Flipping it around – How flipping a classroom can change the way students learn.


Technology has become an integral part of education and many teachers have made the conscious decision to integrate emerging technologies inventively within their professional practice.  Basal (2015) believes that technology enriched learning environments increase the learning opportunities for students, as it allows them to improve their ICT acuity, increases their engagement with the content and provides valuable classroom discussion time.  One such way of integrating technology in a meaningful manner is the use of flipped learning or flipped classrooms.  

By inverting the learning sequence, students gain access to the content prior to the lesson which allows them to address the understanding in the lesson

Flipping the classroom means flipping the process of learning.


This access to content occurs in a personalised, student centred manner through a variety of methods, including the reading course notes, and the accessing videos or other multimedia (Basal, 2015).  Flipped classrooms follow a constructivist approach to learning as students are required to take ownership by accessing the content in their own time, at their own pace  (Basal, 2015).  This self paced approach increases the likelihood of students making those valuable connections between new content and prior knowledge, and therefore improving their overall learning outcomes.  

Flipped learning student centred approach can be seen clearly during class time, where the student is able to apply their knowledge and understanding to the learning activities.  Additionally, as Leask (2014) points out, student engagement and learning is easier to observe and document when teachers are able to view them applying their knowledge.  By addressing content earlier, the teacher is able to assist individual students with cementing their understanding and clarifying misconceptions  (Schmidt & Ralph, 2016, p.1).  The other advantage is that the students are required to take responsibility for their own learning by accessing the content in their own time and prior to the lesson.  

Flipped Classrooms changes the role of the teacher from font of knowledge to facilitator of learning.


There are several benefits to using a flipped classroom in pedagogical practice.  One benefit to implementing this strategy is that it reduces or eliminates the ineffective lecturing teaching style (Basal, 2015).  The lecture format is a very traditional form of teaching and alludes to the illusion that the teacher is the font of knowledge, and the student the receptacle receiving the information in a passive manner.  Flipped classrooms, as Basal (2015) points out, requires the teacher to become a facilitator and organiser of content, rather than a font of content.  This role reversal changes the classroom dynamics from a teacher centred to a student centred approach.  

The student centred approach is visible throughout the strategy.  Leask (2014) points out that student engagement and learning is easier to observe and document when teachers are able to view interactions in class discussions and thereby assess the quality of interactions the student has made with the content prior to the lesson.  The early delivery of content also facilitates learning as the teacher is able to assist individual students with cementing their understanding and clarifying misconceptions, which is essential for low ability and low literacy students (Schmidt & Ralph, 2016, p.1).  This guided class discussion and application is very provident for students that are unable to receive assistance at home for their learning.  Flipped classrooms increase learning outcomes as students are required to take responsibility for their own learning and that students gain confidence in class discussions due to the prior access to content material (Basal, 2015, p.32). 

An indirect positive consequence of flipped learning is that the creation of videos for students to access prior to the lesson also provides access to content for students who are unable to attend school due to illness or personal circumstances (Schmidt & Ralph, 2016, p.1).  Prior to 2020, remote learning and remote access to content was not a priority but with the recent pandemic and resulting lockdown, flexible and adaptable learning have become a concern for many teachers across the country.

Whilst there are many benefits to using flipped classrooms in pedagogical practice, there are concerns.  The primary issue is the creation of resources such as videos and other forms of multimedia to deliver the content.  Schmidt & Ralph (2016) point out that even though the making of videos can be extremely time consuming, teachers should not divert to mundane Powerpoints and repetitive videos as they can lead to student boredom and disengagement.  Another issue is that students can be disinclined to access the coursework prior to the lesson, and this disinclination can affect the vibrancy of the class learning and discussion (Ozdamli & Asiksoy, 2016).  Another major concern with implementing flipped learning in pedagogical practice is access to personal devices and reliable internet outside of school.  This makes accessing these resources such as online videos and other multimedia texts difficult for First Nations students, learners from lower socioeconomic families as well as rural and remote areas (DIIS, 2016).  

More than just videos – Flipped lessons promote complex reasoning and problem solving.


Successful flipped classrooms are more than just the creation and dispersal of didactic videos outside the classroom. Rather it is the collaborative learning and classroom discussion that is provoked by the content material that occurs in the classroom that makes flipped learning successful (Basal, 2015).  It is about the students being able to clarify their understanding and address any misconceptions that they may have.  Flipped learning requires both the student and teacher to adapt their perspective of teaching and gives teachers additional class time to focus on making meaning of new information in a student centred manner (Basel, 2015).   It requires students to be proactive, engage with the content prior to the class, and in discussion during the class.  It requires teachers to be willing to experiment with technologies, and relinquish didacticism in favour for constructivism.  Flipped classrooms will not meet the needs of all students and their teachers, but it is will work for the majority.  


Basal, A. (2015). The implementation of a flipped classroom in foreign language teaching. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education 16 (4). DOI:: 10.17718/tojde.72185

Department of Industry, Innovation and Science. (2016). Australia’s digital economy update. Retrieved from https://apo.org.au/sites/default/files/resource-files/2016/05/apo-nid66202-1210631.pdf

Leask, A. (2014). 5 reasons why the flipped classroom benefits educators. Enable Education – Online learning solutions. Retrieved from https://www.enableeducation.com/5-reasons-why-the-flipped-classroom-benefits-educators/

Lo, C. K. (2017). A critical review of flipped classroom challenges in K-12 education: possible solutions and recommendations for future research. Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning 12 (4). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6302872/pdf/41039_2016_Article_44.pdf

Ozdamli, F., & Asiksoy, G. (2016). Flipped classroom approach. World Journal on Educational Technology: Current Issues. 8(2), p98-105. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1141886.pdf

Schmidt, S. & Ralph, D. (2016). The flipped classroom: a twist on teaching. Contemporary Issues in Education Research. 9(1). Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1087603.pdf

Szparagowski, R. (2014). The effectiveness of the flipped classroom. Bowling Green State University Scholar Works. Retrieved from https://scholarworks.bgsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1118&context=honorsprojects


The cognitive cost of multimodal resources.


geralt / Pixabay


Multimedia is the convergence of multiple forms of media into one format and is present across all aspects of modern life including classroom practice. 

The notion of a multimedia resource may seem to be a more modern construct, but multimedia resources have been associated with educational practices for an extended period of time.   Originally appearing in classrooms as annotated drawings, maps, and picture books, these static forms of multimedia appear in many guises, across all learning areas and year levels (Ibrahim, 2020). 

The range of multimodal resources found commonly in schools.


Multimodality is cited as a panacea for pedagogical problems, both inside and outside the classroom.  In fact, the prevalence of multimodal resources in education has been adduced as more effective at communicating information than when a single modality is used (David, 2020).  This is because the information is often delivered in two main literacies, visual and auditory. It is the combination of these literacies that enhances learning, and improves educational outcomes (Ibrahim, 2012).   But not all multimedia resources promote learning.  The method and delivery of the information is essential to ensure students do not suffer from information overload. 

Information overload – when the brain gets inundated with more information that it can process.


A modern  classroom is likely to have multimodal resources in a variety of formats, ranging from static formats such as picture books, to illustrated books, graphic novels and anime,  to more dynamic forms such as videos, interactive websites and videos (Ibrahim, 2020).  The use of common teaching tools such as Powerpoint, digital textbooks, ebooks, websites and databases can all be considered dynamic forms of multimedia (Ibrahim, 2012).  The efficacy of multimodal learning is based upon two main theories, Mayer’s cognitive theory of multimedia learning and Sweller’s cognitive load theory (Ibrahim, 2012).  These two theories are able to predict which parameters of multimedia lead to optimum intellectual performance (Heick, 2017).

Mayer’s theory pointed out that whilst the brain appears to engage with material simultaneously, it instead selects the information individually and then organises and integrates the data consequently in three distinct cognitive processes (Mayer & Moreno, 2005).  The first step in this process is that the learner selects an amount of incoming auditory and visual information to process.  This amount is finite and an overload of information can have negative ramifications for the student such as confusion and a distaste for that medium (David ,2020).  The next step in this cognitive process is the organisation of that processed information.  This is where the user merges the visual and auditory information together (Mayer & Moreno, 2005; David 2020).  Both Ibrahim (2012) and David (2020) agree when modalities complement and enhance each other, as the visual imagery allows the brain to use its cognitive strength to work towards constructing working schemas instead of creating a mental image.  Creating mental images is cognitively heavy and the construction of schemas decreases the cognitive load on a learner and increases working memory.  The last step is where the learner integrates and constructs new knowledge on their own prior learning to make meaning of this new information (Mayer & Moreno, 2005; David 2020).  Ibrahim (2012) believes that by constructing their own meaning, the learner is able to increase their overall understanding and comprehension of the content. 

ArtsyBee / Pixabay


Sweller’s cognitive load theory is based upon the structure and process of the human memory system which includes the method in which memories, information and knowledge are stored in a complex and integrated manner (Russell, 2019).  When a learner is presented with new information, their working memory has a limited capacity unless it is transferred to their limitless long term memory (Russell, 2019).  This finite capacity in the working memory cache, also known as cognitive load, has direct implications on the learning in classrooms.  CESE (2017) categorises cognitive load as intrinsic, extraneous and germane.   Intrinsic cognitive load is from the inherent complexity of the information, and can be supported by germane load, which are instructions that facilitate the transfer of knowledge from the working memory to the long term memory (CESE, 2017, p.3).  Whereas extraneous load inhibits memory transfer and does not contribute to positive learning outcomes  (CESE, 2017, p.3).  As Russell (2019) points out, the cognitive load theory indicates that explicit instruction is required to transfer learning from the working memory to the long term memory and requires explicit instruction and worked examples to ensure learners are capable of developing their own knowledge base and long term memory (Russell, 2019). 

ArtsyBee / Pixabay


These two theories have a direct implication on the construction and delivery of multimedia and multimodal resources in the classroom.  Mayer’s concept of cognitive loading of multimedia uses Sweller’s cognitive load theory to determine the point where retention and comprehension are optimised (Xie et al., 2017, p.14)  Mayer’s theory of visual and auditory information being processed separately is an extension of the split attention effect known as the modality effect (CESE, 2017, p.7).  Split attention contributes to cognitive loading, as it often requires the learner to process pieces of information simultaneously for integration.  Whereas the modality effect actually reduces the load, because the same information is presented in two forms and thus increases the working memory capacity (CESE, 2017, p.7).  This fact is further emphasised when students engage in collaborative learning.  Kirscher et al, (2018, p.222) argue that when the task is cognitively heavy, collaborative groups are beneficial if the individual members are capable of utilising their combined capacity.  Whilst many teachers are familiar with the structure, function and benefits of collaborative learning groups in classrooms, they need to ensure distribution of cognitive loading occurs for optimal learning.  

manfredsteger / Pixabay


Mayer’s theory of multimodal or multimedia learning is structured around several principles (Walsh, 2017).  Whilst the principles do vary in their focus, the overall arching theme is that users or students would statistically learn better if unessential content is removed, clues highlighted or signalled, words and texts are presented simultaneously rather than consecutively (Walsh, 2017; Ibrahim, 2012). Xie et al., (2017) determined that cues are essential in dynamic resources to minimise cognitive load, but that their presence improves knowledge retention and transfer in static and dynamic forms of multimedia.  Ibrahim (2012) also points out that  the efficacy of multimodal resources is increased dramatically when the format is segmented or promotes self pacing, and if the narrator’s voice uses colloquial language and a conversational style compared to formal structure and tone (Walsh, 2017).  These principles help educators in creating and determine which multimedia resources would benefit student learning and which ones inhibit it. 

Multimedia, multimodal learning and resources are an essential part of modern pedagogical practices.  Their presence in both static and dynamic forms are present in all aspects of teaching practices.  Therefore it behooves the educator to understand how the brain interacts with these resources.  Resources that cause information or cognitive overload to students impede learning as the user is working against the brain, rather than with the brain (Heick, 2017). Multimedia designed within the parameters of Mayer’s and Sweller’s theories have an increased efficacy with learning outcomes than multimodal resources without it.  



Centre for Education Statistics and Evaluation. (2017). Cognitive load theory: Research that teachers really need to understand. NSW Department of Education. Retrieved from https://www.cese.nsw.gov.au//images/stories/PDF/cognitive-load-theory-VR_AA3.pdf

David, L. (2020). Cognitive theory of multimedia learning (Mayer). Learning Theories. Retrieved from https://www.learning-theories.com/cognitive-theory-of-multimedia-learning-mayer.html

Heick, T. (2017). What is cognitive load theory? A definition for teachers. TeachThought. Retrieved from https://www.teachthought.com/learning/cognitive-load-theory-definition-teachers/

Ibrahim, M. (2012). Implications of designing instructional video using cognitive theory of multimedia learning. Critical Questions in Education 3(2), p.83-104. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1047003

Kirschner, P., Sweller, J., Kirschner, F. & Zambrano, J. (2018). From cognitive load theory to collaborative cognitive load theory. International Journal of Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 13, p.213-233. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11412-018-9277-y

Lloyd, T., Mitchell, B., & Mayers, R. (2012). Overall, Excellent Work! Assessment Rubric for Learning Theories. Paper Exceptional Satisfactory Developing Inadequate a (90%-100%) B (80%-89%) C (70%-79%) D/f (0-69%).

Mayer, R., & Moreno, R. (2005). A cognitive theory of multimedia learning; Implications for design principles. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/248528255_A_Cognitive_Theory_of_Multimedia_Learning_Implications_for_Design_Principles

Mayer, R., & Moreno, R. (1998). A Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning: Implications for Design Principles. CHI 1998. DOI:10.1177/1463499606066892

Russell, D. (2019). An introduction to cognitive load theory. Teacher Magazine [Features].  Retrieved from https://www.teachermagazine.com.au/articles/an-introduction-to-cognitive-load-theory

Sweller, J., van Merriënboer, J.J.G., & Paas, F. (2019). Cognitive Architecture and Instructional Design: 20 Years Later. Educational Psycholgy Review 31, p261–292. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-019-09465-5

Walsh, K. (2017). Mayer’s 12 principles of multimedia learning are a powerful design resource [Blog]. Emerging EdTech. Retrieved from https://www.emergingedtech.com/2017/06/mayers-12-principles-of-multimedia-learning-are-a-powerful-design-resource/

Xie H, Wang F, Hao Y, Chen J, An J, Wang Y, et al. (2017). The more total cognitive load is reduced by cues, the better retention and transfer of multimedia learning: A meta-analysis and two meta-regression analyses. Public Library of Science ONE 12 (8). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal. pone.0183884 


Proposing a digital narrative


Proposal topic: Migration, immigration and government policies in Australia. 


Curriculum Links:

10 History – 

  1. The population movements and changing settlement patterns from 1750-1901 (ACDSEH080)
  2. Laws made by federal Parliament between 1901-1914 including the Harvester Judgement, pensions, and the Immigration Restriction Act (ACDSEH092)
  3. The impact of changing government policies on Australia’s migration patterns, including abolition of the White Australia Policy, ‘Populate or Perish’ (ACDSEH145)
  4. The waves of post-World War II migration to Australia, including the influence of significant world events (ACDSEH144)

Senior Modern History

  1. ACHMH123 (Senior Modern History – Unit 3) – The changing nature and significance of Australia’s foreign policy from 1916-1949 (ACHMH123)
  2. ACHMH125 (Senior Modern History – Unit 3) – The key features of post-war reconstruction, including industrialisation, immigration, the provision of social welfare, and attitudes and policies towards Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples, and women.  
  3. ACHMH194 (Senior Modern History – Unit 4) – The nature of Australia’s response to key developments in the period, including the success of the Communists in China, the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal, the return of the French to Vietnam, Indonesian claims for independence, Australia’s adherence to the White Australia Policy until 1973, and the implications of Australia’s involvement in the Vietnam War  (ACHMH194)
  4. ACHMH195 (Senior Modern History – Unit 4) – The significance of Australia’s immigration policies on regional relationships after World War II, including the reasons for the gradual dismantling of the White Australia Policy in the period 1945-1973 (ACHMH195)

Proposed digital tools – Microsoft Sway


The White Australia policy was one of the first pieces of legislation the newly formed Australian Government passed through parliament.  The policy had a significant impact on the dynamics and diversity of the fledgling nation.  Originally deployed as the Immigration Restriction Act of 1901, the policy was aimed ensuring only those of British ancestry would gain entry into Australia to preserve the sanctity of the British-Australian culture and the economic value of the Australian man.   This digital story will seek to investigate the policy, the reason for its introduction, its ramifications on the diversity of the Australian population and the effects of its subsequent removal during the Whitlam administration.  

Storytelling has been the predominant method in which humanity has used to convey information, cultural traditions and ideologies for centuries (Cornett, 2014).  The advent of emerging technologies and personal devices has led to the formation of digital stories and storytelling.  Digital storytelling is  an engaging and informative method that combines emerging technologies and literary works for recreational or informative purposes (Ciccorico, 2012).  The story itself is a valuable teaching tool as it integrates visual, audio and textual elements together in a manner that enhances the storyline, improves engagement and promotes literacy development (Ohler, 2013, p.94).   The inclusion of digital narratives as part of teaching and learning promotes language, literacy and ICT competency. 

This Sway project will eventually be part of a larger 3 part digital narrative detailing how migration patterns have influenced the national identity of Australia.  Teachers will be able to use this internal resource as part of their teaching practice either as individual Sway links or as part of the series depending on the needs of the students as well as in depth study they are doing.  This resource has the capability to be catalogued into the current library management system and thus can be easily accessed by staff.

The three part series will include:

  1. Movements of people – 1750-1901. (Year 9 history and 9 Civics and citizenship)
    1. the nature and extent of the movement of peoples in the period (slaves, convicts and settlers) (ACOKFH015 – Scootle )
    2. The population movements and changing settlement patterns during this period (ACDSEH080 – Scootle )
    3. The influence of the Industrial Revolution on the movement of peoples throughout the world, including the transatlantic slave trade and convict transportation (ACDSEH018 – Scootle )
    4. Experiences of slaves, convicts and free settlers upon departure, their journey abroad, and their reactions on arrival, including the Australian experience (ACDSEH083 – Scootle )
    5. The short and long-term impacts of the movement of peoples during this period (ACDSEH085 – Scootle )
  1. Australia’s migration history (Years 9&10 History)
    1. the nature and extent of the movement of peoples from 1750-1901 (slaves, convicts and settlers) (ACOKFH015 – Scootle )
    2. The population movements and changing settlement patterns from 1750-1901 (ACDSEH080 – Scootle )
    3. Laws made by federal Parliament between 1901-1914 including the Harvester Judgement, pensions, and the Immigration Restriction Act (ACDSEH092 – Scootle )
    4. The impact of changing government policies on Australia’s migration patterns, including abolition of the White Australia Policy, ‘Populate or Perish’ (ACDSEH145 – Scootle )
    5. The waves of post-World War II migration to Australia, including the influence of significant world events (ACDSEH144 – Scootle )
  1. Australia’s National Identity in the 21st Century (Year 10 History and 9 Civics & Citizenship)
    1. How national identity can shape a sense of belonging in Australia’s multicultural society (ACHCK067 – Scootle )
    2. How and why individuals and groups, including religious groups, participate in and contribute to civic life (ACHCK079 – Scootle )
    3. How ideas about and experiences of Australian identity are influenced by global connectedness and mobility (ACHCK081 – Scootle )
    4. Continuity and change in beliefs and values that have influenced the Australian way of life (ACDSEH149 – Scootle
    5. The commemoration of World War I, including debates about the nature and significance of the Anzac legend (ACDSEH097 – Scootle )



Ciccoricco, D. (2012). Chapter 34 – Digital fiction – networked narratives. In Bray, J., Gibbons, A., & McHale, B. (2012). The Routledge Companion to Experimental Literature. Taylor & Francis eBooks. Retrieved from CSU Library. 

Cornet, C. E. (2014). Integrating the literary arts throughout the curriculum. In Creating meaning through literature and the arts: arts integration for Classroom teachers (5th ed,) (pp144-193) USA

Ohler, J.B. (2013). Digital storytelling in the classroom: New media pathways to literacy, learning, and creativity (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin. Retrieved from https://primo.csu.edu.au/permalink/61CSU_INST/1hkg98a/alma991012780180302357

Digital Storytelling

The art of storytelling is intrinsically human. 

Tumisu / Pixabay


Stories are the way humans have conveyed information, cultural traditions and ideologies throughout the centuries as well as being the conduit of language, literature and literacy (Cornett, 2014). But whilst stories have been part of human culture for millenia, the way these stories are ingressed have evolved.  Burkey (2016), points out that access to stories has not changed but prevalence of personal devices and evolving technologies have increased the methods of access.  This is because storytelling, and the format in which they occur, are a reflection of societal norms.  This shift in storytelling access is more apparent in young people as personal devices, such as tablets and smartphones, are an essential part of a teen’s social capital, and a reflection of their generation (Vidales-Bolanos & Sadaba-Chalezquer, 2017).  

manfredsteger / Pixabay


Digital storytelling (DST) is a rapidly developing format that combines emerging technologies and literary works (Ciccorico, 2012).  The process allows visual, audio and textual elements to be woven together to convey information in a digital format for either recreation or informative purposes (Ohler, 2013, p.94).   The fundamental difference between a traditional story and a DST, is that the latter would lose its value if viewed without a screen.  This is because the interactive and gaming elements present in most DST require the use of technology and a personal device for a transaction to occur between the story and the viewer (Ciccorico, 2012).  The integration of DST in educational practice encourages students beyond just passively using technology into creators and users of technology.  

From an education perspective, DST has great potential for teaching and learning.  Moran et al., (2020) believes that the combination of storytelling and technology can improve traditional literacies and 21st century skills. The multimodality of DST allows students to engage and experiment with different literacies, formats and technologies across the curriculum and address the needs of diverse learners.  This exposure to DST has an ability to impact literacy identities as well as provide assistance to EALD students and those with learning needs (Moran et al., 2020; Ross Johnston, 2014).  When DST is integrated into teaching practice it allows the students to experience the text in a dynamic way by expanding algorithmic creativity and narrative perspectives (Ciccorico, 2012).  It also allows teachers to engage students into difficult content matter such as the Holocaust and White Australia Policy as the format allows for the interweaving of primary and secondary sources in a non confrontational manner. 

DST is a highly adaptable format that can be used effectively across the curriculum and year levels to effectively address curriculum outcomes.  ACARA (2018) requires teachers to integrate digital literature such as DST in their practice to ensure students have the relevant skills and literacies for active citizenship in a digital world (MCEETYA, 2008).  Educators who fail to integrate mobile technology into pedagogy limit the development of new literacies and competencies.  By incorporating DST in educational practice, teachers are encouraging students beyond the passive use of technology to active users and creators of technology (Moran et al., 2020, p.6).


Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority. (2018). Literacy. In Australian Curriculum – General Capabilities. Retrieved from https://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/f-10-curriculum/general-capabilities/literacy/

 Burkey, A. (2016). Shifting stories in a digital world. FYI 20 (1), p.12-15. Retrieved from https://primo.csu.edu.au/permalink/61CSU_INST/15aovd3/cdi_rmit_aeipt_211907

Ciccoricco, D. (2012). Chapter 34 – Digital fiction – networked narratives. In Bray, J., Gibbons, A., & McHale, B. (2012). The Routledge Companion to Experimental Literature. Taylor & Francis eBooks. Retrieved from CSU Library. 

Cornet, C. E. (2014). Integrating the literary arts throughout the curriculum. In Creating meaning through literature and the arts: arts integration for Classroom teachers (5th ed,) (pp144-193) USA

Curran, G. (2017). Unlocking life stories through digital storytelling. Fine Print 40(1), p. 28-30. Retrieved from https://primo.csu.edu.au/permalink/61CSU_INST/15aovd3/cdi_rmit_primary_828942069094737

Littlejohn, K. (2018). 1917live: Historical storytelling in the digital space. Teaching History 52(4), p. 4-7. Retrieved from https://primo.csu.edu.au/permalink/61CSU_INST/15aovd3/cdi_rmit_primary_207856499201807

Mantei, J., Kipscombe, K., & Kervin, L. (2018). Literature in a digital environment (Ch. 13). In L. McDonald (Ed.), A literature companion for teachers. Marrickville, NSW: Primary English Teaching Association Australia (PETAA)

MCEETYA (2008) Melbourne Declaration on Educational Goals for Young Australians. Curriculum Corporation. Australia. Retrieved from http://www.curriculum.edu.au/verve/_resources/national_declaration_on_the_educational_goals_for_young_australians.pdf

Moran, R., Lamie, C., Robertson, L., & Tai, C. (2020). Narrative writing, digital storytelling, and coding: Increasing motivation with young readers and writers. Australian Literacy Educators Association, 25 (2), p.6-10. Retrieved from https://primo.csu.edu.au/permalink/61CSU_INST/15aovd3/cdi_gale_infotracacademiconefile_A627277934

Ohler, J.B. (2013). Digital storytelling in the classroom: New media pathways to literacy, learning, and creativity (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin. Retrieved from https://primo.csu.edu.au/permalink/61CSU_INST/1hkg98a/alma991012780180302357

Ross Johnston, R. (2014). Literary literacies: Digital, cultural, narrative, critical and deep literacies. In G. Winch, R. Ross Johnston, P. March, L. Ljungdahl & M. Holliday (Eds.), Literacy: Reading, writing and children’s literature (5th ed., pp. 556). Retrieved from Proquest Ebook Central.

Vidales-Bolanos, M., & Sadaba-Chalezquer, C. (2017). Connected Teens: Measuring the Impact of Mobile Phones on Social Relationships through Social Capital. Media Education Research Journal 53(25). Retrieved by https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1171085.pdf