“It is in the DNA” – Assessment 2 – Part B

Whats on the shelves?


School libraries (SL) are more than books on shelves.  To a fledgling teacher librarian (TL), libraries often imagine warehouses, where books awaits death and then reincarnation at Lifeline.   The reality is different; collections are not inert. SL are dynamic; they constantly evolve to suit the needs of their community.  

Framework = DNA

What makes a SL so dynamic?  Well, like any organism, it’s all in the DNA, or for SL, it’s in the Collection Development and Management Policy (CDMP).  The CDMP is the DNA of a SL and contains strategic data for growth in today’s splurge and is flexibliity in tomorrow’s freeze.  If the DNA of a SL is without clear direction and missing data, then its ability to thrive, or even survive is in jeopardy. Consequently, TL need to be aware of the duality of a CDMP that prepares the collection for today’s needs, and tomorrow’s growth.

Not faint hearted

A school CMDP exists primarily to address the curriculum, the teaching and learning needs of its community as well as provide well-being (IFLA, 2015; ASLA & VCTL, 2018).  Therefore, the policy needs to clearly reflect those needs when framing the purpose, selection principles, acquisition and censorship procedures. Along with other maintenance endeavours such as deselection and collection evaluation; all whilst staying within budget, bolstering literacy and well-being.  It is not a small task and definitely not for the faint hearted. But then TL are not faint hearted (Templeton, 2019a).

The development and management of a collection involves many facets.

Print or Digital?

  1. Understanding the information evolution and its implications on education and wider society is crucial.  TL need to be aware that previous resource acquisition has evolved now into information facilitation paradigm (Kelly, 2015). With publishers rapidly changing their delivery from print to digital formats (Templeton, 2019b), the repercussions on formats and licencing are momentous.
  2. Online Subscriptions – Cheaper? or Not?

  3. Being able to select resources using criteria to ensure the collection is balanced and addresses the needs of the community. (Templeton, 2019a)
  4. Knowledge of how resources may be packaged for cost efficiency, and evaluating that against the value of each of those titles is a challenging task (Templeton, 2019c; Templeton, 2019d.  (Module 2 – Online Access) (Module 2 – Bundling together)  
  5. Being able to manage collections thriftily is necessary when SL budgets are constantly squeezed (Softlink, 2018; Templeton, 2019e). 

    Shrinking Budgets


  6. Information literacy is an essential aspect of future focused learners (MCEETYA, 2008). The CDMP policy needs to make provision for information literacy to ensure that students have the skills to access and utilise the collection.  The inclusion of literacy programs only further strengthens a SL position within a school (Templeton, 2019l; Templeton, 2019f).  .  
  7. Awareness of censorship and its role in SL (Templeton, 2019g).

    Challenging the censors

  8. Linking budget to student population is an effective manner to secure funds that suit the growth/decline of the school community (IFLA, 2015, p.6) versus being dependent on yearly fixed sums.

Besides building a collection, a CDMP contains procedures that maintains its value and  its ability to service the needs of their community.  

  1. Measuring outputs and outcomes are useful in analysing the effectiveness and efficacy of a collection (Templeton, 2019h).
    1. Being able to link the collection value to qualitative and quantitative data validates the collection and program (Templeton, 2019i). A recent study by Sutton et al., (2017) show that altmetrics are useful in the evaluation of collections. Power (2019) suggests that both qualitative and quantitative methods are used.
    2. Linking educational outcomes to collections as evidence for continuing financial support for resources, especially digital subscriptions, is judicial.  Journal subscriptions are very expensive and a TL would need to prove value if there is insufficient evidence to indicate positive outcomes (Jubb et al., 2017). Journal databases, like many other electronic resources, may be economical up front, but often require long term subscription.

 Technology is rapidly changing and consequently now, the same information is available in multiple formats.  TL need to be aware of this paradigm when committing to subscription resources as it is more than just a commitment for the current cohort of students (Anderson, 2008).  It is a financial commitment for future generations.

A strong CDMP ensures that a library collection addresses the needs of their community, and the rewards are high resource outputs and user outcomes.  What TLs all over the world do not want are libraries with numerous books that are not utilised or under utilised. Tsundoku is the affliction of purchasing resources that no one uses (Templeton, 2019j).    

An unused collection is an ineffective collection.  It is very hard to justify a collection that has failed to prove their value their community.  It is even harder to justify the presence of TL with a collection that is not relevant.



Anderson, R. (2008). Future proofing the library; Strategies for acquisitions, cataloguing and collection development. The Serials Librarian. 55 (4). doi:10.1080/03615260802399908

ASLA & VCTL (2018). A manual for developing policies and procedures in Australian school library resources centres 2nd Edition.  ALIA. Retrieved from https://asla.org.au/resources/Documents/Website%20Documents/Policies/policies-procedures-manual_ed2.pdf

IFLA (2015). School library guidelines.  Retrieved from https://www.ifla.org/files/assets/school-libraries-resource-centers/publications/ifla-school-library-guidelines.pdf

Jantti, M., and Cox, B. (2013). Measuring the value of library resources and student academic performance through relational datasets. Evidence Based Library and Information Practice. 8 (2), 163-171. {Conference Paper}

Jubb, M., Rowlands, I., and Nicholas, D. (2013). Values of libraries: Relationships between provisions, usage, and research outcomes.  Evidence Based Library and Informative Practice. 8(2), 139-152 {Conference Paper}

Kelly, M. (2015). Collection development policies in public libraries in Australia: A qualitative content analysis. Public Library Quarterly. 34, 44-62

MCEETYA (2008) Melbourne Declaration on Educational Goals for Young Australians. Curriculum Corporation. Australia. Retrieved from http://www.curriculum.edu.au/verve/_resources/national_declaration_on_the_educational_goals_for_young_australians.pdf

Power, K (2019) Forum 5.1 – Methods of Collection Analysis. ETL503 Discussion Forum. CSU. Retrieved from https://interact2.csu.edu.au/webapps/discussionboard/do/message?action=list_messages&course_id=_42383_1&nav=discussion_board_entry&conf_id=_78886_1&forum_id=_147540_1&message_id=_2304873_1

Softlink (2018) Australia and New Zealand school library survey. Retrieved from https://www.softlinkint.com/downloads/2018_Softlink_Australian_and_New_Zealand_School_Library_Survey_Report.pdf

Sutton, S., Miles, R., and Konkiel, S., (2017) Is what’s “Trending” whats worth purchasing? Insights from a national study of collection development librarians. The Serials Librarian. Vol 72 (1-4) pp.134-143. DOI 10.1080/0361526X.2017.1297593

Templeton, T. (2019a) Benign or Malignant. Trish’s trek into bookspace. Retrieved from https://thinkspace.csu.edu.au/trish/2019/03/24/benign-or-malignant-how-do-you-diagnose/

Templeton, T. (2019b) Shatzins files – publishers to perish. Forum 1.1.  ETL 503 Discussion Forums. CSU. Retrieved from https://interact2.csu.edu.au/webapps/discussionboard/do/message?action=list_messages&course_id=_42383_1&nav=discussion_board_entry&conf_id=_78886_1&forum_id=_147529_1&message_id=_2152285_1

Templeton, T. (2019c) Online access. Forum 2.3.  ETL 503 Discussion Forums. CSU. Retrieved from https://interact2.csu.edu.au/webapps/discussionboard/do/message?action=list_messages&course_id=_42383_1&nav=discussion_board_entry&conf_id=_78886_1&forum_id=_147533_1&message_id=_2185290_1

Templeton, T. (2019d) Bundling resources. Forum 2.3.  ETL 503 Discussion Forums. CSU. Retrieved from https://interact2.csu.edu.au/webapps/discussionboard/do/message?action=list_messages&course_id=_42383_1&nav=discussion_board_entry&conf_id=_78886_1&forum_id=_147533_1&message_id=_2185169_1

Templeton, T. (2019e) Module 3 – Managing collections thriftily. Trish’s trek into bookspace. Retrieved from https://thinkspace.csu.edu.au/trish/2019/04/20/managing-collections-thriftily/

Templeton, T. (2019f) Module 5.3a– Information literacy. Trish’s trek into bookspace. Retrieved from https://thinkspace.csu.edu.au/trish/2019/05/21/module-5-3a-information-literacy/

Templeton, T. (2019g) Modules 2 & 6 0 13 reasons why – censorship and selection. Trish’s trek into bookspace. Retrieved from https://thinkspace.csu.edu.au/trish/2019/03/12/13-reasons-why-censorship-and-selection/

Templeton, T. (2019h) Forum 3.1.  ETL 503 Discussion Forums. CSU. Retrieved from https://interact2.csu.edu.au/webapps/discussionboard/do/message?action=list_messages&course_id=_42383_1&nav=discussion_board_entry&conf_id=_78886_1&forum_id=_147536_1&message_id=_2249448_1

Templeton, T. (2019i) Module 5.1 – Evaluating the collection.- Keeping it real. Trish’s trek into bookspace. Retrieved from https://thinkspace.csu.edu.au/trish/2019/04/29/evaluating-the-collection-keeping-it-real/

Templeton, T. (2019j) Module 1 – Library collections. Trish’s trek into bookspace. Retrieved from https://thinkspace.csu.edu.au/trish/2019/03/11/library-collections/

Templeton, T. (2019k) Module 1 – Curriculum + information + access = Superhero. Trish’s trek into bookspace. Retrieved from https://thinkspace.csu.edu.au/trish/2019/03/13/curriculum-information-access-superhero/

Templeton, T. (2019l) Reluctant readers – would fact be better than fiction? Trish’s trek into bookspace. Retrieved from https://thinkspace.csu.edu.au/trish/2019/03/11/reluctant-readers-would-facts-be-better-than-fiction/


‘NATIONAL SORRY DAY’ – Annotated bibliography






Appropriate for students in

Mainly STAGE 4 & some STAGE 5

Appropriate for History, English, Drama, Visual Art, RE and Mathematics subject areas.

Appropriate for students who identify as Indigenous people across Stages 4 & 5.  


Citation 1 Various Authors (2011) Yarning strong guided reading series. Oxford University Press, Australia.



Mixed formats print/audio/images.  

Copyrighted for person and educational use but not for distribution.


Description This is a set of novels, graphic novels, anthologies and a teacher kit that covers issues such as identity, family, law and country.  The anthologies include poems, images as well as a teaching kit.
SC 1A 1B 1C 2A 2B 3A 3C 4A 4D
SA Booktopia


Recreational reading     TR Std 2.4 OI – 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

The box set is aimed at Indigenous students as they would identify with the storylines and characters and thus be more likely to engage with it.  The language is colloquial and could be considered a Hi-Lo series for older readers. Since many Indigenous teens have lower literacy than their non Indigenous peers, it is important to have books that cater to their ability and interest (AIHW, 2017)

The resources allows for development of a subtle and covert knowledge and understanding of indigenous peoples.  Authenticity and perspective has been maintained as all stories have been compiled by Indigenous authors and anthologies led by tribal elders.


Citation 2 Pascoe, B., (2018) Little Red Yellow Black Book. 4th Edition. Aboriginal Studies Press. Australia
Format /Licensing Book = owned and with copyright attached.
Description This book has been written from an Indigenous perspective and thus assists with encouraging appreciation and reconciliation between both non Indigenous and Indigenous Australians.  It makes strong connections to the concept of Country and culture. The stories within, cover a range of socio-political issues and this edition also will challenge stereotypes and educate the reader as to the contributions made by ATSI peoples in past and present times.
SC 1a, 1b, 1c, 2a, 2c, 3a, 3b, 4a,
SA Better Reading blog
Evaluation and use TR and/or RECREATIONAL reading   TS: 1.4 & 2.4

OI: 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9

This book is excellent at initiating educators to Indigenous culture and histories especially those who have had limited exposure to Australian and Indigenous culture such as overseas born staff and students. There is an accompanying website listed in the book with additional materials. It is aimed at adults as a teaching resource, but can be read recreationally by both staff and senior students.


Citation 3 Manning, N., (1994) Close to the bone. Currency press. Australia
Format/licencing Class set currently in collection. No production permissions purchased.
Description This play is about the forced removal of a young Aboriginal child from her family and the reawakening of her Indigenous identity twenty years later.  An excellent story about the importance of identity and kinship ties.
SC 1b, 2a, 2b, 2c, 3a, 3b, 4a,
SA Part of current collection
Evaluation and use Stage 4 – Drama – (ACADRR046); English –  (ACELT1806) (ACELT1806) (ACELT1806)

Stage 5 – Drama – (ACADRR053); English – (ACELT1772) (ACELT1636)


OI: 2, 5, 8

This play, whilst dated, can be used as a culmination for National Sorry Day or similar units of work. The themes may be distressing for younger students, so class discussion is essential.  The play uses common language that resonates with the reader. It can be analysed from an Australian perspective and it can be performed to a groups as informative drama or as a dramatic reading. Good for kinesthetic learners.


Citation 4 ABC Education (2018) National Sorry Day. Retrieved from http://education.abc.net.au/home#!/digibook/618742/national-sorry-day
Format/ licencing Digibook – chapters and videos

Downloading/editing/embedding with citation permitted

Description This eBook is embedded with videos showcasing interviews with various stakeholders detailing the political and social events that eventuated at the Rudd Apology in 2008 and the ongoing process of Reconciliation.
SC 1a, 1b, 1c, 2a, 2b, 3a, 3b, 4b,
SA Scootle – TLF-IDM019082
Evaluation and use Stage 5 History – ACHMH072 and (ACDSEH106)

And. (ACDSEH023) (ACDSEH104)  (ACDSEH134) (ACDSEH149)

OI: 2, 4, 5, 6,7,8,9

This resource is heavy in learning outcomes, capabilities and ATSI CPP.  The multimodality will support teaching and learning in discrete lessons and as part of NAIDOC week and National Sorry Day.  

The resources are appropriate for a school setting and are of mixed literacy ability and an inclusive school.    The main downside of this digi-book is that it does not belong to the school and there is no guarantee of its continuance.


Citation 5 AHRC (1997) Bringing them home report. Retrieved from https://www.humanrights.gov.au/sites/default/files/content/pdf/social_justice/bringing_them_home_report.pdf
Format/Licencing Digital PDF – CC 4.0 International.
Description This report offers insight to the scant schooling, systemic abuse and trauma that affected several generations of Aboriginals, and offers understanding to the current gap in education and health outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people.  There are very confronting stories of physical and sexual abuse within. It also elucidates the loss of culture, tradition and language.
SC 1a, 1c, 2a, 2b, 2c, 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b
SA Reconciliation Australia
Evaluation and use Stage 5 – History – (ACHMH072) (ACHASSK013)


OI: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

This report has a narrow use in a school setting. It is NOT to be disseminated to the students but rather excerpts used in specific teaching and learning practices.  Teacher discretion required. For example, to provide ‘voices’ for a yarning circle as a classroom exercise which would highlight the importance of oral traditions for Indigenous peoples and thus in turn, the significance of mother tongue.  Or as stimulus for class discussion and debating targeting CCP and CCT.


Citation 6 Behind the news (2018) 10th Anniversary of Stolen Generation Apology – 13/02/2018. ABC ME. Retrieved from https://online.clickview.com.au/exchange/videos/6054563/10th-anniversary-of-stolen-generation-apology-13-02-2018
Format/ Licencing Interactive Video. Licence permits sharing and embedding.
Description This short video is an excellent introduction to the CCP and is accompanied by a worksheet that can be done individually or in collaborative groups.
SC 1a, 1c, 2a, 2b, 3a, 3b, 4a.
SA Clickview
Evaluation and use Stage 5 – History –  (ACDSEH020)

As this video is short it can easily be used to introduce this topic to elicit discussion.  The video is aimed at upper primary, and its interactive aspect has low level Bloom’s questioning so can be used as an activity for students with learning needs.  The theme of reconciliation would be useful in an RE context too.






Citation 7 Screen Australia (N.D) Australian History Timeline.  Retrieved from http://www.aushistorytimeline.com/
Format/licencing Interactive website. Can be used but not amended.  
Description This interactive graph gives snapshots of information of Australian history major events such as the Mabo decision and the Apology.  It is easy to use, multi user ability and has good graphics.
SC 1a, 1c, 2a, 2b, 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b.
SA Scootle TLF ID M012862
Evaluation and use Stage 4 & 5 History



OI: 1,6,9

This website is strong on digital literacy due to the depth and layers present.  The embedding of videos, images and hyperlinks work seamlessly to inform the view of events significant to Indigenous and non-Indigenous history.  This tool would be great to use across the History KLA but also for the ATSI CCP in identifying key dates. Additionally, data can be searched for by date, event and decade. Whilst the language used is stage appropriate, digitally illiterate students will need guidance due to the multi-layering of information.  




Citation 8
Format Interactive video
Description This movie is about three girls, removed from their family in WA based on legislative assimilative policy and sent to a mission to train as domestic workers, from which they escaped and followed the infamous fence home.
SC 1a, 1c, 2a, 2b, 2c, 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b,
SA Clickview
Evaluation and use Stage 5 – History  (ACHMH072) (ACDSEH106) (ACDSEH104)  (ACDSEH143)

Stage 4 – English  (ACELA1541) (ACELT1619)  (ACELT1806)


OI: 2, 5, 6, 8, 9

This interactive movie is rated for 13+ and whilst appropriate for Stage 4 students, it can be used in both History as a social viewpoint or in English (without interactive) from a technical language perspective. The video, with embedded questions would be a great choice for homework and the resulting critical and analytical collaborative discussion held in class.  The book is also in the collection already.


Citation 9 ABS (2018) Estimates of Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islander Australians. Retrieved from  https://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Latestproducts/3238.0.55.001Main%20Features1June%202016?opendocument&tabname=Summary&prodno=3238.0.55.001&issue=June%202016&num=&view=
Format Interactive website/  Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
Description This summary commentary summarises the ATSI statistics for Australia on population, population growth, age structure, state and region prevalence as well as additional documents about birth and death rates.  As this resource is free, the narrowness of its applicability is accepted.
SC 1a, 1b, 1c, 2a, 2b 2c, 3a, 3b, 4b.
SA Mathematics HOD suggestion
Evaluation and use Stage 4 – Mathematics –  (ACMSP169)  (ACMSP171)  (ACMSP172) (ACMSP284)

Stage 4- Geography –  (ACHGS048)  (ACHGS051)  (ACHGS052)

Stage 5 – Mathematics – (ACMSP227)  (ACMSP283) (ACMSP253)

GC: Numeracy, CCT, ICT.  OI: 1, 6,

This document and accompanying materials are ideal for statistical analysis activities.    The students could analyse the raw data and account for variances as well as question the disparity.  The resource would also supplement HASS/Geography as it would provide evidence for discussion/analysis.  

Stage 4 will need scaffolding which licencing permits, whereas Stage 5 could criticise and evaluate the raw data.  It would also provide good material for test papers or as an extension supplement for advanced students in all KLAs.  Bloom’s Taxonomy of Questioning can be used in its varying formats with this resource.

An example would be the age structure breakdown analysis –

Indigenous lifespan graph has no bell curve graphically – Identify reasons why and justify with evidence.


Citation 10 Songlines – Tracking the Seven Sisters Exhibit. (2018). Canberra: National Museum of Australia.
Format Touring exhibition by the NMA
Description This is an excursion/incursion which will lead attendees on a journey through the Dreaming stories via art, multimedia and integrated displays.  
SC 1a, 1b, 1c, 2a, 2c, 3a, 4a, 4b.
SA Teacher referral
Evaluation and use Stage 5 – Science  (ACSSU188)

Stage 4 Arts – Visual art ACAVAM125 ACAVAR131

Stage 4 – RE – World religions

Stage 4 – English ACELA1552

GC – Literacy, CCT, PSC, ICU.  OI 1,2,3,4, 5, 7, 8, ,9

The exhibit will be exemplify the importance of Country, kinship and oral traditions to attendees and thus the ramification of the stolen generation had on communities then and now.   It will challenge both students and teachers in their perceptions of the ancient culture. The oral traditions during the exhibit use powerful imagery and evocative language to complement the paintings and thus force the viewer to engage deeply with the subject matter.   

Educators can use this multidisciplinary exhibit as stimulus, a unit of work itself or culmination for a unit of work.  The supporting text resource will provide background to the exhibit and guide the educator in understanding the imagery present within the artefacts.   Whilst this excursion is expensive, the multidisciplinary nature and CCP coverage makes it valuable.


Module 3.1 – Outcomes vs Outputs


Budgetary concerns plague most libraries.  Nearly two thirds of school libraries are funded inadequately and teacher librarians are often forced to decide between resources as to their value to the collection and the community (Softlink, 2017).  With monies being so tightly constrained, resources, especially expensive digital resources need to prove their value to school in order to retain their subscriptions. Teacher librarians can use a variety of indicators to illustrate the value of their collection and output measures are frequently used to determine the value of a resource and service.  

Matthews (2015) defines output measures as the “degree to which a library’s resources and services are being utilised… the more the resources and services are being used the better” (p.211).  Borrowing rates, subscription rates, database statistics are all measurements of how often a resource and service is borrowed and or utilised. An under-used resource is not achieving its highest potential and thus other services should be prioritised instead of it.  Whilst easily quantifiable, these statistics point out how frequently a resource and service is accessed. It does not highlight though if the information in the resource was used and converted into knowledge. It also does not highlight if the resource had a positive affect. A great example of resources that have low rates but high affect would be print magazines.  At my school library we have a print subscription to a few magazines that we send to the teachers lounge, once they are no longer required in the library. These magazines, according to the data, are never loaned before they are moved on, but the positive affect they have in the staff lounge is immense. We rarely find those magazines in their entirety. Quite often there will be recipes and or idea pages snipped out of them.  They then migrate to the art room where they end up as collage material for students. The output data would say that these magazines have little value to the school community but the truth is very different.

Matthews (2015) points out that outcome measures are more significant and should have a higher value as they indicate how the user’s life was changed as a result of the resource and or service.  The value lies in that the focus is the user/customer and not the resource itself. Outcomes include attitudes, values, inspiration, knowledge, understanding as well as enjoyment and creativity. Some long term outcomes are difficult to measure and categorise as they often happen years after the student has graduated.  An example of short term outcome measurement are assessments that evaluate a user’s knowledge and skills. Whereas a long term outcome measurement could be a person’s social status, lifestyle and income. Both examples show how the measurements are transient from learning to a social and economic change. In other words, outcomes are placed on a continuum and whilst harder to measure, have a greater value in their result.  

Matthews, J., (2015) Assessing outcomes and value: it’s all a matter of perspective.  Performance Measurement and Metrics, Vol. 16 Issue: 3, pp.211-233, https://doi.org/10.1108/ PMM-10-2015-0034 Permanent link to this

Softlink. (2017). 2017 Australian and New Zealand school library survey. Retrieved from https://www.softlinkint.com/downloads/2017_Softlink_Australian_and_New_Zealand_School_Library_Survey_Report.pdf

Module 2.3 – Bundled together

stevepb / Pixabay


Bundling is a marketing concept where complementary goods and or services are collated and marketed at a sale price that seemingly appears to be lower than the collective price of the individual prices (businessdirectory.com). For libraries, bundling seems to proliferate among the educational sector as a system of obtaining a range of resources (either print or online) to booster up the collection of the library (som.yale.edu).  For a regular fee, retailers or providers, provide a range of resources that would appeal to a majority for a ‘reduced’ cost. In theory, bundling can be cost effective as the prices are lower due to the group discount and there usually is a range of sources. In reality there are a host of possible problems that can affect the quality and breadth of a library collection.

 As a high school library servicing students from years 7-12 we have access to databases to ensure our students are able tor research.  Like many other colleges and universities around the world, we have subscribed to a ‘BIG DEAL’ journal package. Machovec (2014) surmises that the advent of the internet and movement of journals from print to digital has lead publishers to creating “packages either in subject collections or as complete sets”.  To put it bluntly, its a ‘one size fits all’ that has a fixed fee and the lure that one can easily forecast into future budgets with its often temporary price-cap time period (Frazier 2001). Carson and Pope (2009) point out that licencing thus pricing is a major issue as should a library decide against a subscription or part of a subscription, it could lead to complete lack of access to both “previously subscribed or future content” (Carson & Pope, 2009).  This can have ramifications as libraries will be unable to provide the much needed access that is required by Freedom of Information Act 1982 (OIAC, n.d.).

 The other issue with online journal bundling is that often essential or important journals are aligned with weaker and irrelevant titles and the library is unable to disentangle and separate the wheat from the chaff.  The follow on from this ‘equality’ among journals is that lower quality ones continue to thrive as their sales targets are being met. Additionally, the seemingly successful low quality journal continues to thrive and newer, more astute publications often struggle to compete with them as they are not affordable once the libraries pay out their fee for a Big Deal package.  Market control much? Libraries and librarians are unable to supply their local community with materials that are relevant to them. (Machovec, 2014)

 With print books ie from Lamont books or Australian standing orders, books are preselected by the retailer and then sent to the schools for their perusal.  In our school, we have Standing orders and Lamont sends over books intermittently for our perusal. What we have noticed is that all the books sent over are rarely read by our student population.  Granted that there would be a few books that appeal to the demographics at our school but the majority just move to the shelves and become attractive dust catchers for the rest of their life till Marie Kondo appears.  We have also noticed that controversial books and challenging books are not always in the order and we often have to go and order them separately from booktopia.com.au or bookdepository.com to add balance. This why bundling of library resources does not always work as the only source of material for a collection.

 As a school library, we are mandated by ALIA’s tenants that our collection suits our students and staff.  Breeding (2019) points out that library staff “should be able to evaluate and acquire preferred products in each category and not be locked into a bundle”. We know what our students want and need, it feels that our collection should be based upon the ‘wants and needs’ of our community.  It appears that bundling, whilst a cheaper option up front, may not be necessarily the best.


Business.dictionary.com (N.D) Bundling. Retrieved from http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/bundling.html

ALIA (2016) Guidelines, standards and outcome measures for Australian public libraries. Retrieved from https://read.alia.org.au/sites/default/files/documents/guidelines_standards_and_outcome_measures_for_australian_public_libraries.pdf

Breeding, M., (2019). Discovery Services. American Libraries. Jan/Feb2019, 50 (1/2), p71. Retrieved from http://web.b.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.csu.edu.au/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=8&sid=dc4a076e-7901-44ba-aceb-c3fe854d74bd%40pdc-v-sessmgr05

Frazier, K. (2001). The librarians’ dilemma: Contemplating the costs of the ‘big deal’. D-Lib magazine, 7(3), 1–9. doi: 10.1300/J123v48n01_06

Machove. G., (2014) Consortial and the future of the big deal journal packages. Journal of Library Administration. Oct2014, 54 (7), p629-636. DOI: 10.1080/01930826.2014.96403.

OIAC (N.D) Freedom of Information Act 1982.  Retrieved from https://www.oaic.gov.au/freedom-of-information/rights-and-responsibilities

Module 2 – online access

geralt / Pixabay


Owned resources belong to the library.  Positives include that bar accidental mishap, the library will always have access to the resource.  It can be borrowed multiple times, though often not by multiple users. The cost is usually upfront and no further money is required to maintain access to it. Unfortunately, the resources also becomes outdated from the moment of publication.  Obviously for fiction and some aspects of non-fiction this is not too much of a dilemma but for cutting edge non fiction such as nanotechnology, science, engineering and law as well as journal articles, access to new information is important.

Content via online access has its benefits through universal access, multiformat capability and presence of new material.  The challenges it presents though, can be quite critical for libraries. Tillack (2014) says that “libraries have transformed from owners to renters of increasingly larger and larger proportions of their collections”.  The summary of this, is that the budget previously kept for the acquisition of resources is now allocated to their rental. But it is not a lifetime rental. Most licences do not confirm indefinite access to materials for indefinite periods of time and this means that access to these materials can be easily cut off or priced out of most library budgets.  It is obvious to me that online access benefits the publisher and retailer more than the consumer.

The presence of online access to resources is a major budgetary concern to most libraries.  By committing to the cost of online journals or eBooks via Wheelers, the library is not only proportioning money this year BUT every year.  With budgets constantly under pressure from school boards and department authorities, is it wise to commit a large chunk of funds to a resource that you have not guarantee to?

Tillack, T., (2014) Pressures, opportunities and costs facing research library acquisitions budgets: an Australian perspective. The Australian Law Journal. 63 (3) p206-219 .  DOI: 10.1080/00049670.2014.915498.

Module 1 – Publishers to Perish!

rawpixel / Pixabay


The lure of a bookstore is a siren call to many including myself.  Shelves filled with stories and adventures beckoning you forward with teasing front covers and titles.  Brightly coloured displays featuring best sellers line the walls to show the world what is popular and what is not. They beguile and tempt readers both adult and child. 

Today bookstores are shrinking.  Both in quantity of stores and in the quantity of products on the shelves.  The advent of Amazon and its incestuous relationship with Google, Facebook and Apple have forever changed the way readers pick up a book.  Gone are the days of browsing shelves to discover new authors and titles as Shatzkin (2016) points out. Instead the modern citizen tends to use social media ie Facebook, search engines ie Google and online merchandising as reference points.  Compared to previous times where book reviewers, book store buyers and collection developers were the ones that promoted books to the public (Shatzkin, 2016).

 The advent of ebooks and audio books (text to hear) have also had their impact on the bookstore.  The vicious cycle of purchases online only leads to lower sales in bookstores and then the inevitable reduction of shelf space and then the buyer heads online to find their elusive title.  With reduced shelf space Shatzkin (2013) points out that publishes lose out on the ability to market to their readers. The death noll is tolling for many publishing houses across the world as its more efficient for authors to self publish and market their own books than wade through publishing house red tape (Shatzkin 2013).

But what does this change mean?  To put it bluntly, the evidence is pointing to a grim future for the humble book.  Amazon currently has over half the sales of books whether they be online or physical as Esposito (2014) points out.  This is only going to get larger with the steady increase in ebook sales. Such a monopoly on an industry is ominous.  With their strength, one could predict Amazon placing pressure on publishers to print books that they deem ‘viable’. Smaller publishing houses will struggle to ‘muscle’ their way into this industry as the margins are ever shrinking (Shatzkin 2013). Combined with the aforementioned entangled relationship between Amazon, Google, Facebook and Apple, the publishing market is being strangled slowly.

 The undertone of this monopoly is evident.  Since the profit margins from ebooks is significantly higher than print editions, Amazon can in actuality force the consumer from physical to electronic resources.  This has wider implications on readers, both recreational and academic. This isn’t just “the death of a bookstore, but the slow succumbing death of the book itself” (College.Candy.com 2011)

 The Shatzkin files paint a dismal picture for the local school library.  The demise of publishing houses will only lead to a few print copies that are unsuitable for ebooks. Libraries, should they still exist, will now be hosting a larger ebook collection compared to print copies. This change in resources means that more effort must be made to equip students with digital literacy in order to engage with suitable material.  Reading digitally or using audiobooks requires more from the reader to be vigilant from distractions and lacks the sensory satisfaction a book can give (Copyright Agency, 2017 and Schaub 2016).




 CollegeCandy.com (2011) The death of the book store. HuffingtonPost  Retrieved from ://www.huffingtonpost.com/college-candy/the-death-of-the-bookstor_b_809104.html

Copyright Agency. (2017, February 28). Most teens prefer print books [Blog post]. Retrieved from https://www.copyright.com.au/2017/02/teens-prefer-print-books/

Esposito, J., (2014) Who can rival Amazon https://scholarlykitchen.sspnet.org/2014/01/22/who-can-rival-amazon/

Schaub, M. (2016). 92% of college students prefer print books to e-books, study finds. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from http://www.latimes.com/books/jacketcopy/la-et-jc-92-percent-college-students-prefer-paper-over-pixels-20160208-story.html

Shatzkin, M., (2013) An innocent story with dramatic implications. The Shatzkin Files.  Retrieved from https://www.idealog.com/blog/an-innocent-story-with-dramatic-implications/

Shatzkin, M., (2013) An innocent story with dramatic implications. The Shatzkin Files.  Retrieved from https://www.idealog.com/blog/losing-bookstores-is-a-much-bigger-problem-for-publishers-than-it-is-for-readers/

Shatzkin, M. (2016).  Book publishing lives in an environment shaped by larger forces and always has. The Shatzkin Files. Retrieved from http://www.idealog.com/blog/book-publishing-lives-in-an-environment-shaped-by-larger-forces-and-always-has

Shatzkin, M. (2018) Words-to-be-read are losing ground to words-to-be-heard.  The Shatzkin Files. Retrieved from https://www.idealog.com/blog/words-to-be-read-are-losing-ground-to-words-to-be-heard-a-new-stage-of-digital-content-evolution

Module 3 – Managing collections thriftily

Gellinger / Pixabay

Our school library has nearly 100 000 print texts on its shelves.  Unfortunately, even though our library is well stocked, it is underused by our school community.  Resources were acquired based upon the presumption that was what the students and teachers wanted.  Instead the books, databases and audiobooks have languished on shelves and data servers, completely under-utilised.   I have previously mentioned this phenomenon of Tsunkudo. So whilst I am not going to rehash the other post, I will focus this blog post on budget aspect of managing a collection.  SMLS (n.d.) lists three roles a TL must consider when they are managing a budget for resourcing; a collaborator, a steward and a thinker. This blog post will elaborate further on these roles and how it relates to collection development.  

When a teacher librarian is being a collaborator with resourcing, they start with the community they are resourcing for.  Our school is currently suffering from Tsundoku so in an effort to change this we are collaborating with the staff and students to access and source resources that will ‘spark joy’.  The first section we addressed was the Religious Education collection. As a Catholic high school in the MSC tradition, Religious Education is mandatory till year 10 and then most senior students continue to study the subject till year 12 in varied formats.  Therefore it is an essential part of the collection. Unfortunately most of the current range of print books are outdated and unappealing for the student body. In an attempt to alleviate this lethargy for library services, we organised several brochures and sample book packs delivered to the school.  One of our team members organised the RE departmental meeting to view these samples so that orders could be made.  The HOD of RE and the Library managed to thrash out an agreement where the funds would be shared between both departments but the books would reside in the library to ensure equity of access.  As our school is affiliated with the MSC order, we managed to secure some funding from them to access newer editions of Jules Chevalier biographies and other MSC materials.  This additional funding was ample enough to cover the purchase of a two print biographies as well as one in an audiobook for our differentiated learners. Ideally, one print copy would stay as teacher resource for new staff that may need an understanding of the MSC ethos and the other would be in the general collection. This collaboration has allowed us to purchase a greater range of resources and fulfill the needs of our community.

A teacher librarian in a stewardship role is responsible for the management of the library (Cambridge dictionary, n.d.).  As such, they are responsible in ensuring the value of the collection is maintained whilst responding to the needs of their community.  In this role, a TL uses a variety of methods in which to select resources for the collection. They can range from book lists such as Magpies, teacher recommendations, popular best seller lists as well as SCIS, Scootle and other educational blogs.  Acquisitions of resources are naturally dependent on the parameters of the selection policy. An astute TL will be able to identify resources using the policy and add them to the collection.  

Lastly, the teacher librarian needs to adopt the role of a thinker in managing the collection.  Some schools allow for dialogue between the principal and TL about the budget allocation for the year.  Other principals just delegate funds and leave its dispensation to the discretion of the TL. Either way, the TL has to manage the collection in whatever funds are available.  A clever TL is aware of the curriculum and is aware of the teaching practices across the school. This knowledge of curriculum and student learning, when combined with an ability to engage with multiple staff members, maximises the scope of funds available.  In our school, the Dance teacher and the Food Technology teacher were both doing units of work on multicultural practices in Year 8. So my HOD organised sample book packs to be delivered for both teachers to peruse.  The result was that both teachers have combined their funds to obtain a series of books about nations and their cultural practices. This combination of departmental monies has enabled us to address the needs of two departments, increased value to our collection, and all without us having to spend our budget allocation.  My HOD was rather pleased with herself at this point.


Cambridge Dictionary (n.d.) Defintion: Steward. Retrieved from https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/steward

Piemmons, A., (2010) Student Voice, Student Choice: Students as part of the budgeting process.  Georgia Library Media Association. Retrieved from https://glma.wordpress.com/2010/03/25/student-voice-student-choice-students-as-part-of-the-budgeting-process/

School Library Media Specialist (n.d.) Program Administrator: Budget management. Retrieved from http://eduscapes.com/sms/administration/budget.html

Benign or Malignant?  How do you diagnose? – Module 2


Scientist diagnose cancerous cells using a set of predetermined criteria.  As a practicing cytologist for over a decade, I used certain characteristics to determine if a cell was benign or malignant.

Tim Ereneta -with permission by Flickr

Parameters such as presence of a nucleolus and or mitotic figures, nucleus to cell ratio, cytoplasm pigmentation and or irregular arrangement were the most common identifying characteristics of a tumour cell.  If these markers were detected within a cell or among similar cells in a sample, then a report written up and a diagnosis made.

Now as a teacher librarian, I use predetermined criteria to determine which resources to add to the collection.  These predetermined criteria are listed in the collection development policy so I do not have to come up with them, but rather I have to apply them to the books, magazines, ebooks and multimedia that flow into our information centre.

Selection in the school, are professional concepts that guide T/Ls to what resources are appropriate to the school collection that meet the teaching and learning needs of the school community.  Unlike public libraries, school libraries have to also meet curriculum demands. To put it bluntly, in a school context, the needs and requirements of a school community are the driving force for resource selection.  

So whilst I was contemplating this fact, I then thought about what selection criteria I would create.  Whilst I agree with Hughes-Hassell & Mancall (2005) with the criteria present in their diagram, I disagree with the idea of a flow chart, as not every resource will follow all steps and thus even great resources could be excluded.  This is especially true for high school libraries where often specialist information may be required for niche teaching and learning contexts.

The criteria I came upon was loosely based to the criteria in Hughes-Hassell & Mancall (2005) flow chart but I had four general categories with sub sections.  Resources do not have to match all the specific criteria, but must fulfill the major ones of teaching and learning needs; curriculum needs; school requirements and school ethos.  This system will give more flexibility to the TL in creating a school collection that is balanced yet addressing the needs of the community.

Cassia Beck – Used with permission from Flickr

Selection Criteria – My way.

  1.      Teaching and learning needs
    1. Resources are of high quality and appropriate. Have authority, accuracy, validity and currency.
    2. Meets scope of learning needs and styles – including recreational reading
    3. Integrates digital technologies ie multimodal resources in print, media, audio and ebooks that enrich T&L
  2.     Curriculum needs
    1. Provides information about curriculum content
    2. Addresses other curriculum requirements ie cross curricular priorities, capabilities and learning outcomes.
    3. Challenges thinking about past, current and future global issues.
  3.      School needs
    1. Supported by current IT network and library management system
    2. Cost efficient
  4.       Consistent with the values of the school
    1. Consistent with the values of  love, compassion and respect.
    2. Acknowledge diversity of religion, ethnicity and languages. 

I included a subsection on challenging thinking on past, present and future global issues’, because of the framework decided by the MCEETYA (2008) .  The policy desires that “All young Australians (are to) become successful learners, confident and creative individuals (and) active and informed citizens”.  It is a personal belief, but in order for students to become the active and informed citizens that our society needs, they need to be able to critically analyse and evaluate the maelstrom of information that besiege them constantly.  They need to be able to seek and use information critically and ethically.

Maybe we should be structuring our selection criteria based on what we want our learners to be.  Active, engaged citizens who are able to seek and use information as well as think critically and logically,  and who are able to make informed opinions. I wonder how that selection criteria will look

Hughes-Hassell, S., & Mancall, J. C. (2005). Collection management for youth : Responding to the needs of learners. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral.proquest.com

MCEETYA (2008) Melbourne Declaration on Educational Goals for Young Australians. Curriculum Corporation. Australia. Retrieved from http://www.curriculum.edu.au/verve/_resources/national_declaration_on_the_educational_goals_for_young_australians.pdf



Reluctant Readers – Would facts be better than fiction?

Reluctant readers.  I didnt even realise this was a phrase.  As an avid reader myself, and from a family of bibliophiles, the concept of people who choose not to read was astounding.  Teaching and the education profession is my second career.  I spent many years as a practicing scientist and reading both professionally and for recreation was common.  We had many water cooler conversations about recent academic publications along with Oprah’s uncanny knack of turning an average book into a best seller.  So my foray into the world of reluctant readers has been recent and startling.


Reluctant readers as people that “may struggle with reading, not show any interest in reading or simply refuse to read independently” (learningpotential.gov.au). These students in a classroom tasked with silent reading either pretend to read to avoid censure, get easily distracted or flat out refuse to read citing boredom, disinterest or illiteracy (www.k12reader.com).  Some children and young teens chose negative behaviour even if it leads to disciplinary actions just to avoid reading a book.  Such machinations are just a student’s way to avoid doing something they don’t like. When questioned, most of these readers describe reading as a chore and that there is nothing that interests them.    

My school has just implemented a silent reading program for the year 7 and 8 students to improve literacy levels and promote reading for recreational purposes.  The program is still in its infancy and we have noticed that out of the 470 students within these two year levels the majority of the students are complying. We do however, have about 50 students who have on multiple occasions been noted for failing to bring a book to class as well as others being identified as ‘fake reading’.  Fake reading, as I have casually defined it, is pretending to read to avoid censure by having a book in front of them but not actually looking at it. Stereotypically, a vast majority of our reluctant readers are boy as many of them are disinterested in books as they view them as ‘unrealistic’ and ‘unnecessary’ as well as ‘unconnected’ to the real world (www.k12reader.com).  

To combat this trend of disinterest, my fellow TLs and I have been searching our collection for various resources to help them find that connection to a book.  The strategies we have implemented to combat the various hurdles are the following:

Short attention span: these kids are not likely to wish to read big compendiums so we have sourced shorter books that are usually completed in 10-15minutes.  This means that students are more likely to read another book as they feel they have accomplished something in a short amount of time. The Libraries of Doom series have been excellent for this.

Low literacy: our school is an inclusive school and we have a wide range of literacy levels.  Many of our reluctant readers have low literacy and are unable to read the plethora of young adult fiction we have.  But they are also loathe to read the simpler books as they feel they are ‘not cool’ enough and self esteem is important during those teenage years.  Hi-lo books have been useful in this setting.  These books purchased jointly with our Inclusive education team have helped with implementation of our reading program.  Hi-Lo books are intriguing to the students because their topics resonate with our students but the language used is at an appropriate level.  They have been particularly popular with our male cohort of reluctant readers. We also have subscribed to Wheelers elibrary for those that have vision disabilities.  These students can elect books with larger print and or use the audiobook function to participate with the reading program.  In most circumstances we can also provide the print copy to help them follow the words.

Disinterested readers:  these are are most challenging students.  They usually rank highly on their literacy results for NAPLAN but show complete disinterest in reading recreationally as they do not find a purpose for it. Fiction books just hold no interest to them. Harper (2016) very truthfully points out “that fiction isn’t for everyone. Some readers just don’t connect with made up characters and imagined scenarios”.  It was surprising though the unwillingness of the English department to support the reading of non fiction texts in the silent reading program. Granted that non fiction is not literature and will not placate the soul, but non fiction texts do lead to life long passions and career choices (National library of NZ 2014).

The addition of non fiction texts and audiobooks have assisted with most of our disinterested reluctant readers.  Whilst their enthusiasm to read is still low, they are slowly coming around to the idea. The recent purchases of print texts on Formula 1 racing and sporting biographies have helped engage some of them.  Others are still fighting the concept but perseverance from my fellow colleagues is making headway. We discovered with a small cohort of year 8 boys that non fiction was just not ‘cutting it’ and a suggestion from their technology teacher about sourcing dirt bike magazines has been a boon.  These magazines with their glossy pictures and simple language style have had some appeal. Whilst we are unable to currently procure an online subscription to this series, we have a print copy on order. These six young men come to the library each time for silent reading and get a current or back issue and read on the very comfy beanbags in our reading area.  It seems obvious that choice matters for recreational reading.  Its only been a week and there have been hiccups but the future is suddenly full of hope

Sharrock (2009)


Australian Government – DET (2018) Reluctant readers, how to help. Learning Potential. Retrieved from https://www.learningpotential.gov.au/reluctant-readers-how-to-help

Harper, H. (2016) Books for reluctant readers. [Blog post] Readings. Retrieved from https://www.readings.com.au/news/books-for-reluctant-readers

K12 reader(2018) Strategies to help engage reluctant readers in reading. Retrieved from https://www.k12reader.com/strategies-to-help-engage-reluctant-readers-in-reading/

National Library of NZ. (2014). Non-fiction. National Library of New Zealand Services to Schools. Retrieved from https://web.archive.org/web/20160729150727/http://schools.natlib.govt.nz/creating-readers/genres-and-read-alouds/non-fiction

Mosle, S. (2012, November 22). What should children read? [Blog post]. Opinionator: The New York Times. Retrieved from https://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/11/22/what-should-children-read/?_r=0

Sharrock, J (2009) Interview with Dave Eggers. Mother Jones Magazine. Retrieved from https://www.motherjones.com/media/2009/03/mojo-interview-dave-eggers/


Module 1 – Library Collections

I discovered a new word today. Tsundoku, according to Macmilland Dictionary (2017) is the habit of purchasing and piling up books that never get read.  This seems rather wasteful when most libraries are suffering major budgetary concerns to waste precious funds on resources that are rarely used. Unfortunately in many school libraries the two biggest curriculum resourcing issues are that staff and students under utilise the resources followed quickly by funding pressures  (SCIS 2014).

I know at my school, we have an impressive 100 000 print copies of books plus additional eResources such as Wheelers ebooks, online databases, newspaper subscriptions and access to Clickview for interactive videos.  It is disappointing that even though our library is so well resourced, teachers and students seem to prefer to use google and youtube instead of accessing information from our library catalogue.  It seems preposterous to me that many of the school community were unaware we even had a library management system.  Their ignorance of the platforms we have in place, could extrapolate to acknowledging that lack of resource usage is proportional to the ability of the staff and students to use the OPAC system to identify and select resources.  

Something needs to change.  But what? The library collection development policy at the school endeavours to create a balanced collection that promotes teaching and learning as its primary goal.  Other aspects such as catering to diverse learners and fitting into the budget are also relevant. All the physical and digital assets meet the policy guidelines, which is why we have this policy but what is the point if they are under utilised? What else can we do in the library to promote our resources to the staff and students?  What can we do to remind them that we are not practitioners of Tsundoku?

I was musing about this problem when it occurred to me that many libraries fail in promoting their resources and capabilities.  How were the staff and students going to know about new or fabulous resources in the school library? How would we remind them of what is held within and what can be accessed?  It was then i remembered this post from Hamm (2016) who sends newsletters out to the faculty regularly advising them of the new and popular resources within the library. This idea seems magnificent to me as our school has several teachers who had no idea that we even subscribed to databases.  Their looks of pleasure and interest peaked when I explained how they could access with ease them from both work and home with just their device and password.  A quarterly newsletter published on the staff page of the school intranet would greatly improve our circulation at little cost to the library itself.  

So with these thoughts in mind I thought that for my particular independent high school library in the ACT there needs to be certain parameters necessary before a resources are added to the collection.

Firstly the information source MUST match the needs of the learning community.  It seems superfluous to point out that a resource is unlikely to be used if it is not relevant to the teaching and learning needs and must meet learning outcomes.  The next step is to ensure that the learner traits are accounted for. We have a wide range of student learning ‘attributes’ ranging from varied literacy levels, physical and mental handicaps that need to be catered for in a variety of formats to ensure equity is maintained for the entire student body.  One thing in particular our school library has done is acquire graphic novels of most of the major literature texts.  With many students of varying literacy levels and acknowledging our ‘reluctant’ readers still need to be able to engage with the text, we are trialing out graphic novels in print forms in several titles including classics such as Macbeth, Hamlet, To Kill a mockingbird and the Diary of Anne Frank with the student body.  Our Inclusive Education Team informs the library staff which students have been identified with low literacy levels and then these students are provided with audio books on an iPod as well as the physical text for their class work.  For our reluctant readers, graphic novels are popular as the combination of the text and imagery holds greater appeal. The inclusion of these texts has bolstered up our borrowing rates and appears to help students understand the task ahead.  We have also recently added Wheelers elibrary to our catalogue.  This has not been as popular as predicted but has provided access to resources for our vision challenged students.  Due to the nature of the licensing, only two ‘copies’ of a book can be ‘borrowed’ out at any particular time and this is restrictive with class texts.  The last consideration mentioned by Hughes-Hassel, S & Mancall (2005) is budget. Resources must fit within the budget in order it to be a viable purchase for the school.  We are very lucky in our school to have a principal that values education and our library budget is consistent.

We need a shift in attitude from Tsudonku.


Australian School Library Association / Australian Library and Information Services Association. (2001). Learning for the future. (2nd ed). Carlton South, Vic.: Curriculum Corporation.

BBC News (2018) Tsundoku: the art of buying books and never using them. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/world-44981013

Department of Education and Children’s Services, Government of South Australia. (2004). Choosing and using teaching and learning materials: guidelines for preschools and schools. Hindmarsh, South Australia : DECS Publishing

Hamm, S (2016) Library newsletters. Retrieved from https://www.teenservicesunderground.com/library-newsletters/

Hughes-Hassell, S. & Mancall, J. (2005). Collection management for youth: responding to the needs of learners Retrieved from http://ebookcentral.proquest.com.ezproxy.csu.edu.au/lib/csuau/detail.action?docID=289075

Johnson, P. (2009). Fundamentals of collection development and management [American Library Association version]. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.csu.edu.au/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=267756&site=ehost-live

SCIS ( 2014) Survey of school library collections. Retrieved from ://www2.curriculum.edu.au/scis/connections/issue_88_2014/articles/school_library_collections_survey_2013.html

Resources for School Librarians () School library promotion through advocacy, special events and bulletin reports. Retrieved from http://www.sldirectory.com/libsf/resf/promote.html

Lawhimsy.com (2015) Word Nerd: Tsundoku. Retrieved from https://lawhimsy.com/2015/10/14/word-nerd-tsundoku/

Macmilllian Dictionary (2027)  https://www.macmillandictionary.com/dictionary/british/tsundoku