Flipping it around – How flipping a classroom can change the way students learn.

 

Technology has become an integral part of education and many teachers have made the conscious decision to integrate emerging technologies inventively within their professional practice.  Basal (2015) believes that technology enriched learning environments increase the learning opportunities for students, as it allows them to improve their ICT acuity, increases their engagement with the content and provides valuable classroom discussion time.  One such way of integrating technology in a meaningful manner is the use of flipped learning or flipped classrooms.  

By inverting the learning sequence, students gain access to the content prior to the lesson which allows them to address the understanding in the lesson

Flipping the classroom means flipping the process of learning.

 

This access to content occurs in a personalised, student centred manner through a variety of methods, including the reading course notes, and the accessing videos or other multimedia (Basal, 2015).  Flipped classrooms follow a constructivist approach to learning as students are required to take ownership by accessing the content in their own time, at their own pace  (Basal, 2015).  This self paced approach increases the likelihood of students making those valuable connections between new content and prior knowledge, and therefore improving their overall learning outcomes.  

Flipped learning student centred approach can be seen clearly during class time, where the student is able to apply their knowledge and understanding to the learning activities.  Additionally, as Leask (2014) points out, student engagement and learning is easier to observe and document when teachers are able to view them applying their knowledge.  By addressing content earlier, the teacher is able to assist individual students with cementing their understanding and clarifying misconceptions  (Schmidt & Ralph, 2016, p.1).  The other advantage is that the students are required to take responsibility for their own learning by accessing the content in their own time and prior to the lesson.  

Flipped Classrooms changes the role of the teacher from font of knowledge to facilitator of learning.

 

There are several benefits to using a flipped classroom in pedagogical practice.  One benefit to implementing this strategy is that it reduces or eliminates the ineffective lecturing teaching style (Basal, 2015).  The lecture format is a very traditional form of teaching and alludes to the illusion that the teacher is the font of knowledge, and the student the receptacle receiving the information in a passive manner.  Flipped classrooms, as Basal (2015) points out, requires the teacher to become a facilitator and organiser of content, rather than a font of content.  This role reversal changes the classroom dynamics from a teacher centred to a student centred approach.  

The student centred approach is visible throughout the strategy.  Leask (2014) points out that student engagement and learning is easier to observe and document when teachers are able to view interactions in class discussions and thereby assess the quality of interactions the student has made with the content prior to the lesson.  The early delivery of content also facilitates learning as the teacher is able to assist individual students with cementing their understanding and clarifying misconceptions, which is essential for low ability and low literacy students (Schmidt & Ralph, 2016, p.1).  This guided class discussion and application is very provident for students that are unable to receive assistance at home for their learning.  Flipped classrooms increase learning outcomes as students are required to take responsibility for their own learning and that students gain confidence in class discussions due to the prior access to content material (Basal, 2015, p.32). 

An indirect positive consequence of flipped learning is that the creation of videos for students to access prior to the lesson also provides access to content for students who are unable to attend school due to illness or personal circumstances (Schmidt & Ralph, 2016, p.1).  Prior to 2020, remote learning and remote access to content was not a priority but with the recent pandemic and resulting lockdown, flexible and adaptable learning have become a concern for many teachers across the country.

Whilst there are many benefits to using flipped classrooms in pedagogical practice, there are concerns.  The primary issue is the creation of resources such as videos and other forms of multimedia to deliver the content.  Schmidt & Ralph (2016) point out that even though the making of videos can be extremely time consuming, teachers should not divert to mundane Powerpoints and repetitive videos as they can lead to student boredom and disengagement.  Another issue is that students can be disinclined to access the coursework prior to the lesson, and this disinclination can affect the vibrancy of the class learning and discussion (Ozdamli & Asiksoy, 2016).  Another major concern with implementing flipped learning in pedagogical practice is access to personal devices and reliable internet outside of school.  This makes accessing these resources such as online videos and other multimedia texts difficult for First Nations students, learners from lower socioeconomic families as well as rural and remote areas (DIIS, 2016).  

More than just videos – Flipped lessons promote complex reasoning and problem solving.

 

Successful flipped classrooms are more than just the creation and dispersal of didactic videos outside the classroom. Rather it is the collaborative learning and classroom discussion that is provoked by the content material that occurs in the classroom that makes flipped learning successful (Basal, 2015).  It is about the students being able to clarify their understanding and address any misconceptions that they may have.  Flipped learning requires both the student and teacher to adapt their perspective of teaching and gives teachers additional class time to focus on making meaning of new information in a student centred manner (Basel, 2015).   It requires students to be proactive, engage with the content prior to the class, and in discussion during the class.  It requires teachers to be willing to experiment with technologies, and relinquish didacticism in favour for constructivism.  Flipped classrooms will not meet the needs of all students and their teachers, but it is will work for the majority.  

REFERENCES:

Basal, A. (2015). The implementation of a flipped classroom in foreign language teaching. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education 16 (4). DOI:: 10.17718/tojde.72185

Department of Industry, Innovation and Science. (2016). Australia’s digital economy update. Retrieved from https://apo.org.au/sites/default/files/resource-files/2016/05/apo-nid66202-1210631.pdf

Leask, A. (2014). 5 reasons why the flipped classroom benefits educators. Enable Education – Online learning solutions. Retrieved from https://www.enableeducation.com/5-reasons-why-the-flipped-classroom-benefits-educators/

Lo, C. K. (2017). A critical review of flipped classroom challenges in K-12 education: possible solutions and recommendations for future research. Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning 12 (4). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6302872/pdf/41039_2016_Article_44.pdf

Ozdamli, F., & Asiksoy, G. (2016). Flipped classroom approach. World Journal on Educational Technology: Current Issues. 8(2), p98-105. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1141886.pdf

Schmidt, S. & Ralph, D. (2016). The flipped classroom: a twist on teaching. Contemporary Issues in Education Research. 9(1). Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1087603.pdf

Szparagowski, R. (2014). The effectiveness of the flipped classroom. Bowling Green State University Scholar Works. Retrieved from https://scholarworks.bgsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1118&context=honorsprojects

 

The cognitive cost of multimodal resources.

 

geralt / Pixabay

 

Multimedia is the convergence of multiple forms of media into one format and is present across all aspects of modern life including classroom practice. 

The notion of a multimedia resource may seem to be a more modern construct, but multimedia resources have been associated with educational practices for an extended period of time.   Originally appearing in classrooms as annotated drawings, maps, and picture books, these static forms of multimedia appear in many guises, across all learning areas and year levels (Ibrahim, 2020). 

The range of multimodal resources found commonly in schools.

 

Multimodality is cited as a panacea for pedagogical problems, both inside and outside the classroom.  In fact, the prevalence of multimodal resources in education has been adduced as more effective at communicating information than when a single modality is used (David, 2020).  This is because the information is often delivered in two main literacies, visual and auditory. It is the combination of these literacies that enhances learning, and improves educational outcomes (Ibrahim, 2012).   But not all multimedia resources promote learning.  The method and delivery of the information is essential to ensure students do not suffer from information overload. 

Information overload – when the brain gets inundated with more information that it can process.

 

A modern  classroom is likely to have multimodal resources in a variety of formats, ranging from static formats such as picture books, to illustrated books, graphic novels and anime,  to more dynamic forms such as videos, interactive websites and videos (Ibrahim, 2020).  The use of common teaching tools such as Powerpoint, digital textbooks, ebooks, websites and databases can all be considered dynamic forms of multimedia (Ibrahim, 2012).  The efficacy of multimodal learning is based upon two main theories, Mayer’s cognitive theory of multimedia learning and Sweller’s cognitive load theory (Ibrahim, 2012).  These two theories are able to predict which parameters of multimedia lead to optimum intellectual performance (Heick, 2017).

Mayer’s theory pointed out that whilst the brain appears to engage with material simultaneously, it instead selects the information individually and then organises and integrates the data consequently in three distinct cognitive processes (Mayer & Moreno, 2005).  The first step in this process is that the learner selects an amount of incoming auditory and visual information to process.  This amount is finite and an overload of information can have negative ramifications for the student such as confusion and a distaste for that medium (David ,2020).  The next step in this cognitive process is the organisation of that processed information.  This is where the user merges the visual and auditory information together (Mayer & Moreno, 2005; David 2020).  Both Ibrahim (2012) and David (2020) agree when modalities complement and enhance each other, as the visual imagery allows the brain to use its cognitive strength to work towards constructing working schemas instead of creating a mental image.  Creating mental images is cognitively heavy and the construction of schemas decreases the cognitive load on a learner and increases working memory.  The last step is where the learner integrates and constructs new knowledge on their own prior learning to make meaning of this new information (Mayer & Moreno, 2005; David 2020).  Ibrahim (2012) believes that by constructing their own meaning, the learner is able to increase their overall understanding and comprehension of the content. 

ArtsyBee / Pixabay

 

Sweller’s cognitive load theory is based upon the structure and process of the human memory system which includes the method in which memories, information and knowledge are stored in a complex and integrated manner (Russell, 2019).  When a learner is presented with new information, their working memory has a limited capacity unless it is transferred to their limitless long term memory (Russell, 2019).  This finite capacity in the working memory cache, also known as cognitive load, has direct implications on the learning in classrooms.  CESE (2017) categorises cognitive load as intrinsic, extraneous and germane.   Intrinsic cognitive load is from the inherent complexity of the information, and can be supported by germane load, which are instructions that facilitate the transfer of knowledge from the working memory to the long term memory (CESE, 2017, p.3).  Whereas extraneous load inhibits memory transfer and does not contribute to positive learning outcomes  (CESE, 2017, p.3).  As Russell (2019) points out, the cognitive load theory indicates that explicit instruction is required to transfer learning from the working memory to the long term memory and requires explicit instruction and worked examples to ensure learners are capable of developing their own knowledge base and long term memory (Russell, 2019). 

ArtsyBee / Pixabay

 

These two theories have a direct implication on the construction and delivery of multimedia and multimodal resources in the classroom.  Mayer’s concept of cognitive loading of multimedia uses Sweller’s cognitive load theory to determine the point where retention and comprehension are optimised (Xie et al., 2017, p.14)  Mayer’s theory of visual and auditory information being processed separately is an extension of the split attention effect known as the modality effect (CESE, 2017, p.7).  Split attention contributes to cognitive loading, as it often requires the learner to process pieces of information simultaneously for integration.  Whereas the modality effect actually reduces the load, because the same information is presented in two forms and thus increases the working memory capacity (CESE, 2017, p.7).  This fact is further emphasised when students engage in collaborative learning.  Kirscher et al, (2018, p.222) argue that when the task is cognitively heavy, collaborative groups are beneficial if the individual members are capable of utilising their combined capacity.  Whilst many teachers are familiar with the structure, function and benefits of collaborative learning groups in classrooms, they need to ensure distribution of cognitive loading occurs for optimal learning.  

manfredsteger / Pixabay

 

Mayer’s theory of multimodal or multimedia learning is structured around several principles (Walsh, 2017).  Whilst the principles do vary in their focus, the overall arching theme is that users or students would statistically learn better if unessential content is removed, clues highlighted or signalled, words and texts are presented simultaneously rather than consecutively (Walsh, 2017; Ibrahim, 2012). Xie et al., (2017) determined that cues are essential in dynamic resources to minimise cognitive load, but that their presence improves knowledge retention and transfer in static and dynamic forms of multimedia.  Ibrahim (2012) also points out that  the efficacy of multimodal resources is increased dramatically when the format is segmented or promotes self pacing, and if the narrator’s voice uses colloquial language and a conversational style compared to formal structure and tone (Walsh, 2017).  These principles help educators in creating and determine which multimedia resources would benefit student learning and which ones inhibit it. 

Multimedia, multimodal learning and resources are an essential part of modern pedagogical practices.  Their presence in both static and dynamic forms are present in all aspects of teaching practices.  Therefore it behooves the educator to understand how the brain interacts with these resources.  Resources that cause information or cognitive overload to students impede learning as the user is working against the brain, rather than with the brain (Heick, 2017). Multimedia designed within the parameters of Mayer’s and Sweller’s theories have an increased efficacy with learning outcomes than multimodal resources without it.  

 

REFERENCES

Centre for Education Statistics and Evaluation. (2017). Cognitive load theory: Research that teachers really need to understand. NSW Department of Education. Retrieved from https://www.cese.nsw.gov.au//images/stories/PDF/cognitive-load-theory-VR_AA3.pdf

David, L. (2020). Cognitive theory of multimedia learning (Mayer). Learning Theories. Retrieved from https://www.learning-theories.com/cognitive-theory-of-multimedia-learning-mayer.html

Heick, T. (2017). What is cognitive load theory? A definition for teachers. TeachThought. Retrieved from https://www.teachthought.com/learning/cognitive-load-theory-definition-teachers/

Ibrahim, M. (2012). Implications of designing instructional video using cognitive theory of multimedia learning. Critical Questions in Education 3(2), p.83-104. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1047003

Kirschner, P., Sweller, J., Kirschner, F. & Zambrano, J. (2018). From cognitive load theory to collaborative cognitive load theory. International Journal of Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 13, p.213-233. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11412-018-9277-y

Lloyd, T., Mitchell, B., & Mayers, R. (2012). Overall, Excellent Work! Assessment Rubric for Learning Theories. Paper Exceptional Satisfactory Developing Inadequate a (90%-100%) B (80%-89%) C (70%-79%) D/f (0-69%).

Mayer, R., & Moreno, R. (2005). A cognitive theory of multimedia learning; Implications for design principles. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/248528255_A_Cognitive_Theory_of_Multimedia_Learning_Implications_for_Design_Principles

Mayer, R., & Moreno, R. (1998). A Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning: Implications for Design Principles. CHI 1998. DOI:10.1177/1463499606066892

Russell, D. (2019). An introduction to cognitive load theory. Teacher Magazine [Features].  Retrieved from https://www.teachermagazine.com.au/articles/an-introduction-to-cognitive-load-theory

Sweller, J., van Merriënboer, J.J.G., & Paas, F. (2019). Cognitive Architecture and Instructional Design: 20 Years Later. Educational Psycholgy Review 31, p261–292. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-019-09465-5

Walsh, K. (2017). Mayer’s 12 principles of multimedia learning are a powerful design resource [Blog]. Emerging EdTech. Retrieved from https://www.emergingedtech.com/2017/06/mayers-12-principles-of-multimedia-learning-are-a-powerful-design-resource/

Xie H, Wang F, Hao Y, Chen J, An J, Wang Y, et al. (2017). The more total cognitive load is reduced by cues, the better retention and transfer of multimedia learning: A meta-analysis and two meta-regression analyses. Public Library of Science ONE 12 (8). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal. pone.0183884 

 

Proposing a digital narrative

 

Proposal topic: Migration, immigration and government policies in Australia. 

 

Curriculum Links:

10 History – 

  1. The population movements and changing settlement patterns from 1750-1901 (ACDSEH080)
  2. Laws made by federal Parliament between 1901-1914 including the Harvester Judgement, pensions, and the Immigration Restriction Act (ACDSEH092)
  3. The impact of changing government policies on Australia’s migration patterns, including abolition of the White Australia Policy, ‘Populate or Perish’ (ACDSEH145)
  4. The waves of post-World War II migration to Australia, including the influence of significant world events (ACDSEH144)

Senior Modern History

  1. ACHMH123 (Senior Modern History – Unit 3) – The changing nature and significance of Australia’s foreign policy from 1916-1949 (ACHMH123)
  2. ACHMH125 (Senior Modern History – Unit 3) – The key features of post-war reconstruction, including industrialisation, immigration, the provision of social welfare, and attitudes and policies towards Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples, and women.  
  3. ACHMH194 (Senior Modern History – Unit 4) – The nature of Australia’s response to key developments in the period, including the success of the Communists in China, the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal, the return of the French to Vietnam, Indonesian claims for independence, Australia’s adherence to the White Australia Policy until 1973, and the implications of Australia’s involvement in the Vietnam War  (ACHMH194)
  4. ACHMH195 (Senior Modern History – Unit 4) – The significance of Australia’s immigration policies on regional relationships after World War II, including the reasons for the gradual dismantling of the White Australia Policy in the period 1945-1973 (ACHMH195)

Proposed digital tools – Microsoft Sway

Rationale 

The White Australia policy was one of the first pieces of legislation the newly formed Australian Government passed through parliament.  The policy had a significant impact on the dynamics and diversity of the fledgling nation.  Originally deployed as the Immigration Restriction Act of 1901, the policy was aimed ensuring only those of British ancestry would gain entry into Australia to preserve the sanctity of the British-Australian culture and the economic value of the Australian man.   This digital story will seek to investigate the policy, the reason for its introduction, its ramifications on the diversity of the Australian population and the effects of its subsequent removal during the Whitlam administration.  

Storytelling has been the predominant method in which humanity has used to convey information, cultural traditions and ideologies for centuries (Cornett, 2014).  The advent of emerging technologies and personal devices has led to the formation of digital stories and storytelling.  Digital storytelling is  an engaging and informative method that combines emerging technologies and literary works for recreational or informative purposes (Ciccorico, 2012).  The story itself is a valuable teaching tool as it integrates visual, audio and textual elements together in a manner that enhances the storyline, improves engagement and promotes literacy development (Ohler, 2013, p.94).   The inclusion of digital narratives as part of teaching and learning promotes language, literacy and ICT competency. 

This Sway project will eventually be part of a larger 3 part digital narrative detailing how migration patterns have influenced the national identity of Australia.  Teachers will be able to use this internal resource as part of their teaching practice either as individual Sway links or as part of the series depending on the needs of the students as well as in depth study they are doing.  This resource has the capability to be catalogued into the current library management system and thus can be easily accessed by staff.

The three part series will include:

  1. Movements of people – 1750-1901. (Year 9 history and 9 Civics and citizenship)
    1. the nature and extent of the movement of peoples in the period (slaves, convicts and settlers) (ACOKFH015 – Scootle )
    2. The population movements and changing settlement patterns during this period (ACDSEH080 – Scootle )
    3. The influence of the Industrial Revolution on the movement of peoples throughout the world, including the transatlantic slave trade and convict transportation (ACDSEH018 – Scootle )
    4. Experiences of slaves, convicts and free settlers upon departure, their journey abroad, and their reactions on arrival, including the Australian experience (ACDSEH083 – Scootle )
    5. The short and long-term impacts of the movement of peoples during this period (ACDSEH085 – Scootle )
  1. Australia’s migration history (Years 9&10 History)
    1. the nature and extent of the movement of peoples from 1750-1901 (slaves, convicts and settlers) (ACOKFH015 – Scootle )
    2. The population movements and changing settlement patterns from 1750-1901 (ACDSEH080 – Scootle )
    3. Laws made by federal Parliament between 1901-1914 including the Harvester Judgement, pensions, and the Immigration Restriction Act (ACDSEH092 – Scootle )
    4. The impact of changing government policies on Australia’s migration patterns, including abolition of the White Australia Policy, ‘Populate or Perish’ (ACDSEH145 – Scootle )
    5. The waves of post-World War II migration to Australia, including the influence of significant world events (ACDSEH144 – Scootle )
  1. Australia’s National Identity in the 21st Century (Year 10 History and 9 Civics & Citizenship)
    1. How national identity can shape a sense of belonging in Australia’s multicultural society (ACHCK067 – Scootle )
    2. How and why individuals and groups, including religious groups, participate in and contribute to civic life (ACHCK079 – Scootle )
    3. How ideas about and experiences of Australian identity are influenced by global connectedness and mobility (ACHCK081 – Scootle )
    4. Continuity and change in beliefs and values that have influenced the Australian way of life (ACDSEH149 – Scootle
    5. The commemoration of World War I, including debates about the nature and significance of the Anzac legend (ACDSEH097 – Scootle )

 

REFERENCES 

Ciccoricco, D. (2012). Chapter 34 – Digital fiction – networked narratives. In Bray, J., Gibbons, A., & McHale, B. (2012). The Routledge Companion to Experimental Literature. Taylor & Francis eBooks. Retrieved from CSU Library. 

Cornet, C. E. (2014). Integrating the literary arts throughout the curriculum. In Creating meaning through literature and the arts: arts integration for Classroom teachers (5th ed,) (pp144-193) USA

Ohler, J.B. (2013). Digital storytelling in the classroom: New media pathways to literacy, learning, and creativity (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin. Retrieved from https://primo.csu.edu.au/permalink/61CSU_INST/1hkg98a/alma991012780180302357

Digital Storytelling

The art of storytelling is intrinsically human. 

Tumisu / Pixabay

 

Stories are the way humans have conveyed information, cultural traditions and ideologies throughout the centuries as well as being the conduit of language, literature and literacy (Cornett, 2014). But whilst stories have been part of human culture for millenia, the way these stories are ingressed have evolved.  Burkey (2016), points out that access to stories has not changed but prevalence of personal devices and evolving technologies have increased the methods of access.  This is because storytelling, and the format in which they occur, are a reflection of societal norms.  This shift in storytelling access is more apparent in young people as personal devices, such as tablets and smartphones, are an essential part of a teen’s social capital, and a reflection of their generation (Vidales-Bolanos & Sadaba-Chalezquer, 2017).  

manfredsteger / Pixabay

 

Digital storytelling (DST) is a rapidly developing format that combines emerging technologies and literary works (Ciccorico, 2012).  The process allows visual, audio and textual elements to be woven together to convey information in a digital format for either recreation or informative purposes (Ohler, 2013, p.94).   The fundamental difference between a traditional story and a DST, is that the latter would lose its value if viewed without a screen.  This is because the interactive and gaming elements present in most DST require the use of technology and a personal device for a transaction to occur between the story and the viewer (Ciccorico, 2012).  The integration of DST in educational practice encourages students beyond just passively using technology into creators and users of technology.  

From an education perspective, DST has great potential for teaching and learning.  Moran et al., (2020) believes that the combination of storytelling and technology can improve traditional literacies and 21st century skills. The multimodality of DST allows students to engage and experiment with different literacies, formats and technologies across the curriculum and address the needs of diverse learners.  This exposure to DST has an ability to impact literacy identities as well as provide assistance to EALD students and those with learning needs (Moran et al., 2020; Ross Johnston, 2014).  When DST is integrated into teaching practice it allows the students to experience the text in a dynamic way by expanding algorithmic creativity and narrative perspectives (Ciccorico, 2012).  It also allows teachers to engage students into difficult content matter such as the Holocaust and White Australia Policy as the format allows for the interweaving of primary and secondary sources in a non confrontational manner. 

DST is a highly adaptable format that can be used effectively across the curriculum and year levels to effectively address curriculum outcomes.  ACARA (2018) requires teachers to integrate digital literature such as DST in their practice to ensure students have the relevant skills and literacies for active citizenship in a digital world (MCEETYA, 2008).  Educators who fail to integrate mobile technology into pedagogy limit the development of new literacies and competencies.  By incorporating DST in educational practice, teachers are encouraging students beyond the passive use of technology to active users and creators of technology (Moran et al., 2020, p.6).

References

Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority. (2018). Literacy. In Australian Curriculum – General Capabilities. Retrieved from https://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/f-10-curriculum/general-capabilities/literacy/

 Burkey, A. (2016). Shifting stories in a digital world. FYI 20 (1), p.12-15. Retrieved from https://primo.csu.edu.au/permalink/61CSU_INST/15aovd3/cdi_rmit_aeipt_211907

Ciccoricco, D. (2012). Chapter 34 – Digital fiction – networked narratives. In Bray, J., Gibbons, A., & McHale, B. (2012). The Routledge Companion to Experimental Literature. Taylor & Francis eBooks. Retrieved from CSU Library. 

Cornet, C. E. (2014). Integrating the literary arts throughout the curriculum. In Creating meaning through literature and the arts: arts integration for Classroom teachers (5th ed,) (pp144-193) USA

Curran, G. (2017). Unlocking life stories through digital storytelling. Fine Print 40(1), p. 28-30. Retrieved from https://primo.csu.edu.au/permalink/61CSU_INST/15aovd3/cdi_rmit_primary_828942069094737

Littlejohn, K. (2018). 1917live: Historical storytelling in the digital space. Teaching History 52(4), p. 4-7. Retrieved from https://primo.csu.edu.au/permalink/61CSU_INST/15aovd3/cdi_rmit_primary_207856499201807

Mantei, J., Kipscombe, K., & Kervin, L. (2018). Literature in a digital environment (Ch. 13). In L. McDonald (Ed.), A literature companion for teachers. Marrickville, NSW: Primary English Teaching Association Australia (PETAA)

MCEETYA (2008) Melbourne Declaration on Educational Goals for Young Australians. Curriculum Corporation. Australia. Retrieved from http://www.curriculum.edu.au/verve/_resources/national_declaration_on_the_educational_goals_for_young_australians.pdf

Moran, R., Lamie, C., Robertson, L., & Tai, C. (2020). Narrative writing, digital storytelling, and coding: Increasing motivation with young readers and writers. Australian Literacy Educators Association, 25 (2), p.6-10. Retrieved from https://primo.csu.edu.au/permalink/61CSU_INST/15aovd3/cdi_gale_infotracacademiconefile_A627277934

Ohler, J.B. (2013). Digital storytelling in the classroom: New media pathways to literacy, learning, and creativity (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin. Retrieved from https://primo.csu.edu.au/permalink/61CSU_INST/1hkg98a/alma991012780180302357

Ross Johnston, R. (2014). Literary literacies: Digital, cultural, narrative, critical and deep literacies. In G. Winch, R. Ross Johnston, P. March, L. Ljungdahl & M. Holliday (Eds.), Literacy: Reading, writing and children’s literature (5th ed., pp. 556). Retrieved from Proquest Ebook Central.

Vidales-Bolanos, M., & Sadaba-Chalezquer, C. (2017). Connected Teens: Measuring the Impact of Mobile Phones on Social Relationships through Social Capital. Media Education Research Journal 53(25). Retrieved by https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1171085.pdf

Reflection – Reviewing Digital Literature for a High School Library.

Reviewing Digital Literature for a High School Library.

congerdesign / Pixabay

 

A teacher librarian (TL) is tasked with ensuring the collection development and management policy (CDMP) suits the needs of the curriculum and the school community (Johnson, 2018).  

Whilst the curation of the physical collection is well established, the rapidly evolving nature of digital resources makes the selection of digital literature (DL) more challenging.  This complexity arises from the variety of emerging DL trends and their integration into the library management system (LMS) (Johnson, 2018, p.128; Hughes-Hassell & Mancall, 2005).   

geralt / Pixabay

There has been much controversy regarding the efficacy of digital literature (DL) in education.  Jeon (2012) suggests that DL has lower rates of comprehension in comparison to print, but Ross et al., (2017) believes that there is no notable difference between print, screen and tablet.  The discrepancy is based upon the role digitisation plays in comprehension.  Keen (2016) believes that digitisation increases engagement, improves learning outcomes and addresses the behavioural, cognitive and developmental needs of teenagers.  Whereas Mitchell (2011) points out that not all digital texts are superior to print texts, and that DL needs to be evaluated  against a set criteria to ensure that the enhancements promote the learning of literacy and language.  

A printed text requires:

  •  a single literacy to gain access to the information.   

However, DL needs the reader to be:

  • masterful with multiliteracies,
  •  competent with computation and 
  • dexterous with devices (Rettberg, 2012).  

These skill requirements indicate that poor traditional literacy will translate to poor digital literacy because technology virtuosity and digital aptitude are not intuitive  (Moore & Cahill, 2016, p.5; Brown & Czerniewicz, 2011).  This necessity of explicit instruction has thoroughly debunked the myth of the digital native.  

 

ACARA (2018) has included DL in the Australian Curriculum in an effort to address the multimodal and multiliteracy needs of the 21st century.  The embedding of DL allows students to use these new technologies to connect to the curriculum, develop multiliteracies and competencies, which are essential for active citizenship in a digital society (MCEETYA, 2008; Cullen; 2015).  Importantly, DL acknowledges students’ learning needs, the shift in the reading paradigm as well as the presence of participatory culture in modern society (O’Connell, Bates & Mitchell, 2015; Moore & Cahill, 2016, p.6). 

There are several pedagogical implications of utilising DL in teaching practice.  Visual ergonomics and information overload have significant impacts on the reader (Mangen, Walgermo & Bronnick., 2013).  Print texts have strong visual permanence which aids comprehension, but in nonlinear hypertext narratives such as After 6/4, the inability to ‘flip back’ is a hindrance.  However, both Schreuder’s digital novel and the Bible app provide linearity and a sequential storyline which facilitates text comprehension for low ability and literacy students (Gonzales, 2016; Botzakis, 2018).   

Information overload is an issue in After 6/4 and Land of the Magic Flute.  The multimodality of these resources require readers to critically evaluate the images, text and audio simultaneously, and this can overwhelm some students.   But in Schreuder’s digital graphic novel, the arias give the reader time to process the multimodal information, whereas in After 6/4, the format enables the reader to navigate at their own pace.

Peggy_Marco / PixabayFrom a pedagogical perspective, app based learning such as the YouVersion Bible app are ideal for teenagers in a Catholic High school  as it promotes engagement, increases motivation, provides access to online communities, allows for text anonymity and acknowledges the importance of a personal devices to a teenager’s social capital (Cullen, 2015; Vidales-Bolanos & Sadaba-Chalezquer, 2017; Yokota & Teale, 2014; Dickenson, 2014; Hashim & Vongkulluksn, 2018).  This app also satisfies the requirement of enhancing the learning of language, and the supplementary videos assist in decoding and comprehension for EAL/D and learning needs students  (Gonzales, 2016).  

The major hurdle to implementing this app across the school is that it is an app.  My school has a strong mobile phone policy due to persistent disciplinary issues (Selwyn, 2019).  The current criteria does not permit its inclusion even though this app meets the educational, behavioural and behavioural needs of the students, as well as addressing the content requirements.  This exclusion of this resource should question the validity of the CDMP and its selection criteria in this digital age (Johnson, 2018).

The reality is that teachers are very confused about young people and their literary preferences.  Dickenson (2014) and Earp (2017) both agree that teens favour print, whereas Twenge et al., (2019) suggests that the internet and interactive media are the preferred medium due to the prevalence of participatory culture.  But this preference does not always translate to successful classroom practice.  Whilst students may have a strong inclination for DL, not all formats aid the learning of literacy and language.   It would be poor professional practice to promote DL that impedes learning, just like its poor practice to exclude excellent resources due to an impediment in the CDMP.  

But then… I did just that. 

But then… I did just that. 

Sometimes our practice is as only good as the policies that frame it. 

References: 

Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority. (2018). Literacy. In Australian Curriculum. Retrieved from http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/generalcapabilities/literacy/introduction/introduction

Brown, C., & Czerniewicz, L. (2010). Debunking the ‘digital native’: beyond digital apartheid, towards digital democracy.  Journal of Computer Assisted Learning 26(5). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2729.2010.00369.x

Dickenson, D. (2014). Children and reading: Literature review. Australia Council 2014. Retrieved from https://www.australiacouncil.gov.au/workspace/uploads/files/research/children-and-reading-literatur-5432557e418db.pdf.

Earp, J. (2017). Infographic – Teen reading habits. Teacher Magazine. Australian Council for Educational Research.  Retrieved from https://www.teachermagazine.com.au/articles/infographic-teen-reading-habits

Botzakis, S. (2018). Comics in the classroom: Using graphic novels for content learning. In D. Wooten, B. Cullinan, L. Liang & R. Allington (Eds).  Children’s literature in the reading program: Engaging young readers in the 21st century, (5th ed., pp. 140-152). Retrieved from Proquest Ebook Central.

Cullen, M. (2015, December 21). How is interactive media changing the way children learn. In EducationTechnology. Retrieved from https://educationtechnologysolutions.com.au/2015/12/how-is-interactive-media-changing-the-way-children-learn/

Gonzalez, J. (2016, October 9). Graphic novels in the classroom: A teacher roundtable. Cult of Pedagogy. Retrieved from https://www.cultofpedagogy.com/teaching-graphic-novels/

Hashim, A & VongKulluskn, V. (2018). E reader apps and reading engagement: A descriptive case study. Computers and Education, 125, pp.358-375. Retrieved from https://www.journals.elsevier.com/computers-and-education

Hughes-Hassell, S., & Mancall, J. C. (2005). Collection management for youth : Responding to the needs of learners. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral.proquest.com

Jabr, F. (2013). The reading brain in the digital age: The science of paper versus screens. Scientific American. Retrieved from https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/reading-paper-screens/

Jeon, H. (2012). A comparison of the influence of electronic books and paper books on reading comprehension, eye fatigue, and perception. The Electronic Library, 30(3), 390-408. doi: 10.1108/02640471211241663 

Johnson, P. (2018). Chapter 4 – Developing Collections. Fundamentals of Collection Development 4th Edition. ALA Editions. Chicago. Retrieved from EBSCOhost Books.   

Keen, N. (2016). Stopping the slide: improving reading rates in the middle school. Connections, 99. Retrieved from https://www.scisdata.com/connections/issue-99/stopping-the-slide-improving-reading-rates-in-the-middle-school/

Mangen, A., Walgermo, B. R., & Bronnick, K.A. (2013). Reading linear texts on paper versus computer screen: Effects on reading comprehension. International Journal of Educational Research, 58, 61-68.doi:10.1016/j.ijer.2012.12.002 

Mantei, J., Kipscombe, K., & Kervin, L. (2018). Literature in a digital environment (Ch. 13). In L. McDonald (Ed.), A literature companion for teachers. Marrickville, NSW: Primary English Teaching Association Australia (PETAA).

MCEETYA. (2008). Melbourne Declaration on Educational Goals for Young Australians. Curriculum Corporation. Australia. Retrieved from http://www.curriculum.edu.au/verve/_resources/national_declaration_on_the_educational_goals_for_young_australians.pdf

Mitchell, P. (2011). Resourcing 21st century online Australian Curriculum: the role of school libraries. FYI: The Journal for School Information Professionals 15(2). Retrieved from CSU Library. 

Moore, J., & Cahill, M. (2016). Audiobooks; Legitimate ‘reading’ material for adolescents? Research Journal of the American Association of School Librarians. Retrieved from www.ala.org/aasl/slr/volume19/moore-cah

Moorefield-Lang, H., & Gavigan, K. (2012). These aren’t your father’s: the new world of digital graphic novels. Knowledge Quest, 40(3), 30-35. Retrieved from http://web.b.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.csu.edu.au/ehost/detail/detail?vid=0&sid=b349502e-3dd2-48d3-9d9a-6beed7db31cc%40pdc-v-sessmgr05&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#AN=82563984&db=lih

O’Connell, J., Bales, J., Mitchell, P. (2015). [R]Evolution in reading cultures: 2020 vision for school libraries. The Australian Library Journal, 63(3), 194-208. DOI: 10.1080/00049670.2015.1048043

Rettberg, J.W. (2012). Electronic literature seen from a distance: the beginnings of a field. Retrieved from http://www.dichtung-digital.org/2012/41/walker-rettberg.ht

Ross, B., Pechenkina, E., Aeschliman, C., & Chase, A. (2017).  Print versus digital texts: understanding the experimental research and challenging the dichotomies. Research in Learning Technology 25. DOI: https://doi.org/10.25304/rlt.v25.1976. Retrieved from https://journal.alt.ac.uk/index.php/rlt/article/view/1976/pdf_1

Selwyn, N. (2019). Banning mobile phones in schools: Beneficial or risky? SBS News. Retrieved from https://www.sbs.com.au/news/banning-mobile-phones-in-schools-beneficial-or-risky-here-s-what-the-evidence-says

Teen Reading In a Digital Era. (2017). Report at a glance – Teen Reading in a digital era. Murdoch University & Deakin University.  Retrieved from https://teenreadingdotnet.files.wordpress.com/2017/04/teen-reading-folio-report_email.pdf

Twenge, J., Martin, G., & Spitzberg, B. (2019). Trends in U.S. adolescents’ media use, 1976-2016: the rise of media, the decline of tv, and the (near) demise of print. Psychology of Popular Media Culture 8(4). p.329-345. Retrieved from https://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/releases/ppm-ppm0000203.pdf

Vidales-Bolanos, M., & Sadaba-Chalezquer, C. (2017). Connected Teens: Measuring the Impact of Mobile Phones on Social Relationships through Social Capital. Media Education Research Journal 53(25). Retrieved by https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1171085.pdf

Yokota, J., & Teale, W. (2014). Picture books and the digital world. The Reading Teacher 67(8), pp.577-585.    DOI:  10.1002/trtr.1262   

 

 

Reviewing Digital Literature – The Land of the Magic Flute

Resource 3 – The Land of the Magic Flute

Summary:

The Land of the Magic Flute is a convergence of music, narrative and digital media and can be described as a modern opera.  Based upon a famous Mozart & Schikaneder Singspiel, Die ZauberFlote (1791) , this graphic novel (GN) adaptation is a quest for enlightenment, knowledge, justice and truth that is conveyed through haunting imagery, text, sound and Mozart’s arias.  The colour and images are very evocative of two main settings, with the modern world in bright colours, and the fantastical world in sombre shades with harsh angles.  This resource would appeal to fans of classical music, graphic novels and multimodal literature. 

Curriculum Links:

  1. Year 7 English – ACHHS214 
  2. Year 8 English – ACHHS157
  3. Year 9 English – ACELT1637/ ACELY1739 / ACHHS175
  4. Year 7 & 8 Music – ACAMUR097
  5. Year 9 & 10 Music – ACAMUR104

Learning, Literacy and Language:

Graphic novels (GN) offer great opportunities for promoting language, literacy and learning, but are often underestimated because of their non traditional format (Laycock, 2019; Gonzales, 2016).  The Land of the Magic Flute uses clever combinations of prose, poetry, film, imagery and music to convey the storyline and this makes it a valuable resource for content delivery, as well as improving multimodal and critical cultural literacies (Laycock, 2019).  GN are predominantly used within language arts courses, but can also be utilised effectively across other content areas to support literary learning.  For example Maus (1991), Auschwitz (2004) and Bag of Marbles (1973) are frequently used in studying the Holocaust as the visual nature of the GN allow readers to relate to the sensitive issues within the text without being overwhelmed (Gonzales, 2016).  

Digital graphic novels (DGN) promote emerging literacies and critical thinking, because the narrative structure and complex storyline provides the reader with cultural history and context (Karp, 2011; Maniace, 2014; Brenner, 2015).  Readers are able to identify emotions from the variance in facial expressions, body language and physical metaphors present.  The sequential imagery, linearity of narrative and visual permanence facilitate text comprehension for reluctant readers, visual learners, low literacy and EALD students (Gonzales, 2016; Brenner, 2015; Botzakis, 2018; Karp, 2011).   The features such as embedded music and computer graphics, were used successfully to enhance the storyline  (Kirtz, 2014). 

 The embedding of the seven Mozart arias during pivotal points in the narrative gives the reader time to contemplate the storyline and the value of that modality at that point in the story.  The arias  are supported by subtitles and emphasise the tension in the story, allow the reader time to analyse the words in conjunction with the graphics and this combined effect provides context for increased comprehension and independent reading (Botzakis, 2018; Leu, 2005).   The inclusion of fantastical creatures meets the needs of adolescents who seek fantasy stories as a method in which to understand and investigate the difference between good and evil in humanity (Kole, 2011). 

 DGN have great capacity for innovative teaching, but educators are disinclined to utilise GN because of the assumed lack of literary qualities and that they require the same explicit instruction and scaffolding as traditional texts for comprehension and literacy development (Phelps, 2011; Botzakis, 2018; Hallman & Schieble, 2012).  The reality is that  that explicit instruction and the effective teaching of multimodal literacies utilising DGN can lead to a transference of ability to other texts and disciplines (Hallman & Schieble, 2012). 

Trends:

Digital GN is the convergence of two major literary trends: sophisticated graphic narratives and digital literature (Moorefield-Land & Gavigan, 2012; Walsh, 2013).    The recent plethora of DGN is due to its lowered publication costs and this allows emerging artists and authors increased opportunities for self publication  (Moorefield-Lang & Gavigan, 2012).   Whilst GN collectors prefer print editions, avid readers tend to prefer digital versions as they are often cheaper and can be purchased on the release date (Wilson, 2019).  

 Technology:

The Land of the Magic Flute is accessible on all devices with internet access and Flash or Javascript installations, but the digitisation effect is more pronounced on tablets (Wilson, 2019).   Authentic learning requires students to be in their third place, and integrating GN and DGN into the curriculum narrows the strong dichotomy between student choice and curriculum canon (Grazotis, 2017; Phelps, 2011; Laycock, 2019) .  

Resource integration:

GN are traditionally classified within Dewey at 741.5 but most school libraries merge all titles to a single location and whilst DGN cannot be physically stored in a particular location, it can be catalogued and linked into the library management system (LMS) (Kan, 2020).  The Land of the Magic Flute can be integrated into the LMS, LibQuests and class intranet pages as well as accessible from most devices, which makes it an excellent teaching tool.  Like other interactive websites, there is no guarantee of longevity and as the resource requires internet access to work. It would be recommended that this DGN is used for classroom practice to limit the digital demand on rural, remote and low income households (DIIS, 2016).  

Recommendation:

The Land of the Magic Flute successfully meets the needs of the curriculum, as well as addresses the developmental, literacy and critical thinking needs of the modern teenager.  It would make a valuable addition to a school library collection.  

 

References:

Brenner, R. (2015).  A guide to using graphic novels with children and teens. Graphix. Scholastic Teachers. Scholastic. Retrieved from https://www.scholastic.com/teachers/lesson-plans/teaching-content/guide-using-graphic-novels-children-and-teens/

Graphic Novels in Education [Blog]. American Libraries. Retrieved from https://americanlibrariesmagazine.org/2011/08/01/the-case-for-graphic-novels-in-education/

Graphix. (2018). A guide to using graphic novels with children and teens. Scholastic Australia. Retrieved from https://www.scholastic.com/content/dam/teachers/lesson-plans/18-19/Graphic-Novel-Discussion-Guide-2018.pdf

Grazotis, J. 2017, ‘Unlocking the third space – Activating your library’, Scan 36(4), pp. 34-35. Retrieved from https://education.nsw.gov.au/teaching-and-learning/professional-learning/scan/past-issues/vol-36–2017/unlocking-the-third-space-activating-your-library

Hallman, H., & Schieble, M. (2012). Dimensions of young adult literature: Moving into “New Times”. The ALAN Review 39 (2). DOI: https://doi.org/10.21061/alan.v39i2.a.5

Kan, K. (2020). Cataloguing graphic novels [Blog]. Diamond Bookshelf. Diamond Comic Distributions. Retrieved from https://www.diamondbookshelf.com/Home/1/1/20/181?articleID=37812

Kirtz, J.L. (2014). Computers, comics and cult status: A forensics of digital graphic novels. Digital Humanities Quarterly 8 (3). Retrieved from http://www.digitalhumanities.org/dhq/vol/8/3/000185/000185.html

Kole, K. (2018). The role of fairy tales in affective learning: Enhancing adult literacy and learning in FE and community settings. Australian Journal of Adult Learning, 58(3), 365-389. Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy.csu.edu.au/docview/2250950746?accountid=10344

Maniace, E. (2014). Reading process comparison between graphic novels and traditional novels.  Education and Human Development Master’s theses. Retrieved from https://digitalcommons.brockport.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1539&context=ehd_theses

Mozart, W.G. (Composer) & Schikaneder, E. (Librettist). (1791). Die ZauberfloteA Singspiel in 2 Acts. Vienna, Austria. 

Phelps, V. (2011). Pedagogy of graphic novels. Master Theses & Specialist Projects – American Popular Culture Commons. Retrieved from https://digitalcommons.wku.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2070&context=theses

Schumacher, J. (2014). More ways to pitch graphic novels [Blog]. Literacy Now. International Literacy Association. Retrieved from https://www.literacyworldwide.org/blog/literacy-now/2014/08/12/more-ways-to-pitch-graphic-novels

Walsh, M. (2013). Literature in a digital environment (Ch. 13). In L. McDonald (Ed.), A literature companion for teachers. Marrickville, NSW: Primary English Teaching Association Australia (PETAA).

Wilson, J. (2019). Everything you need to know about digital comics. PC Magazine News. Retrieved from https://au.pcmag.com/features/12330/everything-you-need-to-know-about-digital-comics

 

 

Reviewing Digital Literature – YouVersion Bible Mobile Application

 

Resource 2 – YouVersion Bible Mobile Application 

Summary:

The YouVersion Bible mobile application (Bible app) contains a range of Bible versions, which make it a suitable resource for aspects of the national curriculum and in all schools that teach Religious Education.   In the ACT, RE is taught at Catholic and independent schools, and is a BSSS certified senior course (ACT BSSS, 2020).   All these courses require a Bible, but many students refrain from reading traditional Bibles due to the associated stigma and peer pressure (Lipsett, 2008).  Therefore this digital option allows students to access the Catholic Good News bible and gain access to both the Old and New Testaments, highlight and take notes electronically, as well as participate in associated online communities such as sharing verses online via social media whilst maintaining their social capital.  

Curriculum Links: 

  1. Religious Education Yrs 7-12
  2. World Religions Yrs 11-12
  3. Study of Religion Yrs 11-12
  4. Year 7 Curriculum:
    1. Civics and Citizenship (HASS) – ACHCK051, ACHCK053, ACHASSK196
  5. Year 8 Curriculum:
    1. Civics and Citizenship (HASS) –  ACHCK065 
  6. Senior Ancient History curriculum 
  7. Unit 1 – ACHAH084, ACHAH085.
  8. General Capabilities – 
    1. Literacy –
    2. ICT – 

 

Learning, Literacy and Language:

The inclusion of a Bible mobile application (Bible app) into schooling engages disinterested students, promotes new literacies, social reading, online communities and assists students that desire text anonymity (Li & Wu, 2017, Dickenson, 2014; Singleton et al., 2018).  This app has immense capacity to promote literacy through text enhancement, narration and videos, which supports language disorders, as well as a lack of skeuomorphic features which reduces the cognitive load (James & DeKnock, 2013).  An important point to make is that this Bible app’s format is consistent to the traditional text, and this symmetry allows teachers to scaffold learning to improve both online and offline reading (Leu et. al, 2015).   The only unfortunate issue is that the narrator’s voice is more appropriate to Adams’ Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy than a sacred text.  

There are other benefits of including this app, such as the promotion of social reading, online communities and development of digital literacy (Hashim & Vongkulluksn).  The  social strategies are underpinned by Vygotsky’s sociocultural development theory and work towards increasing motivation, shaping reading behaviour and improving text comprehension (Hashim & Vongkulluksn, 2018; Li & Wu, 2017, p.257).  Mobile apps require gestural manipulation for navigation and this physical operation is essential to digital literacy  (Hashim & Vongkulluksn, 2018; Heckman & Bouchardson, 2012).  Students that use this app for personal or educational purposes, are able to gain access to content, participate in collaborative reading, online communities as well as develop their language and literacy skills (Leu et al., 2011; Hashim & Vongkulluksn, 2018).   

Technology:

The inclusion of mobile apps in schools is often fraught by disagreement (Selwyn, 2019).  James and DeKnock (2013) point out that smartphones and tablets have a greater capacity for the amplification and presentation of literary works, but many schools restrict the use of personal devices citing issues with discipline, distraction and cyberbullying (Selwyn, 2019).   Unfortunately, the refusal to include smartphones in schooling inhibits students from learning how to regulate their metacognitive processes, and further promotes the dichotomy between classroom instruction and the real world (Hashim & Vongkulluksn, 2018; Edwards, 2013).  

Trends:

Literacy is dependent on language, technology and the cultural practices of society (Sargeant, 2015).  It is clearly apparent that mobile phones are an essential aspect of a teen’s social capital, and need to be a stronger presence in education (Leu et al., 2011; Vidales-Bolanos & Sadaba-Chalezquer, 2017; Yokota & Teale, 2014).   The implementation of this app as part of pedagogical practices means educators are meeting the needs of their students, the current reading paradigm, as well as providing access to learning in a social environment and extending literature to beyond the school perimeter (Combes, 2016; Edwards, 2013; Valenza & Stephens, 2012).  Educators who fail to integrate mobile technology into pedagogy limit the development of new literacies that are essential for citizenship in a digital world.  

Resource Integration: 

Mobile applications cannot be curated and catalogued in the same manner as other digital resources, and this impacts how a resource can be managed and utilised (ASLA & VCTL, 2018).   This Bible app is available from Google and Apple play stores and can be downloaded on most newer devices without any cost to the user which minimises any impact from the digital divide (DIIS, 2016).   Unfortunately there is a slight difference between the Apple and android versions of this text, and this may cause some difficulty for schools that have a BYOD program.  

Recommendation:

This resource meets the curriculum, cognitive and behavioural needs of the students, however, the integration of mobile apps is contraindicatory to the school smartphone policy and it does not meet the school’s requirements of LMS integration.  The recommendation is to find an alternative resource. 

 

REFERENCES:

ACARA. (2014a). Literacy Learning Continuum. General Capabilities. Educational Services Australia. Retrieved from https://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/media/3596/general-capabilities-literacy-learning-continuum.pd

ACARA. (2014b). Information & Communication Technology. General Capabilities. Educational Services Australia. Retrieved from https://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/media/1074/general-capabilities-information-and-communication-ict-capability-learning-continuum.pdf

ACARA. (2014c). Civics and Citizenship. F-10 Curriculum – HASS. Educational Services Australia. Educational Services Australia. Retrieved from https://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/f-10-curriculum/humanities-and-social-sciences/civics-and-citizenship/

ACARA. (2014d). Ancient History. Senior Secondary Curriculum. Educational Services Australia. Retrieved from https://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/senior-secondary-curriculum/humanities-and-social-sciences/ancient-history/?

ACT Board of Secondary School Studies. (2020). BSSS A/T/M/C/V Courses. ACT Senior Secondary Curriculum. Retrieved from http://www.bsss.act.edu.au/curriculum/courses

ASLA & VCTL (2018). A manual for developing policies and procedures in Australian school library resources centres 2nd Edition.  ALIA. Retrieved from https://asla.org.au/resources/Documents/Website%20Documents/Policies/policies-procedures-manual_ed2.pdf

Combes, B. (2016). Digital literacy: A new flavour of literacy or something different? Synergy, 14(1). Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/303663805_Digital_literacy_A_new_flavour_of_literacy_or_something_different

Department of Industry, Innovation and Science. (2016). Australia’s digital economy update. Retrieved from https://apo.org.au/sites/default/files/resource-files/2016/05/apo-nid66202-1210631.pdf

Dickenson, D. (2014). Children and reading: Literature review. Australia Council Research. Retrieved from https://www.australiacouncil.gov.au/workspace/uploads/files/research/children-and-reading-literatur-5432557e418db.pdf

Edwards, J. (2013). Chapter 9 – Reading beyond the borders: Observations on digital ebook readers and adolescent reading practices. In Whittingham, J., Huffman, S., Rickman, W., & Wiedmaier, C. (2013). Technology tools for the Literacy Classroom. SCOPUS. DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-3974-4.ch009

Hashim, A & VongKulluskn, V. (2018). E reader apps and reading engagement: A descriptive case study. Computers and Education, 125, pp.358-375. Retrieved from https://www.journals.elsevier.com/computers-and-education/

Heckman, D., & Bouchardson, S. (2012). Digital manipulation and digital literature. Electronic Book Review. Retrieved from http://electronicbookreview.com/essay/digital-manipulability-and-digital-literature/

Ibacache, K. (2019). Use of language learning apps as a tool for foreign language acquisition by academic libraries employees.  Information Technology and Libraries 38(3):22-33. Retrieved from DOI: 10.6017/ital.v38i3.11077

James, R., & de Knock, L. (2013). The digital David and the Gutenberg Goliath: The rise of the enhanced e-book. English Academy Review 30(1), p.107-123. DOI: 10.1080/10131752.2013.783394

Leu, D.J, Forzani, E.,Timbrell, N., & Maykel., C. (2015) . Seeing the forest, not the trees: Essential technologies for literacy in primary grade and upper elementary grade classroom. Reading Teacher 69 (2):139-145. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1073399

Leu, D., McVerry, J. G., O’Byrne, W. I., Kiili, C., Zawilinski, L., Everett-Cacopardo, H., Kennedy, C., & Forzani, E. (2011). The new literacies of online reading comprehension: Expanding the literacy and learning curriculum. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 55(1):5-14. DOI: 10.1598/JAAL.55.1.1

Li, W., & Wu, Y. (2017). Adolescents’ social reading: motivation, behaviour, and their relationship. The Electronic Library 35(2):.246-262. Emerald Publishing. DOI: 10.1108/EL-12-2015-0239. 

Lipsett, A. (2008). Children bullied because of faith. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/education/2008/nov/17/bullying-faith

Prahani, B., Jatmiko, B., Hariadi, B., Sunarto, D., Sagirani, T., Amelia, T., & Lemantara, J. (2020). Blended web mobile learning (BWML) model to improve student’s higher order thinking skills. International Journal of Emerging Technologies 15 (11). pp. 42-55. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.3991/ijet.v15i11.12853

Rowe, E. (2017). Religion in Australian Schools: an historical and contemporary debate [Blog]. The Conversation. Retrieved from https://theconversation.com/religion-in-australian-schools-an-historical-and-contemporary-debate-82439

Sargeant, B. (2015). What is an ebook? What is a book app? And why should we care? An analysis of contemporary picture books. Children’s Literature in education, 46, 454-466. doi: 10.1007/s10583-015-9243-5

Selwyn, N. (2019). Banning mobile phones in schools: Beneficial or risky? SBS News. Retrieved from https://www.sbs.com.au/news/banning-mobile-phones-in-schools-beneficial-or-risky-here-s-what-the-evidence-says

Singleton, A., Halafoff, A., Bouma, G., & Rasmussen, M.L. (2018). New research shows Australian teens have complex views on religion and spirituality [Blog].  The Conversation. Retrieved from https://theconversation.com/new-research-shows-australian-teens-have-complex-views-on-religion-and-spirituality-103233

Valenza, J.K., & Stephens, W. (2012).Reading Remixed. Educational Leadership, 69 (6), p.75-78. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/262967094_Valenza_J_K_Stephens_W_2012_Reading_Remixed_Educational_Leadership_696_75-78

Vidales-Bolanos, M., & Sadaba-Chalezquer, C. (2017). Connected Teens: Measuring the Impact of Mobile Phones on Social Relationships through Social Capital. Media Education Research Journal 53(25). Retrieved by https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1171085.pdf

Yokota, J., & Teale, W. (2014). Picture books and the digital world. The Reading Teacher 67(8), pp.577-585.    DOI:  10.1002/trtr.1262  

 

Reviewing Digital Literature – After 6/4

 

RESOURCE 1 – After 6/4

Summary: 

After 6/4 is a collation of differing viewpoints of the Tiananmen Square event in Beijing 1989.  Created as an anniversary tribute, After 6/4 contains a range of primary sources, news headlines, videos and personal anecdotes using VR, animation, audio, 360 video and other archival storytelling (Chen & Heald, 2014).  This digital assemblage of  primary sources remains a valuable teaching tool about persuasive texts, multimodal media literacy, and even more so in the light of the recent Hong Kong protests.   

Curriculum Links:

  1. Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia:  (OI: 5 and 7)
  2. Year 8 English (ACELA1543)- Main value to collection.
  3. Year 9 Media Arts (ACAMAM073, ACAMAR078, ACAMAR079
  4. Year 9  History –  (ACDSEH146)
  5. Senior History curriculum – Unit 4.

Learning, Literacy and Language:

After 6/4 provides a vibrant learning experience as readers navigate their way through varied perspectives on a non-linear timeline.  The reader is required to assimilate the primary sources, make an evaluative decision and interact with the text.  This complex navigation requires higher-order thinking as students explore the multimodal perspectives, and correlate them to the state-sanctioned or author’s bias (Kopka, 2014).  After 6/4 clearly accentuates the power of persuasive language and its impact on the reader.  It also highlights the dichotomy of free press versus state sanctioned media, and requires the reader to develop their own conclusion about the complexity of historical and media partisanship that is pervasive in modern society (Lamb, 2011, p.15).  This transmedia resource challenges students to develop their multiliteracies, critical thinking skills, and understand essential media conventions (Kopka, 2014).  

It is popular knowledge that video and computer gaming are very popular with teenagers, and After 6/4  challenges young people to utilise their transliteracy expertise for educational needs (Kopka, 2014).  After 6/4 elicits the reader’s interest by requesting them to select their country of origin then linking to a range of multimodal media texts.  Readers are further rewarded by additional information as they ‘click’ through the timeline.  By offering language choices in both English and Mandarin, After 6/4 allows the reader to interact with the text without the need for a translator.  The resource is further supported by subtitles which promotes literacy development and helps lower literacy students engage with the content material. 

Interactive resources such as After 6/4 are useful in engaging disengaged learners and reluctant readers into subject matter than may normally be of limited interest to them (Kopka, 2014; Raja & Kumar, 2010).  The appeal arises from the rhetoric of grasping and gamification theory prevalent in many interactive websites, which has a positive correlation to motivation (Heckman & Bourchardon, 2012; Kopka, 2014). 

After 6/4 requires the reader to physically manipulate the screen making the interaction more maningful and further immersing the reader into the text.  This is because interactive and hypertext media allow the reader to encounter and practise both efferent and aesthetic reading practices,  which is essential for the development of both online and offline reading skills (Pietschmann, Volker & Ohler, 2014). Unfortunately, this immersive experience  and features such as, parallax scrolling, non linearity and lack of visual permanence require the teacher to provide  extensive scaffolding for students with learning disabilities (Raja & Kumar, 2010; Botzakis, 2018).  

 

Technology Trends:

The inclusion of interactive websites into classroom practice, advocates for the presence of technology as part of modern societal practices (Ross Johnston, 2014b, p.633).  Transmedia resources promote 21st century skills such as, experiential learning, critical thinking, as well as the development of trans-literacies (Cullen, 2015; Pietschmann, Volker & Ohler, 2014; Kopka, 2014; Leu et al., 2015).   Interactive media is a rapidly emerging digital format and needs to be part of education to ensure students develop the necessary skills for life in the 21st century (Leu et al., 2015). 

Resource Integration: 

After 6/4 is a locally produced interactive website and is freely available online with no licencing limitations, making it a very thrifty resources.  Interactive websites can be integrated into the library management systems, LibQuests and class intranet pages, as well as embedded into class documents, and accessible from a range of devices.  This makes After 6/4, a valuable teaching tool for digital and media literacy.  The only caveats are that this DL requires the internet to access and interact with, and this could be an issue for rural, remote and low income households (DIIS, 2016).  Therefore it would be recommended that After 6/4 is used in the classroom for teaching and learning rather than being tasked for homework.  Additionally, as the resource is found on the internet, there is no guarantee it will be freely available indefinitely so caution is required when unit planning.  

Recommendation: 

After 6/4  would be a suitable addition to a school collection.   

References:

ACARA. (2019). Cross curricular priorities – Asia and Australia’s engagement with Asia. F-10 Curriculum. Educational Services Australia.  Retrieved from https://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/f-10-curriculum/cross-curriculum-priorities/asia-and-australia-s-engagement-with-asia/

ACARA. (2014a). English Curriculum. F-10 Curriculum. Educational Services Australia. Retrieved from https://australiancurriculum.edu.au/f-10-curriculum/english/?strand=Language&strand=Literature&strand=Literacy&capability=ignore&priority=ignore&elaborations=true

ACARA. (2014b). The Arts – Media Arts Curriculum. F-10 Curriculum. Educational Services Australia. Retrieved from https://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/f-10-curriculum/the-arts/media-arts/

ACARA. (2014b). HASS – History Curriculum – Unit 4. F-10 Curriculum. Educational Services Australia. Retrieved from https://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/f-10-curriculum/humanities-and-social-sciences/history/

ACARA. (2014c). Modern History – HASS. Senior Secondary Curriculum. Educational Services Australia. Retrieved from https://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/senior-secondary-curriculum/humanities-and-social-sciences/modern-history/

Botzakis, S. (2018). Comics in the classroom: Using graphic novels for content learning. In D. Wooten, B. Cullinan, L. Liang & R. Allington (Eds).  Children’s literature in the reading program: Engaging young readers in the 21st century, (5th ed., pp. 140-152). Retrieved from Proquest Ebook Central.

Briggs, S. (2016). Using gaming principles to engage students. InformED [Blog]. Retrieved from https://www.opencolleges.edu.au/informed/features/using-gaming-principles-to-engage-students/

Cullen, M. (2015, December 21). How is interactive media changing the way children learn. In EducationTechnology. Retrieved from https://educationtechnologysolutions.com.au/2015/12/how-is-interactive-media-changing-the-way-children-learn/

Department of Industry, Innovation and Science. (2016). Australia’s digital economy update. Retrieved from https://apo.org.au/sites/default/files/resource-files/2016/05/apo-nid66202-1210631.pdf

Heckman, D., & Bouchardon, S. (2012). Digital manipulation and digital literature.  Electronic Book Review.  Retrieved from https://electronicbookreview.com/essay/digital-manipulability-and-digital-literature/

Kopka, S. & Hobbs, R., (2014). Transmedia & Education: Using Transmedia in the Classroom with a Focus on Interactive Literature [Blog]. SeKopka. Retrieved from https://sekopka.wordpress.com/2014/05/07/transmedia-education-using-transmedia-in-the-classroom-with-a-focus-on-interactive-literature/

Lamb, A. (2011). Reading re-defined for a transmedia universe. Learning & Leading with Technology 39(3), p.12-17. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ954320

Leu, D.J, Forzani, E., Timbrell, N., & Maykel., C. (2015) . Seeing the forest, not the trees: Essential technologies for literacy in primary grade and upper elementary grade classroom. Reading Teacher 69: (2), p.139-145. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1073399

Pietschmann, D., Volkel, S., & Ohler, P. (2014). Limitations of transmedia storytelling for children: A cognitive development analysis. International Journal of Communication 8, p.2259-2282. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/279323387_Limitations_of_Transmedia_Storytelling_for_Children_A_Cognitive_Developmental_Analysis

Raja, B.W.D., & Kumar, S.P. (2010). Do multimedia applications benefit learning disabled children? Journal of Educational Technology 6 (4). Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1098361

Ross Johnston, R. (2014a). Chapter 23 – Literature, the curriculum and 21st-century literacy. In G. Winch, R. Ross Johnston, P. March, L. Ljungdahl & M. Holliday (Eds.), Literacy: Reading, writing and children’s literature (5th ed., pp. 472-489). Melbourne: Oxford University Press. 

Ross Johnston, R. (2014b). Chapter 30 – Visual literacy: Reading the world of signs. In G. Winch, R. Ross Johnston, P. March, L. Ljungdahl & M. Holliday (Eds.), Literacy: Reading, writing and children’s literature (5th ed., pp. 618-636). Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

 

Assessments require rubrics!

I have just finished writing another saga about the the process that goes into evaluating digital resources for a school collection and it occurred to me that assessing resources would benefit from a rubric.

So I made one up.  This way TL can grade the digital resources.  The marking system emphasises the higher value some criteria have over others.

The sources for my brilliance are below.

 

References for this rubric:

 ALA Office for Intellectual Freedom (2018) Selection & Reconsideration Policy Toolkit for Public, School, & Academic Libraries. American Library Association. Retrieved from http://www.ala.org/tools/challengesupport/selectionpolicytoolkit/criteria

El Mhouti, A., Nasseh, A., & Erradi, M. (2013). How to evaluate the quality of digital learning resources? International Journal of Computer Science Research and Application. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/260392089_How_to_evaluate_the_quality_of_digital_learning_resources

Learning for the future: developing information services in Australian schools 2nd edition (2001). Curriculum Corporation, Carlton South. Retrieved from http:// www.curriculumpress.edu.au/main/goproduct/12405.

Leu, D.J, Forzani, E.,Timbrell, N., & Maykel., C. (2015) . Seeing the forest, not the trees: Essential technologies for literacy in primary grade and upper elementarty grade classroom. Reading Teacher 69: (2), p.139-145. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1073399.

Mantei, J., Kipscombe, K., & Kervin, L. (2018). Literature in a digital environment (Ch. 13). In L. McDonald (Ed.), A literature companion for teachers. Marrickville, NSW: Primary English Teaching Association Australia (PETAA).

Mitchell, P. (2011). Resourcing 21st century online Australian Curriculum: the role of school libraries. FYI: The Journal for School Information Professionals 15(2). Retrieved from CSU Library.

National Library of New Zealand, (n.d.a). Your library’s digital collection. Service to Schools. Retrieved from https://natlib.govt.nz/schools/digital-literacy/your-librarys-role-in-supporting-digital-literacy/your-librarys-digital-collection

National Library of New Zealand. (n.d.b). Selecting and purchasing resources. Service to Schools. Retrieved from https://natlib.govt.nz/schools/school-libraries/collections-and-resources/selecting-resources-for-your-collection/selecting-and-purchasing-resources

Walker, S., Jameson, J., & Ryan, M. (2010). Chapter 15 –  Skills and strategies for e-Learning in a participatory culture. In Sharpe, R., Beetham, H., & de Freitas, S. (2010). Rethinking Learning for a Digital Age. Retrieved from CSU library.

Yokota, J., & Teale, W. (2014). Picture books and the digital world. The Reading Teacher 67(8), pp.577-585.    DOI:  10.1002/trtr.1262  

Digital Collections – Are the parameters different?

 

geralt / Pixabay

Contemporary libraries for the contemporary student

MCEETYA (2008) envisaged the modern student as an engaged learner, literate across modalities and able to critically evaluate the present pervasive overload of information.  This contemporary student needs a library that enables these abilities and meets their cognitive, behavioural and developmental needs, so that they can gain an active citizenship in a digital world.  Since the primary focus of any school library is to meet the needs of curriculum and the students, a school library Collection Development and Management Policy (CDMP) needs to address these 21st century mandates (ASLA & VCTL, 2018; MCEETYA, 2008; Mitchell, 2011; Learning for the Future, 2001; Nat Lib of NZ, n.d.b).  

The robustness of a school library collection is dependent on its CDMP, and consists of physical and electronic resources accessible by the library management system or LMS (Mitchell, 2011, p.10).  Physical resources include books, maps, atlases, CDs, DVDs, and the various technologies required to gain access to them (ASLA & VCTL, 2018, p.10).  Electronic resources include digital literature, ebooks, audiobooks, online encyclopaedias and useful websites as well as devices such as e-readers, laptops and tablets (ASLA & VCTL, 2018, p.10).  To be considered as part of the collection and included within the LMS, resources need to be curated against a set of selection criteria to ensure that they meet curriculum outcomes (ASLA & VCTL, 2018; Mitchell, 2011, p.10; Johnson, 2018).  Unfortunately the vibrant nature of school libraries is diminishing as people often view the Internet and electronic resources as a viable alternative to physical and print resources (Wood, 2017; Kachel, 2016).  But not all electronic or digital resources are automatically superior to print and physical.  Instead physical and electronic texts should be considered equally important within a reading paradigm and a school library context (Mitchell, 2011; Mantei, Lipscombe & Kervin, 2018). 

The Library Collection Development and Management Policy or CDMP, requires all resources be assessed and evaluated for function, accuracy and reliability, and this includes both physical and electronic resources.  The physical component of a library is fairly straightforward to collect, curate and catalogue, as these resources are owned by the school and can be stored in a specific location for student access.  Whereas, most electronic resources have access permitted through leases or subscriptions held by libraries.  These subscriptions often describe the licencing for a number of users and terms are often dictated by the publisher.  It must be noted that some digital resources can be owned, like purchased electronic books, but leases or subscriptions are more common within libraries. 

Electronic resources also vary in their format, require different devices for access, and can suddenly ‘disappear’, which can place additional costs on libraries and users.   Some digital resources such as websites and webpages often require close scrutiny to ensure authority. The considerations a teacher librarian has to make to determine suitability for digital and electronic resources are more exacting than for physical and print sources (Johnson, 2018). These considerations, or selection criteria are used to differentiate an electronic source’s credibility, reliability accuracy, authority and importantly, price. It’s the CRAAP test for librarians. 


Hughes- Hassell & Mancall (2005) advocates the use of a flow chart to determine suitability, whereas El Mhouti (2013) suggests the use of a tree structure that assesses academic, pedagogical, didactic and technical qualities. Whilst I have considered both these options, I do prefer the main criteria and evaluative process by El Mhouti et al., (2013) as it is methodological, and it seems foolhardy to exclude resources should they not meet each and every requirement.  Instead, resources should satisfy all the main criteria and at least one of the subsections.  

The following selection criteria was created to assess and evaluate resources for a Catholic high school library. These criteria points, whilst not exhaustive aim to cover the essential aims and priorities (Hughes- Hassell & Mancall, 2005; National Library of NZ, n.d.a; ALA OIC, 2018). I have previously covered some of this information in this blog post!

Whilst the above selection criteria are deemed suitable for physical resources, it seems apparent that digital resources require additional considerations (Johnson, 2018, p.128).  These considerations will change depending on the school, its digital capability and the needs of its community.  

Valid considerations when evaluating digital resources are:

  1. The essential point of electronic resources and digital literature is to facilitate the learning process.  From a literacy perspective, the primary purpose of texts in a digital space is to improve a student’s ability to promote transaction with the text.  Engagement, comprehension and evaluation of digital texts require online AND offline reading skills.  Offline reading skills such as word recognition, subject specific content vocabulary and meaning making are all essential for online reading (Leu et al., 2015).  Whereas online reading requires the reader to locate information, critically evaluate the information present, synthesise multiple sources of information and be able to problem solve  (Leu et al., 2015).  Resources that DO NOT ENHANCE the learning process, DO NOT BELONG in a school library collection!
  2. The National Library of New Zealand (n.d.c) points out that libraries are responsible for the curation of digital resources and that they meet the same collection development standards as set in the CDMP.  Many teacher librarians use LibGuides as a method to curate digital content, as they are a great way of drawing attention to subject specific resources teaching and learning purposes (German, 2017).  Other tools used to curate content include Diigo, Pinterest, PearlTrees, Twitter and Feedly (Nat Lib. of NZ, n.b.c).
  3. Digital and electronic sources are often used to meet the needs for diverse learners.  Students with cognitive, behavioural and developmental learning needs do require resources in different formats and it is the duty of the CDMP to ensure that their policies meet those needs (Johnson 2018).  An example is providing access to audiobooks and databases with a “read aloud” function and checking the accessibility of websites to assist with equitable access for students with visual impairments and learning disabilities.  
  4.  Leu et al. (2015) argues that instead of teaching students the intricacies of software, it is more important to teach the skills, which can then be transferred across subjects and out of the school environment.  This means that online reading and learning needs to be the main focus of digital resources (see above point).
  5. A concern from many teacher librarians about digital literature is the issue of copyright (Sahoo & Goel, 2018).  The internet has made it very easy to infringe these rights.  Therefore any resources added to the school library collection need to be sourced ethically and the author clearly sited on the source.  
  6. Digital resources need to be supported by the school’s network and LMS, and if BYOD program exists, licensing that permits multiple users (IFLA 2015).  Many online libraries such as BorrowBox and Wheelers only permit one user at a time to access their collection.  Whilst this is appropriate and acceptable for public libraries, it does not work for texts used for teaching and learning.  In these cases multiple print copies would be more financially sound.  
  7. Emerging technologies such as AR and VR are starting to appear in libraries across the world.  Their prevalence is currently limited to academic libraries and public libraries but are starting to emanate in school environments.  Mitchell (2011) argues that resources that utilise ‘high touch’ and ‘high tech’ are desirable as they meet the behavioural needs of the students.  

(Johnson, 2018; Nat Lib NZ, n.d.c; Hughes-Hassal & Mancall, 2005;  El Mhouti, 2014; Yokota & Teale, 2014; Leu et al., 2015; Mantei et al., 2018; Walker et al., 2010; Mitchell, 2011)

The Australian curriculum requires the inclusion of digital and multimodal texts to support learners in their endeavour to become active citizens in a digital world.  The integration of digital resources has a dual purpose in school collections, as it fulfills the learning requirements dictated by ACARA, as well as the contemporary skills the modern student needs (MCEETYA, 2008).  Since the focus of a school library is to support and address the curriculum, the CDMP needs to ensure that its selection criteria promotes the curation of reputable and reliable resources in both print and electronic forms.  The truth of the matter is that technology is constantly transforming, and with this constant change, the nature of digital and electronic resources available for teaching and learning is adapting at the same pace.  This rapid change means CDMP policies are often unable to keep up with technology advances, which means it’s up to the TL to use their discretion when considering the inclusion of digital resources into the school library collection.  

REFERENCES:

 ALA Office for Intellectual Freedom (2018) Selection & Reconsideration Policy Toolkit for Public, School, & Academic Libraries. American Library Association. Retrieved from http://www.ala.org/tools/challengesupport/selectionpolicytoolkit/criteria

El Mhouti, A., Nasseh, A., & Erradi, M. (2013). How to evaluate the quality of digital learning resources? International Journal of Computer Science Research and Application. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/260392089_How_to_evaluate_the_quality_of_digital_learning_resources

German, E. (2017). LibGuides for instruction – A service design point of view from an academic library. Reference and User Services Quarterly 56(3). Retrieved from https://www.journals.ala.org/index.php/rusq/article/download/6257/8146

Hughes-Hassell, S., & Mancall, J. C. (2005). Collection management for youth : Responding to the needs of learners. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral.proquest.com

IFLA (2015 ) IFLA School library guidelines. 2nd Edition. International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions. Retrieved from 

Kachel, D. (2015). The calamity of the disappearing school libraries. The Conversation. Retrieved from https://theconversation.com/the-calamity-of-the-disappearing-school-libraries-44498

Jong, M. (2019). Sustaining the adoption of gamified outdoor social enquiry learning in high schools through addressing teachers’ emerging concerns: A 3-year study. British Journal of Educational Technology 50(3). Pp1275-1293. DOI: 10.1111/bjet.12767

Learning for the future: developing information services in Australian schools 2nd edition (2001). Curriculum Corporation, Carlton South. Retrieved from http:// www.curriculumpress.edu.au/main/goproduct/12405.

Leu, D.J, Forzani, E.,Timbrell, N., & Maykel., C. (2015) . Seeing the forest, not the trees: Essential technologies for literacy in primary grade and upper elementarty grade classroom. Reading Teacher 69: (2), p.139-145. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1073399

Mantei, J., Kipscombe, K., & Kervin, L. (2018). Literature in a digital environment (Ch. 13). In L. McDonald (Ed.), A literature companion for teachers. Marrickville, NSW: Primary English Teaching Association Australia (PETAA).

MCEETYA (2008) Melbourne Declaration on Educational Goals for Young Australians. Curriculum Corporation. Australia. Retrieved from http://www.curriculum.edu.au/verve/_resources/national_declaration_on_the_educational_goals_for_young_australians.pdf

National Library of New Zealand. (n.d.a). Selecting and purchasing resources. Service to Schools. Retrieved from https://natlib.govt.nz/schools/school-libraries/collections-and-resources/selecting-resources-for-your-collection/selecting-and-purchasing-resources

National Library of New Zealand (n.d.b) Working out your library’s collection requirementsService to Schools. Retrieved from https://natlib.govt.nz/schools/school-libraries/collections-and-resources/your-collection-management-plan/working-out-your-librarys-collection-requirements

National Library of New Zealand, (n.d.c). Your library’s digital collection. Service to Schools. Retrieved from https://natlib.govt.nz/schools/digital-literacy/your-librarys-role-in-supporting-digital-literacy/your-librarys-digital-collection

Sahoo, B., Kumar, A. & Goel, S. (2018). Digital resources management: The role of the National Digital Library.  International Journal of Information Dissemination and Technology, 8(3), 143-146.

Walker, S., Jameson, J., & Ryan, M. (2010). Chapter 15 –  Skills and strategies for e-Learning in a participatory culture. In Sharpe, R., Beetham, H., & de Freitas, S. (2010). Rethinking Learning for a Digital Age. Retrieved from CSU library. 

Wood, P. (2017). School libraries disappearing as the digital age takes over. ABC News Breakfast. Retrieved from https://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-09-25/school-libraries-disappearing-as-the-digital-age-takes-over/8980464

Yokota, J., & Teale, W. (2014). Picture books and the digital world. The Reading Teacher 67(8), pp.577-585.    DOI:  10.1002/trtr.1262