ETL504 – Learning informs practice and Learning building capacity.

How will my learning from this subject inform my practice to build my leadership capacity?

Ability to thrive 

The teacher librarian’s (TL) efficacy is dependent on the principal’s leadership, school culture and their own leadership capacity (Templeton, 2021c).  Under the right circumstances, TLs can thrive, exert their prowess and become innovators of pedagogy and technology (ASLA & ALIA, 2004).  However, if the stars are misaligned or the school is a quagmire of silos and entrenched bureaucracy, TLs can become stifled, bored, ignored or irrelevant.  Therefore it is essential that TLs identify the circumstances that impact their ability tobecome future focused leaders.  



I had assumed leadership was managerial in nature, occurred at the top and directives went down the chain of command (Templeton, 2021b).  Therefore I was astounded that transformational leadership supports middle school leaders, teacher librarians and teacher leaders implementing changes (Templeton, 2021c; Templeton, 2021d; Templeton, 2021e).  As the modules progressed, I learned that TLs thrive best under transformation leadership, as this style cultivates a positive learning culture, promotes team building, advocates professional growth and builds leadership capacity in others so that they can be instruments of change in their departments (Longwell-McKean, 2012, p. 24).

BTW – I was Robin!


This video connects leadership to culture.

Learning Culture 

As teachers we all know that a positive learning culture is essential for optimum student learning outcomes, but there seems to be uncertainty if teachers are included in this learning paradigm (AITSL, 2017).  Ambivalent or negative learning cultures directly impact implementation of school wide practices, however, TLs are able to make the library space a positive environment by supporting learning in their community through instituting professional development, modelling best practice, provision of resources and mentoring (Bourne, 2021; Templeton, 2021a; Sharman, 2021).  

Change Fatigue

The single most important fact I gained from this course is that rapidly mandated change fails because there is lack of consultation, insufficient processing and integration time, lack of education and inadequate practical support for teachers (Armstrong, 2021b; Cherkowski, 2018; Dilkes et al., 2014).  For change to succeed, it must be perceived to be valuable, effectively implemented and practical support during transition freely offered (Kim et al., 2019).  Australian teachers are in a change crisis because the introduction of the national curriculum, standardised testing, shift to constructivism and digital learning has led to extreme change (Dilkes et al., 2014; Stroud, 2017).  As a result, teachers often manifest disinterest or disinclination because of their reluctance to experiment with new ideas or technologies stemming from feelings of being undervalued, fear of failure, reprisals and even the transitory nature of those changes (Riveros et al., 2013, p.10). Change fatigue is a valid concern and needs to be effectively mitigated before any school wide changes are expected to succeed.    

Professional Guidance 

TLs often work independently and many lack clear expectations of their position and the moral confidence to pursue leadership roles (De Nobile, 2018, p.401; Lipscombe et al., 2020, p.419).  

Whilst many TLs use the standards set by ASLA & ALIA (2004) and (AITSL) 2017 to frame their practice, it is recommended that AITSL’s Australian Professional Standard for Principals (2014) is used to future practice and develop leadership capacity (Lipscombe et al., 2020, p.412).  However, many TLs may find these standards daunting, but it is important to remember that leadership is the use of social influence to exert others to achieve a goal or vision and is not restricted to just the top of an organisation.  

Future Focus

The future focused TL has four main arenas that support the school vision, responsible resourcing, innovative pedagogies, formal and informal professional development opportunities to mitigate change fatigue, and development of information literacy (Armstrong, 2021a; Bourne, 2021; Stiles, 2021).  By combining practical support with coaching or mentoring, the TL is able to slowly change the school’s groundswell.  It is through these arenas of focus that TLs can support their colleagues and the principal in achieving the vision of active and engaged citizens who can problem solve effectively, work collaboratively as well as think critically and creatively (MCEETYA, 2008).  



AITSL. (2017). Australian professional standards for teachers. Education Services Australia.  australian-professional-standards-for-teachers.pdf (

Armstrong, K. (2021a, March 14). Module 3 ICT integration. [Online discussion comment]. ETL 504 Discussion Forums. CSU – Interact 2 

Armstrong, K. (2021b, May 4). Stress in schools: Is it optional? Musings and Meanderings.

AITSL. (2014). Australian professional standard for principals and the leadership profiles. Education Services Australia.

ASLA & ALIA. (2004). Australian professional standards for teacher librarians. ALIA.

Bourne, H. (2021a, May 22). Module 6: Week 11/12 – AITSL professional learning. ETL 504 Discussion Forums. CSU – Interact 2 

Cherkowski, S. (2018). Positive teacher leadership: Building mindsets and capacities to grow wellbeing. International Journal of Teacher Leadership, 9(1). EJ1182707.pdf (

De Nobile, J. (2018). Towards a theoretical model of middle leadership in schools. School Leadership & Management 38(4). pp 395-416, DOI: 10.1080/13632434.2017.1411902

Dilkes, J., Cunningham, C., & Gray, J. (2014). The new Australian curriculum, teachers and change fatigue. Australian Journal of Teacher Education. 39(11).

Kim, S., Raza, M., & Seidman, E. (2019). Improving 21st-century teaching skills: The key to effective 21st-century learners. Research In Comparative And International Education, 14(1), 99-117.

Lipscombe, K., Grice, C., Tindall-Ford, S., & DeNobile, J. (2020). Middle leading in Australian schools: Professional standards, positions, and professional development. School Leadership & Management 40(5) pp.406-424. DOI: 10.1080/13632434.2020.1731685

Longwell-McKean, P.(2012). Restructuring leadership for 21st century schools: How transformational leadership and trust cultivate teacher leadership.  UC San Diego.

MCEETYA. (2008). Melbourne declaration on educational goals for young Australians. Curriculum Corporation. Australia.

Riveros, A., Newton, P., & da Costa, J. (2013).  From teachers to teacher leaders: A case study. International Journal of Teacher Leadership 4(1). EJ1137376.pdf (

Stroud, G. (2017). Why do teachers leave? ABC News – Opinion.

Templeton, T. (2021a, February 28). Module 1 – culture. ETL 504 Discussion Forums. CSU – Interact 2 

Templeton, T. (2021b, March 1). Leadership – The beginning of ETL504. Trish’s Trek into Bookspace. 

Templeton, T. (2021c, March 14). Leading from the middle – Teacher Librarian as a middle leader at school. Trish’s Trek into Bookspace. 

Templeton, T. (2021d, March 6). Transformational leadership. Trish’s Trek into Bookspace. 

Templeton, T. (2021e, May 7). Teacher leaders. Trish’s Trek into Bookspace. 

Sharman, S. (2021, March 22). Module 3 ICT integration. ETL 504 Discussion Forums. CSU – Interact 2 

Stiles, Y. (2021, April 27). Module 4.3-4.3. ETL 504 Discussion Forums. CSU – Interact 2 .


Teacher Leaders


Leaders and leadership traits are found all throughout a learning organisaiton’s stratums. However, the difference between the hierarchies is how leadership is exhibited.  The principal and their executive team are the traditional leaders in schools as they are the ones that hold formal roles and any decision they make has the weight of that authority behind them.  These upper leadership styles are often directive and or distributive in nature to ensure a learning organisation is effective at improving student outcomes (Supovitz, D’Auria & Spillane, 2019, p.8).  However, leadership activity regularly occurs outside the executive team as there are many instances of classroom teachers exhibiting leadership traits within their spheres of influence (De Nobile, 2018).  They are known as teacher leaders, and they have a great capacity to influence a school system and improve learning outcomes because they base their leadership upon the relationships they have with their colleagues, and their communities (Uribe-Florez, Al-Rawashdeh & Morales, 2014, p.1).   Their efficacy is framed upon the simple fact that these teacher leaders are primarily situated in the classroom, have a thorough understanding of student learning and thus have a greater impact on student success (Consenza, 2015, p.80).  

 Defining teacher leaders:

Teacher leaders are predominantly classroom teachers who use their social influence and leadership capacity to effect educational change in their school (Uribe-Florez, Al-Rawashdeh & Morales, 2014, p2).  They often hold a variety of roles and their influence can stem from two main sources, a desire to seek career advancement through investigating appropriate professional challenges, or by building relationships and trust with their peers to create a professional network (Fairman & Mackenzie, 2015; Cosenza, 2015, p.79; Riveros, Newton & da Costa, 2012, p.2).  Either way, teacher leaders do not hold any formal positions within the school, but instead use their expertise, professional knowledge and practice to inspire and motivate their peers. 

Historically teacher leaders were perceived as more of a managerial position.  But it soon became evident that their expertise was more suited to improving pedagogy, and thus the second wave of leadership saw teacher leadership focused upon instruction and curriculum development before finally evolving into leaders of modern pedagogical practice (Fairman & Mackenzie, 2015, p61).   Riveros, Newton & da Costa, (2013) suggest that teacher leader efficacy is based upon the fact they are process orientated and have significant knowledge and understanding of the curriculum and classroom teaching strategies (p.2-3).  Interestingly, both Fairman & Mackenzie (2015), and Riveros, Newton & da Costa (2013) theories that the efficacy of teacher leaders is due to informal leadership positions having a far greater potential to impact pedagogical practices and change management because influence is gained through relationships rather than stemming from a power base. 

Teacher leaders and their role in teaching and learning:

There are several advantages to developing teacher leaders in schools but the predominant benefit is the indirect improvement of student learning outcomes through the direct impact of improving pedagogical practice (Riveros, Newton & da Costa, 2013, p.2).  These pedagogical improvements can be implemented by the teacher leader using servant leadership, such as modelling best practice, mentoring emerging teachers, sharing new ideas, as well as taking action and collaborating on school wide initiatives (Riveros, Newton & da Costa, 2013, p.2; Cosenza, 2015).  Whilst some teacher leaders have specific roles such as teacher librarian, ICT leader, digital coach, literacy leader or even just be known as the ‘math guru’, they are predominantly classroom teachers who are seeking to improve their own professional practice (Riveros, Newton & da Costa, 2013, p.2).  The commonality between the various roles and practices is that these teacher leaders have the ability to effectively collaborate with their colleagues for the benefit of all the school’s stakeholders (Cosenza, 2015, p.93).   

Teacher leaders and change management:

The efficacy of a teacher leaders’ ability to be a change agent and implement school wide improvements is framed upon their leadership abilities, and their capacity to collaborate effectively with their peers horizontally across the learning organisation.  Leadership traits such as having a strong sense of purpose, developing robust relationships, and advocating collaboration to improve teaching and learning beyond the walls of their classroom are essential to improve school wide practice (Riveros, Newton & da Costa, 2013, p.2).  It is through these behaviours and attributes that teacher leaders are able to directly influence change by initiating professional conversations, promoting collegial discussions, mentoring emerging teachers, sharing innovative ideas as well as by collaborating with their colleagues on curriculum, assessment and reporting (Fairman & Mackenzie, 2015, p72).  They can also indirectly influence how change is implemented by promoting a positive learning environment and by developing teams to facilitate the change management process (Fairman & Mackenzie, 2015, p. 73).  

 As teacher leaders are defined by their skills and actions rather than a formal role or position, they can arise from any faculty across a school (Consenza, 2015, p.80).  This means that they are able to have an immediate impact on their sphere of influence, and when they collaborate with their colleagues, their spheres of guidance expands and as such, their activity becomes a collaborative exercise (Fairman & Mackenzie, 2015, p 63).  These spheres of activity and corresponding impact allows teacher leaders to become innovators of pedagogy because they are able to use their positive relationships with their peers to influence teaching practices in their schools, and build collegial environments in their professional communities (Fairman & Mackenzie, 2015, p.68).  

Teacher librarian as a teacher leader:

Teacher librarians can be considered as teacher leaders because their professional practice requires them to have a comprehensive understanding of curriculum, use evidence to support pedagogy, advocate lifelong learning, demonstrate leadership, promote collaborative practices and create an environment that promotes participation and learning (Johnston, 2015, p. 40; ALIA & ASLA, 2004).  In fact these requirements correlate closely to the qualities described in AITSL (2019) Highly Accomplished and Lead Teacher domains, therefore confirming teacher librarians as teacher leaders.   In fact, many teacher librarians are distributed the role of leadership of information literacy, innovative pedagogies and emerging technologies as part of shared leadership because they are best suited to that role (Johnston, 2015, p.40).  

Through their capacity as teacher leaders, teacher librarians are able to develop positive relationships with their peers, and are able to effectively implement innovative pedagogies as well as embed emerging technologies into teaching and learning (Lipscombe et al., 2020, p.412).  These behaviours are made possible because the relationships are based upon a shared professional identity, and a reciprocal of trust which creates the library as a safe place for teachers to experiment without fear of any reprisals (Riveros, Newton & da Costa, 2013, p.10). 

 Teacher leaders often use servant leadership such as modelling good practice, sharing ideas, as well as coaching and collaborating with their peers to influence the pedagogical practices of their learning organisation (Fairman & Mackenzie, 2015, p68).   Examples of such practice include working collaboratively with their colleagues to create inquiry units that develop important 21st century skills, or model literary learning through text sets, or literature circles as a viable alternative to textbook work, or share ideas of how to integrate emerging technologies such as AR and VR into their practice.  Besides directly impacting pedagogical practice, teacher librarians are also tasked with being the information specialists of their school.  This means that they are required to model and teach information literacy skills, provide a physical and digital learning space that is conducive to learning for all members of the community, and ensure the curriculum is resourced appropriately with access to print and digital material (ASLA & ALIA, 2004).

Support and limitations of teacher leadership in schools.

Even though it is widely acknowledged that classroom teachers have the greatest impact upon student learning and that collective teacher leadership is an effective method to implement school wide improvement, the capacity of a teacher leader is not being universally actualised (Cosenza, 2015, p.80; Lowery-Moore, Latimer & Villate, 2016, p.2).  The efficacy of teacher leaders is often hampered from both the executive and from their colleagues through covert and overt behaviour.   Some executives may view teacher leadership with disfavour as it infringes on their formal roles within a school (Isabu, 2017, p.149).  Others may fail to endorse teacher leadership activity because they find the idea of pedagogical reform from the classroom unpalatable compared to reforms rolled out from the boardroom (Cosenza, 2015, p.81). Whereas, collegial reluctance is often due to resentment because an individual teacher leader’s strive for improving professional practice could increase the benchmark and change the status quo of acceptable teacher practice (Fairman & Mackenzie, 2015, p. 71).  

Teacher leaders need the support from the executive leadership team in their school to succeed.  Without their obvious support, the capacity of teacher leaders to thrive is limited.  Executive leaders can overtly limit professional development opportunities to reduce the likelihood of teacher leader initiated reforms and covertly hinder their efficacy by exhibiting disinterest and apathy (Uribe-Florez, Al-Rawashdeh & Morales, 2014, p.11).  Whilst disinterest from formal leaders limits the scope of a teacher leader to lead, apathy has significant implications towards teaching and learning in general.  Organisations like schools will always take the path of least effort and if there is executive apathy, it can quickly stagnate school wide initiatives and limits a positive learning culture which directly impacts the value of learning for both students and teachers (Dinsdale, 2017, p. 43; Patel, 2019).  


Teacher leaders are pivotal to school-wide improvement initiatives because they are able to effectively use the positive relationships that they have with their colleagues to improve professional practice.  As teacher leaders most frequently use servant leadership to influence their colleagues, they are able to integrate and embed innovative teaching practices by leading others through explicit actions and through modelling good practice.  Since teacher leaders can arise from any faculty across a learning organisation, they are able to impact change horizontally across the curriculum and as such, have a collective impact upon teaching and learning.  However, the scope of teacher leadership is dependent on the actions of their leadership team.  Effective teacher leaders thrive in schools with a positive learning culture and where they are empowered by their principal.  


AITSL. (2019). Certification of Highly Accomplished and Lead Teachers in Australia. National Policy Framework

ALIA & ASLA. (2004). Standards of professional excellence for teacher librarians. Australian School Library Association., M. (2015). Defining teacher leadership: Affirming the teacher leader model standards. Issues in Teacher Education 24(2). Pp79-99.  EJ1090327.pdf (

 Cherkowski, S. (2018). Positive teacher leadership: Building mindsets and capacity to grow wellbeing. International Journal of Teacher Leadership 9(1). EJ1182707.pdf (

De Nobile, J. (2018). Towards a theoretical model of middle leadership in schools. School Leadership & Management 38 (4). pp 395-416, DOI: 10.1080/13632434.2017.1411902

Dinsdale, R. (2017). The role of leaders in developing a positive culture. BU Journal of Graduate Studies in Education 9(1). Pp. 42-45.

Isabu, M. (2017). Causes and management of school related conflict. African Educational Research Journal 5(2). Pp.148-151.

Johnston, M. (2015). Distributed leadership theory for investigating teacher librarian leadership. School Libraries Worldwide 21 (2). doi: 10.14265.21.2.003

Lipscombe, K. Grice, C. Tindall-Ford, S., & DeNobile, J. (2020). Middle leading in Australian schools: professional standards, positions, and professional development. School Leadership & Management 40 (5) pp.406-424. DOI: 10.1080/13632434.2020.1731685 

Lowery-Moore, H., Latimer, R., & Villate, V. (2016). The essence of teacher leadership: A phenomenological inquiry of professional growth.  International Journal of Teacher Leadership 7(1).  EJ1137503.pdf (

NSW Department of Education. (2020, February 12). Policy library: Library policy – schools. NSW Government.

Patel, P. ( 1st April, 2019). Leadership – valuing dissonance. The Teacherist.

Riveros, A., Newton, P., & da Costa, J. (2013).  From teachers to teacher leaders: A case study. International Journal of Teacher Leadership 4(1). EJ1137376.pdf (

Supovitz, J., D’Auria, D., & Spillane, J. (2019). Meaningful and sustainable school improvement with distributed leadership. CPRE Research Papers. University of Pennsylvania Scholarly Commons. Retrieved from

Uribe-Florez, L., Al-Rawashdeh, A., & Morales, S. (2014). Perceptions about teacher leadership: Do teacher leaders and administrators share a common ground? Journal of International Education and Leadership 4(1). EJ1136038.pdf (

Weisburg, H. K. & Walter, V.A. (2010). Being indispensable: A school librarian’s guide to becoming an invaluable leader. American Library Association.


Virtual Study Visit – Reflection

ETL 507 – Reflection of Virtual Study Visit

The virtual study visits were a fascinating way for an emerging teacher librarian to gain insight into the daily operations of various information agencies, understand how they dealt with the COVID 19 lockdowns and identify the strategies they used to promote literacy development.  All the educational institutions had similar goals of promoting learning and providing access to reliable and accurate information.  These goals were evident through the presence of specifically curated collections, provision of various forms of learning technology and the furnishing of various spaces to meet the needs of teaching and learning.   

mohamed_hassan / Pixabay


A central theme from these sessions was how institutions adapted their library services to remote learning.  Victoria University, University of Newcastle and William Angliss TAFE used innovative technologies to transform the processes in which their libraries provided information to their students offsite.  The creation of online videos, LibChats and virtual help desks gave students the synchronous assistance they needed to navigate the digital resources in lieu of on site help.  These services obviously met a great patron need and their uptake showed that it WAS the provision of assistance that is important, rather than the method in which it is delivered.  But whilst digital technologies proved useful in developing student information literacy, especially in a digitally centric collection, my experience as a teacher librarian has shown me that there is definitely scope for more  explicit instruction so that students have the skills to seek, find, access and use information in a digital context! 

This instruction is essential especially with University of Newcastle’s strategic goal to have a digital focus to their collection.  Whilst this correlates to the cognitive needs of tertiary students, it did not meet the developmental and behavioural needs of high school students.  Strong digital literacy requires a base of strong print literacy, yet it was astounding to see that none of the educational institutions had a robust fiction collection.  From a literacy perspective, this lack of fiction and promotion of recreational reading is contrary in communities that promote literacy and lifelong learning.    


The role of technology in delivering library services during a pandemic. 

The role of technology in delivering library services during a pandemic. 

geralt / Pixabay


Libraries, information centres and learning commons are all places associated with information seeking, access and usage (IFLA, 2015).  However, the COVID-10 pandemic and resulting lockdowns have changed how libraries meet the needs of their patrons, resulting in new and different ways information agencies are using to meet the needs of their users in a rapidly evolving environment.  This is important as it is the efficacy of these connections that strengthen the relationship libraries have with their patrons now and into the future (Cordova et al., 2021, p.82-83).  Therefore, educational institutions such as TAFEs and universities embraced technology to meet these needs by addressing how patrons seek, access and create information, as well as developing the information literacy skills of their community (Landgraf, 2021, p.32). 

TheDigitalArtist / Pixabay – Lockdowns mean remote learning.


Technology assisting information seeking:

The use of technology is ubiquitous in information seeking as digital learning management systems are commonly used to catalogue and organise information.  However, since the pandemic, some educational institutions have discerned the difficulty that remote users have with information seeking programs and therefore have embedded technologies to offer synchronous assistance in their strategic plans.  The University of Newcastle’s (UoN) strategic plan acknowledges the importance of virtual library spaces mirroring the physical using innovative technologies to support students seeking resources both on and off site (Turbitt, 2021).  This was replicated in Victoria University’s (VU) decision to use Zoom and LibChat to mimic that personal interaction via a virtual service desk because Zoom’s screen share function enabled staff members to assist students more effectively (Muir & Anele, 2021).  Additionally, Victoria University (2021) strategic plan aims to ensure content and learning resources are integrated on the same webpage meeting the modern student need for both usability and utility from their information retrieval (Landgraf, 2021, p.30).  These institutions strove to use technology in innovative methods to ensure that their students could successfully seek information whilst remote learning (Kloppenborg, 2021; Muir & Anele, 2021; Turbitt, 2021). 

Technology assisting information access:

Whilst technology has been within the realms of information seeking for some time, its role in information access has significantly increased with the COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent lockdowns.  The shift to remote learning has emphasised the need for libraries to use technology as a conduit to physical and digital collections. The past year has seen William Angliss (WA), VU, and UoN all report statistical increases in digital content access, especially with online databases (Kloppenborg, 2021; Muir & Anele, 2021; Turbitt, 2021).  This increase was significant enough to warrant UoN to develop a ‘digital first policy’ in their collection development and management plan to ensure continued access to digitally curated content in a post pandemic world (Turbitt, 2021; Howes et al., 2021, p44).  WA endeavoured to further support remote student learning by developing their patron driven ebook collection and digitising their special collection (Kloppenborg, 2021).  This meant that that library was able to meet the needs of their students more effectively within the parameters of local government restrictions.  

Technology and information literacy:

Educational libraries such as VU, WA and UoN all used digital programs and technology to assist students in developing their information literacy skills (Kloppenborg, 2021; Muir & Anele, 2021; Turbitt, 2021).  These institutions offered synchronous on site information literacy programs through physical workshops with liaison or teacher librarians.  Unfortunately, the commencement of remote learning identified a lack of synchronous digital information literacy programs to assist students in learning off site (Kloppenborg, 2021; Muir & Anele, 2021; Turbitt, 2021; Cordova et al., 2021, p.83).   In order to address this skill deficit, information literacy frameworks were addressed within both UoN’s and VU’s current strategic plans (Muir & Anele, 2021; Turbitt, 2021). UoN advocates for the implementation of a digital capabilities framework for students, whilst VU’s vision is to offer information literacy training to staff and students in order to develop their digital capacity now and into the future (Muir & Anele, 2021; Turbitt, 2021). Their belief is that there is a greater impact upon student learning if the teaching staff are also digitally literate.    

Technology and knowledge creation:

Technology is often used to create an environment that encourages the acquisition of new skills, information creation and knowledge construction, through the use of adaptive technology, varied learning spaces, availability of out of hours access and presence of  makerspaces.  WA offers adaptive services within disability services as part of its equitable access to resources, and their ‘learning pods’ allow students to access AV and other technologies individually or in small groups (Kloppenborg, 2021). Whereas VU’s online digital space known as VU Collaborate was heavily used during the recent lockdown and its success ensures that this virtual space will be continued even when onsite learning resumes, clearly indicating that off-site collaborative learning has proven beneficial (Muir & Anele, 2021; Murphy & Newport, 2021, p.39).  This virtual space allowed students to connect at any time, from varied locations and met the strategic goal of using innovative technologies to develop a robust digital capacity (Victoria University, 2021; Howes et al., 2021, p46).  This off-site virtual library was complemented by out of hours library access available at VU, WA and UoN, as it is a direct attempt to minimise the effect of the digital divide, as well as ensure students with diverse learning needs are given more opportunities to engage with the library, its resources and programs (Kloppenborg, 2021; Muir & Anele, 2021; Turbitt, 2021; Murphy & Newport, 2021, p.39; DIIS, 2016).  The use of makerspaces in educational libraries allows students to actively develop their creativity and engage with a variety of technology for personal or academic purposes (Cordova et al., 2021, p.86).  The UoN makerspace contains a variety of resources including, ‘high tech’ equipment such as 3D printers, ‘low tech’ materials such as lego, as well the presence of online digital videos the students can use to troubleshoot any technical issues (Turbitt, 2021).  


Libraries are physical and virtual spaces where knowledge is sought, accessed, used and created.  The information society requires technology integration into practices that extend the learning experience and facilitate meaningful relationships between information agencies and their patrons.  Fostering relationships is essential for a library’s success as COVID-10 changed how libraries connect with their patrons when physical access is limited.  This change in physical access has affected how educational libraries are able to meet the needs of their patrons at the point of need.  William Angliss TAFE, Victoria University and University of Newcastle all use various formats of technology to facilitate relationships that are centred around the needs and purpose of their community.   Their use of technology has enhanced their patrons ability to access the collection and as such, ensure the purpose of the library is met. 


Cordova, L., Jasmin, H., Nelson, T., Strahan, K., & Wu, L. (2021). Rapidly remote: Providing seamless library support during a pandemic. Journal of Hospital Librarianship, 21(1), 82-92. CSU Library. 

Department of Industry, Innovation and Science. (2016). Australia’s digital economy update.

Howes, L., Ferrell, L., Pettys, G., & Roloff, A. (2021). Adapting to remote library service during COVID-19. Medical Reference Services Quarterly, 40(1), 35-47. CSU Library.

International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions. (2015). International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions School library guidelines 2nd Edition. International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions.

Kloppenborg, P. (2021, April 13). William Angliss Institute: Learning and information services [Recorded presentation]. ETL507, Interact 2.

Landgraf, G. (2021). How friendly is your website? American Libraries.

Muir, R., & Anele, E. (2021, April 14). Victoria University: Libraries West [Recorded Presentation]. ETL507, Interact 2.

Murphy, J., & Newport, J. (2021). Reflecting on pandemics and technology in libraries. Serials Review 47(1), 37-42. CSU Library 

Turbitt, S. (2021, April 21). University of Newcastle: Ourimbah Campus [Recorded Presentation]. ETL507, Interact 2.–LkcIzpQSFSjKdEsMp8KBNrfciJMfI.B6pBPZnv-YnKIGlg

Victoria University. (2021, April 14). Virtual study visit to Victoria University [PowerPoint]. ETL507, Interact 2. PowerPoint Presentation (