change that society is experiencing in all aspects of life due to the interconnectivity of smart devices. It is this silent revolution that humanity will not notice due to the pervasiveness of the IoT technology. Everything will become nodes on a network in a world where knowledge is universally accessible (Anderson & Rainie, 2014). Kellmereit and Obodovski (2013) alluded to well–defined old problems that the IoT can solve such as increased track ability, increased productivity, improved risk management, reduction in the guess work for planning projects and better connection to our environment. They do point out that the ‘human element’ is a key risk factor, but stop short of a definitive statement regarding issues resulting from the removal of people from the equation in the input of data in the IoT environment.

Kellmereit and Obodovski (2013) are quick to point out that the ‘human element’ is important and not superfluous to data analysis especially the interpretation of data and the subsequent recommendations for implementation. Data analysis is seen to be a growth area for companies with networked devices feeding systems that can improve tracking and tracing capabilities, such as the DriveCam example (Lytx, 2015) as discussed in the by Mark Wells interview (Kellmereit & Obodovski, p.93, 2013).

Kellmereit and Obodovski (2013) have a positive view of the IoT and handing over data collection, transport and analysis to digital technology. This ideology causes the reader to pause and reflect that our ‘smart devices’ are disrupting and in the very near future, if not already, are going to re-define society’s ways of living, interacting and learning, and consequently, will challenge our belief of what it is to be human (Theinternetofthings.eu, 2015).

Shared business models and industry standards, according to the book, are currently deficient in the IoT sector. Bill Gates said “In an age of interconnectivity, businesses need an architecture that extends outward to partners and customers. The successful companies select a few standards and enforce them strictly” (Gates & Hemingway, 1999). Setting standards and creating shared business models is an important step for industries to make in the IoT and M2M arena, because viable data linking from a variety of sources will allow the true potential to be discovered. Kellmereit and Obodovski (2013) put forward that without industry standards the IoT and M2Ms scale will always be defined by the narrow structures that each individual business use.

With the IoT being a relatively new concept and one which the possible ramifications are not widely understood there are some concerns that Kellmereit and Obodovski (2013) raise. One significant controversy outlined are ethical issues around the big data being captured by M2M, M2P and P2P technologies and the sovereignty of the data, especially as not all data retention and access levels are the same and similarly the treatment of data should not be the same. Sovereignty of data will become a crucial issue in years to come as the collection and use of data from sources versus the rights of individuals who are linked to the data will have ongoing ramifications to all industries, including the education sector.

Kellmereit and Obodovski (2013) mention very little regarding the responsibility of the carriers around data preservation and sharing, simply that there will be regulatory restrictions in other countries (this book was written and published for the American market). They discuss that data acquisition will be the growth market area for industries to capitalize on; this is a concern as there is little regulation regarding how metadata is managed, retained or shared by companies or countries, as seen in current media about metadata retention in Australia (Ag.gov.au, 2015). This lack of regulation has ramifications on data collection, transport, storage and analysis.

Data transportation in the digital realm is a concern for all areas of industry as well as the general community. The need to provide secure transport networks, be it via hardwire/cable, cellular, Wi-Fi and Bluetooth or RFID for short range communication which all have unique security protocols around the network to ensure that the data is safe during transport as well as during storage. This book did not provide any key information around this area other than that a company needed to develop a robust M2M policy to ensure that their data would be protected.

It is outlined in the book that business and industry need to optimise the technology architecture, which can be driven by work and research in the education sectors. This book perceives a disconnect between the high-tech community and industry Kellmereit and Obodovski (2013), however with the education sector making strong inroads into this space there will be a reconnection and synergy between these key market players on the IoT space.

Bill Gates once wrote “Business is going to change more in the next ten years than it has in the last fifty” (Gates & Hemingway, 1999) and this is especially true when looking at the IoT technology and the exponential growth that all industries, including education, will experience thanks to the prevalence of the IoT which will form the starting point for the next digital revolution if Kellmereit and Obodovski (2013) have it right.

Overall Kellmereit and Obodovski (2013) were successful in presenting a book that offered a broad overview of the IoT which then drilled down to specifics related to investment and business strategies. Their discussions around the new changing digital world and the way businesses, including education institutions, must adapt was illustrated by interesting use cases and interviews which met the writers aims set out in their introduction. However, this book only scratches the surface of the IoT and M2M technology and further reading would be necessary for an educator to fully grasp the implications both the IoT and M2M in relation to their current methodologies and technology systems being used. This is a challenging topic and one that Kellmereit and Obodovski (2013) provide a very broad base level introduction to.


Ag.gov.au,. (2015). Data retention | Attorney-General’s Department. Retrieved 18 April 2015, from http://www.ag.gov.au/dataretention

Anderson, J., & Rainie, L. (2014). The Internet of Things Will Thrive by 2025. Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project. Retrieved 3 April 2015, from http://www.pewinternet.org/2014/05/14/internet-of-things/

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Callaghan, V. (2013). Buzz-Boarding; practical support for teaching computing based on the internet-of-things. In Higher Education Academy STEM: Annual Learning and Teaching Conference 2013: Where practice and pedagogy meet.. York: The Higher Education Academy. Retrieved from http://journals.heacademy.ac.uk/doi/abs/10.11120/stem.hea.2012.015

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Gates, B., & Hemingway, C. (1999). Business @ the speed of thought. New York, NY: Warner Books.

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Kellmereit, D. and Obodovski, D. (2013) The Silent Intelligence: The Internet of Things. DnD Ventures 1st edition, California.

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The final choice

It has been hard to narrow down just one book to base my scholarly review on, there were so many interesting titles that I will go back to when I have more time.

A scholarly review is always a daunting, but interesting undertaking and for INF530 I have selected:

The Silent Intelligence The Internet of Things cover image - Amazon
The Silent Intelligence The Internet of Things cover image – Amazon

The Silent Intelligence: The Internet of Things

Daniel Kellmereit and Daniel Obodovski

I feel the Internet of Things and Big Data will both impact even more on the education in the next few years. I’m very interested in both the internet of things and big data in relation to information being retained about our students in a variety of forms the influence that it will have on education and ways we are using technology in both the classroom and the storage of data. In my current job role it is important that I have a solid understanding of this dynamic changing space that is evolving very quickly, though very quietly. Hopefully it will provide me with some new insights into a very interesting topic.

What this space for a version of my review.




Blog task #1

key words taken from INF530 about digital learning and information technology
The content of INF530 and my readings inspired me to create a Worlde of my thoughts.

It was not a surprise to find out that I am an entrepreneurial learner, a tinkerer and a maker. I like to explore new concepts and resources with and work out new ways of using these in my work. Seely Brown, stated “We tend to underplay how important this is”, which is so very true, especially in the creative job role I have compared to others in the Government agency where I work. I want to help VET facilitators/trainers to become entrepreneurial learners as well so they can pass the traits onto their students.

The internet has become mainstream, no longer the domain for the higher education professional or researches, which allows people to connect and communicate, to share and impact on like minded individuals. Education, business and Government agencies all have to create policies around the use of digital technologies because of its prevalence in our everyday lives and as a learning mentor it is imperative that I can showcase digital technologies both at a senior management level and at trainer level for effective industry implementation.

However, I see the more critical issue being digital preservation of content. For the VET sector Registered Training Organisations (RTO) need to maintain records for up to 20 years, which is extremely problematic given both hardware and software obsolescence. This area is one that I am keen to explore further as currently it is not on the National agenda as a critical item but one that I can see will impact the VET sector in the coming years. Government funded VET colleges (TAFEs) in all likelihood do have some digital preservation strategy, my focus is the smaller private RTOs who do not have access the robust infrastructure for data recovery.

What I do find exciting is the changing dynamic of the traditional VET trainer away from being the ‘sage on the stage to a more guide on the side or meddler in the middle’ (Lukin et al., 2009). With this move away from ‘traditional’ classroom teaching means that new pedagogical styles can be explored such as ‘flipped learning’. This philosophy fits in well with the authentic learning tasks that have real world relevance (Reeves, Herrington & Oliver, 2002) that incorporate active learning experiences (Day & Kumar, 2010) which is important to VET delivery, but most importantly it helps students become lifelong learners. Marc Prensky summed this up nicely in this tweet:

Marc Prensky wrote: Today's educators' job is to show students how to teach themselves in today's and tomorrow's world, & to guide them in doing so.
Marc Prensky @marcprensky tweeted about the role of educators in a modern teaching world.






This space is exciting and challenging and personally I revel in the chance to change the stoic long term trainers who have been training a specific way for the past 20+ years to seeing a more flexible approach that fits both them and the students. If you think about it we need to train students in new ways for them to become successful workers in the future.

Change is something that moves slowly in the VET sector, just like any education area. The Web 3.0 is an exciting time and especially the ‘collaborative commons’ and Internet of Things. I am most excited to discover how these will impact on teaching and schools into the future.



Davies, R., Dean, D., & Ball, N. (2013). Flipping the classroom and instructional technology integration in a college-level information systems spreadsheet course. Educational Technology Research & Development, 61(4), 563-580. doi:10.1007/s11423-013-9305-6

Day, J., & Kumar, M. (2010). Using SMS Text Messaging to Create Individualized and Interactive Experiences in Large Classes: A Beer Game Example. Decision Sciences Journal of Innovative Education, 8(1), 129-136. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4609.2009.00247.x

Lage, M., Platt, G., & Treglia, M. (2000). Inverting the Classroom: A Gateway to Creating an Inclusive Learning Environment. The Journal of Economic Education, 31(1), 30-43. doi:10.1080/00220480009596759

Lukin, R., Clark, W., Logan, K., Graber, R., Oliver, M., & Mee, A. (2009). Do Web 2.0 tools really open the door to learning: practices, perceptions and profiles of 11-16 year old learners?. Learning, Media and Technology, 34(2). Retrieved from http://ezproxy.csu.edu.au/login?url=http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17439880902921949

Puentedura, R. (2014). SAMR and Bloom’s Taxonomy: Assembling the Puzzle. Common Sense Graphite. Retrieved from https://www.graphite.org/blog/samr-and-blooms-taxonomy-assembling-the-puzzle

Reeves, T. C., Herrington, J., & Oliver, R. (2002). Authentic activities and online learning. In A.Goody, J. Herrington, & M. Northcote (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2002 Annual International Conference of the Higher Education Research and Development Society of Australasia (HERDSA), Perth, Australia. Retrieved from: http://www.herdsa.org.au/wp-content/uploads/conference/2002/papers/Reeves.pdf

The Global One Room Schoolhouse: John Seely Brown (Highlights from JSB’s Keynote at DML2012). (2012, September 18). Retrieved March 5, 2015, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fiGabUBQEnM&feature=youtu.be