Flipped Learning

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Flipped learning (FL) is a teaching technique which is the reverse of traditional teaching methods. Rather than content taught at school and homework given with FL content is learnt in the students own time and more time in class is available for in-depth help and learning. According to Haddam, McKnight, McKnight, & Arfstrom, 2013) benefits of using this mode of teaching include:

  • More class time used to meet student learning needs
  • An increase in interaction with the subject by students and with each other
  • Increase in job satisfaction for teachers
  • Increase in achievement levels
  • Better attitude towards learning

However, as Lo and Hew (2017) point out this model can also have problems such as an increased workload for the teacher making videos and student disengagement from too much out of class learning.

The Flipped Learning Network, Pearson and George Mason University  have developed themes for the concept around the word ‘flip’ (Haddam, et.al., 2013). They are:

F – Flexible environment – for room arrangement (group and independent) and learning timelines.

L – learning culture – student centred and in class explore topic through student centred activities.

I – Intentional content – choosing which materials to teach and which the student can learn unassisted.

P – Professional educator – observe, give feedback and assess, reflective, open to constructive criticism, connect with other teachers.

It struck me how the qualities listed for professional educator are similar requirements to those listed by Nussbaum-Beach and Hall (2011, p.11) for qualities of a connected educator.

Some experience teachers such as Matt Burns (2018) highly recommend the benefits of the flipped classroom method of learning and has devised a matrix to differentiate student learning based on pretesting and which videos and concepts the students need to watch and master to further their learning. To see more on Matt’s work click here.

I would really like to try the FL approach in a library setting, in particular for skills such as referencing, how to access and use catalogues and demonstrations on how to use digital tools. This would then free up library time to hold indepth discussions and allow for more collaborative or individual work, depending on the learners needs.  It would be good if there was a flipped learning lesson video bank so teachers aren’t all making videos on the same concepts, although videos from YouTube, Ted Talks and Khan Academy could be used.

If you are interested in making your own videos Joe Hirsh (2015) has some good tips here on how they can be used effectively.

Have you tried flipping before? What was your experience of it?

 

References:

Burns, M. (2018, April 28). Maths matrix: differentiated mastery – The Flipped Classroom [blog post]. Retrieved from http://flippingmyprimaryclassroom.blogspot.com/2018/04/maths-matrix-differentiated-mastery.html

Hamdam, N., McKnight, E., McKnight, K., & Arfstrom, K. (2013). The flipped learning model: executive summary. Retrieved from https://flippedlearning.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/ExecSummary_FlippedLearnig.pdf

Hirsh, J. (2015). 100 videos and counting: Lessons from a flipped classroom [online article]. Retrieved from https://www.edutopia.org/blog/100-videos-lessons-flipped-classroom-joe-hirsch

Lo, C. K., & Hew, K. F. (2017). A critical review of flipped classroom challenges in K-12 education: possible solutions and recommendations for future research. Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning, 12(1), 4. doi: 10.1186/s41039-016-0044-2.

Nussbaum-Beach, S., & Hall, L.R.  (2011). Defining the connected educator. In The connected educator: Learning and leading in a digital age (pp. 9-24). Retrieved from Proquest Ebook Central.

 

 

Supporting the connected learner with Skype

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Wow! The case studies by Silvia Tolisano of learning with Skype in the classroom have really ignited my passion for using technology to assist students to connect learning to their lives. This use of technology enables authentic learning to happen.

The articles by Silvia Tolisano may be found by clicking on the links below:

What made using Skype so effective was that Tolisano was able to connect the call/calls with previous and future learning and so the Skype was not just a call but a learning moment that fuelled future learning and tied in with past learning. The tasks were connected to the real world and made the learning task authentic to students. To get maximum effectiveness from the call Tolisano carried out several steps before the actual Skype call. They included:

  • Doing a test call with the guest speaker to check video and audio
  • Brainstorming open ended questions with students that they could ask the speaker
  • Giving each student a role during the call, such as greeter, question asker etc.
  • Having students practise speaking to the camera and recording them so they were confident in their roles

Interestingly, the call was supported by other technologies as well to assist learning in new ways. These included using backchannel collaboration via a Google Doc, Tweeting about the call, making notes on iPads as well as traditional pen and paper, summarising with mind maps on the iPad and blogging about the process.

After the call students tied in their activities during the Skype to their previous learning (in this case on blogging and Twitter usage) and looked at what they had done well and examples of how they could improve.

The students were so involved in these learning tasks that they were not asking about their grades, as one respondent to the article blog commented ‘When kids are focused on the task and take ownership of it to that degree, you know you have ’em – so much better than any grade mark.’. However, this new way of connected, collaborative learning meant that new assessment rubrics had to be developed – they could not just be added to traditional rubrics.

This is an amazing way to link in real life experts and collaboration with student learning to make the learning tasks more authentic. The possibilities for connection with experts is endless (dependent of course on technology). Microsoft offers a Skype site for educators, to view it click here  (Microsoft, 2019a).  I can see Skype calls being a real benefit to students in library time to connect with experts, such as authors for English studies or scientists or historians in the field for Science and connecting this to their learning needs.  Skype can also be used for detecting fake news (Microsoft, 2017) and virtual field trips (Microsoft, 2019b).

For a list of authors who do Skype visits see this link (Gross, n.d.)(publishing houses may also provide lists of their authors who Skype):

An author, Kate Messner has some good tips and instructions about Sky pe visits for authors here:

To skype with a scientist check out this site.

This site (Microsoft, 2018) details information of connecting with a museum curator in Egypt to view Egyptian artefacts .

Although Skype is used in these case studies the experience could work just as well with other tools such as ‘What’s App’, ‘Viber’, or ‘We Chat’ – whichever is the most accessible to all participating parties. The important aspect to remember is to link pre and post activities to the call to allow for maximum benefit for learning.

Have you ever used Skype or another app in your work? How did you find the experience? Did it link in to your previous or future work?

 

References:

Gross, L. (n.d). Author’s who Skype free! [Smore creation]. Retrieved from https://www.smore.com/1mzu1-authors-who-skype-free

Microsoft (2018, June 20). Museum curator brings the Egyptian civilization to students via Skype [blog post].  Retrieved from https://blogs.skype.com/stories/2018/06/20/museum-curator-brings-the-egyptian-civilization-to-students-around-the-world/

Microsoft (2017, October 5). Help your students find reliable news sources [blog post].  Retrieved from https://blogs.skype.com/skype-classroom/2017/10/05/help-your-students-find-reliable-news-sources/

Microsoft (2019a). Skype in the classroom. Retrieved from https://education.microsoft.com/skype-in-the-classroom/overview

Microsoft (2019b). Virtual field trips. Retrieved from https://education.microsoft.com/skype-in-the-classroom/virtual-field-trips

Tolisano, S. (2011, February 6). Framing a Skype learning experience [blog post]. Retrieved from http://langwitches.org/blog/2011/02/06/framing-a-skype-learning-experience/

Tolisano, S. (2013a, January 27). Learning in the modern classroom [blog post]. Retrieved from http://langwitches.org/blog/2013/01/27/learning-in-the-modern-classroom/

Tolisano, S. (2013b, February 5). Assessment in the modern classroom [blog post]. Retrieved from http://langwitches.org/blog/2013/02/05/assessment-in-the-modern-classroom-part-one/

 

 

 

 

Some curation tools reviewed

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Teachers have always been involved in curating information – even if it was just which section of which textbook shall I use to best explain this concept? Now of course with the increase of technology there are many more sources of information to choose from. These range from videos such as YouTube to forums, wikis and PLNS.

One way for the educator to keep track of all of their sources is through the use of digital tools.

There are many lists available suggesting digital curation tools such as this one– which also has some great tips on important aspects of content curation.

Here is a brief detail of my experiences with 3 digital curation tools – Pinterest, Diigo and Feedly.

Pinterest – I love Pinterest! It has so many pluses – it’s easy to use, boards are easy to create and it shows the pins as graphics which makes it quick to find information in a glance. A downside of Pinterest can be pinning and not going back to look at the pins (but at least you know they are there). I have used Pinterest for casual teaching for daily lesson ideas and also for library design and ideas. I like how Pinterest allow for sharing by allowing you to follow other user’s boards and suggesting boards to follow based on your pins. For a quick video tour of the Pinterest app on a mobile device hop over to here.

Diigo – I have been experimenting with this social bookmarking tool for collating articles I can’t download as PDFs to my computer. I like that it has editing functions to highlight notes and add your own sticky notes. Plus, it has the ability to add tags to articles so they can be easily found again and it has the option to mark the article as ‘read later’ for quick retrieval of unread articles. I’m not sure I totally trust cloud- based options though and some of the features I want to use are only available a certain number of times before they become premium paid features. Whilst I had known about online bookmarks such as Google Bookmark and thought they would be good to use for ease of access I hadn’t thought about the possibility of using bookmarks for social learning. Diigo is particularly useful if you wish to set up a group in the future and share bookmarks between users.

Feedly – I have set this up to follow blog posts by colleagues in my subjects. Prior to beginning my studies I had not heard of an aggregate feeder. It was fairly easy to set up once I had watched a few YouTube videos on it. The best way I found to create categories was by trial and error. Adding blogs based on their url was easier than trying to search the name of the blog. I also added the app to my phone so I can read blogs on it when I am out and about. The only downside seems to be I have followed some people’s blogs who don’t post very often. Feedly is a great tool for bringing new information to you in real time.

I would like to explore several other digital curation tools to see which would be most suitable to my work, including:

Feel free to add a quick review of any content creation tools you love (or dislike) to use.

Educators as curators

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When I first hear the word curation I think of museums and art galleries, however I would propose that educators have always been curators, in this case of information and knowledge. According to the Oxford English dictionary (2019) to curate means to ‘select, organize, and present (online content, merchandise, information, etc.), typically using professional or expert knowledge’. Teachers have always done this, whether it just be from deciding which sections of which textbooks to use or bringing in an analogy from real life. Now of course it also includes items from digital technology, YouTube etc.  Bhargava (2011) lists five types of curation:

  1. Aggregation – bringing the relevant information on a topic to one place.
  2. Distillation – put information in a simplified format, including only the most relevant information.
  3. Elevation – Identify larger trends from smaller bits of information.
  4. Mashup – merge existing content to make a new point of view.
  5. Chronology – organise information by time to show the progression of knowledge.

Traditionally, teachers mainly carry out curation of aggregation, distillation and at times chronology to make information more accessible, relevant and useful to users.

However, with the increasing amount of information available from social sharing and digital media educators need to curate to be able to effectively utilise information (Dale, 2014). As Rosenbaum (2011) states, ‘we can’t deal with the increasing amount of information by working harder or sleeping less, we need to change the way we think about things’ (so that’s why those strategies weren’t working!).

One process educators may use is the model proposed by Jarche (Dale, 2014) of seek, sense and share. This includes seeking out information (or using tools to make it come to you such as RSS feeders and networks) and making sense of information by using skills and knowledge to know which raw content is useful. Lastly, the curation must be shared with the intended audience (students, network etc) using storytelling techniques to join the information (Dale, 2014).

Kanter has further refined on this framework to include elements of curation and suggested time frames within each of the three elements.

 

Source: Beth Kanter www.bethkanter.org

http://farm7.static.flickr.com/6164/6212246958_71d5878927.jpg

The table provides an easy to use guide as to elements of each stage and time frames. Many of the elements use a lot of common sense such as scan and capture high quality content when seeking, if you don’t it could lead to information overload and avoidance. Making a product and applying content in the sense category could make the curated content directly relevant to lessons/projects.

Whilst I agree with many of the elements, I do question how educators are able to fit in the suggested time for each activity each day in an already time poor practice of teaching. 11/2 -2 hours content curation a day, who has time even if the educator did incorporate it into lesson/library planning? This may be OK in the short term like planning a unit but is it sustainable long term?

Whilst being a good curator is a skill, technology makes curation available to everybody (Dale, 2014).

If you want to explore curation further this site  provides a great overview of the importance of curation for educators and a review of some curation tools.

Do you practise any curation for your work/interests? If so, which tools do you prefer to use and why?

 

References:

Bhargava, R. (2011, March 31). The five models of content curation [blog post]. Retrieved from https://www.rohitbhargava.com/2011/03/the-5-models-of-content-curation.html

Dale, S. (2014). Content curation: The future of relevance. Business Information Review, 31(4), 199–205. doi: 10.1177/0266382114564267

Curation. In Oxford English dictionary online. Retrieved from https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/

TEDx Talks. (2011, June 6). Steve Rosenbaum – Innovate – Curation! . Retrieved from https://youtu.be/iASluLoKQbo

 

 

Curators – seeing the big picture

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The amount of raw data available to us is increasing at an amazing rate from digital information production and social media sharing (Dale, 2014). Interestingly, video is the fastest increasing category with footage from phones and Go Pros, and YouTube is the second biggest search engine (Rosenbaun, 2013).

With this increase in raw data digital curators are emerging as a profession who are able to provide user specific information (Dale, 2014). Bhargava (2011) list five types of curation, which may be read about here. Curators see the big picture and what they present helps us to find and use relevant information. But what makes a great curator?

Weisgerber (2011) provides eight steps on how to bundle the best information and build followers. Steigman (2013) also provides processes on how to content curate under four sections of audience, content, community and measurement. Common elements to digital content curation from both slide shows are:

  • Identify and know your audience – know which formats they like, what they will click on, appreciate and which media is best to communicate with them.
  • Select relevant information for your audience – for their interests/industry, help them do their job better.
  • Add value to the information you are presenting – either in the form of comments or putting the information in context.
  • Engage with your audience – provide a space for interaction and interact with them, don’t be a sharebot.
  • Credit your sources

Curators are able to use their knowledge, skills and tools to bring the information together. Dale (2014) has created a list of content creation tools that may be used for specific purposes. These include:

  • Find, aggregate and organise – Feedly, Tweetdeck, Hootsuite, Diigo, Evernote
  • News discovery – Newsle (now integrated into LinkedIn), Flipboard, Prismatic*
  • News creation/newsletter tools – Scoop.it, Paper.li, Storify*
  • Visual curation boards – Pinterest, Pearltrees
  • Social publishing hubs – Rebelmouse*
  • Networks – Google +, Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn

Note: *Rebelmouse now appears to be a business for clients, try TINT (https://www.tintup.com/) for a social publishing hub *Prismatic and Storify are no longer in operation.

Previous to learning about content curation I hadn’t thought about the process of curation. Most of my practise of curating focused on finding and organising information, however, now I can see there are several other elements of curation I need to include. I also definitely need to incorporate more tools to aggregate and bring information to me.

What do you think is the most important element of curation? Are there any tools not on the list that you like to use for curation?

References:

Bhargava, R. (2011, March 31). The five models of content curation [blog post]. Retrieved from https://www.rohitbhargava.com/2011/03/the-5-models-of-content-curation.html

Dale, S. (2014). Content curation: The future of relevance. Business Information Review, 31(4), 199–205. doi: 10.1177/0266382114564267

Rosenbaum, S. (2013, October 7). The Coming Age of the Curation Economy: Building Context Around Content [online article]. Retrieved from https://www.thewrap.com/members/2013/10/07/the-coming-age-of-the-curation-economy-building-context-around-content/#.VdW7x1NVhHy

Steigman, D. (2013, December 11). How to be a great content curator (21 tips) [slideshow]. Retrieved from https://www.slideshare.net/dariasteigman/be-a-greatcontentcurator

Weisgerber, C. (2011, November 16). Building thought leadership through content curation [slideshow]. Retrieved from https://www.slideshare.net/corinnew/building-thought-leadership-through-content-curation

 

An exploration into Twitter

This is a post I wrote when I first started using Twitter but never posted, there will be another post shortly on my experiences so far with Twitter (this is now up and may be read here (Silver, 2019).

Studies have shown that educators value Twitter for its accessibility, ease of use and ability for interaction. It allows them to connect to other educators that they may not normally meet who have similar and diverse ideas. Twitter offers an alternative to personalise an educator’s PD (based on need and competence) in an atmosphere that relies on collective knowledge to learn rather than heirachies. It allows educators to exchange resources, practises and ideas (Carpenter & Krutka, 2015).

OK, I don’t know exactly what Twitter is, but it may be useful. I’ve heard of a Tweet or is that a Twitter? I’ve no idea! Will I ever get a handle on this?

This is an exploration of my venture into the use of Twitter, a totally new experience for me. As I begin I have feelings of overwhelm and despair – will I ever get the hang of this? I imagine this is somewhat how our students feel when given a new topic.

As Luca (2015) says ‘Twitter may not make sense immediately, but if you persevere, engage in the ‘give it a go’ mentality we Australians are renowned for, then you might just find a valuable professional learning tool’.

As my confidence grows I am sure I will feel more excited and curious.

For those of you who are as new to Twitter as I am here is some terminology to get started with, courtesy of Shannon McClintock Miller (2010).

Microblog: what twitter is, say what you want to say, but say it in 140 characters or less.

Tweet: when you send out a message or content (link etc).

Retweet: When you send on somebody else’s tweet to your own network, with or without a comment.

Hashtag: Using the # symbol to aggregate tweets on a given topic

Twitter stream: Constant lists of posts from people you follow.

Lurk: To hang about and view Twitters without commenting or retweeting.

As soon as I begin I feel overwhelmed by the amount of information – I must admit I do have somewhat of an attitude of ‘sufficing’ at times as I try to overcome information overload, to which one of the responses is not to look at information at all (Bawden & Robinson, 2009). This is how I feel about using Twitter – there is too much information, I don’t want to look because I can’t keep up with it. But I persevere. I decide to put the app on my mobile and having it accessible on my phone means I can quickly flick through posts and try to stay on top of my Twitter stream.

I lurk around for a while, seeing what people post and following more interesting people. I see interesting tweets I would like to save so I Google how to save a post (this is actually bookmarking a post, see how to do it here on a mobile).

Having been encouraged by seeing posts by other people I knew hadn’t used twitter before, I jump in and retweet – that wasn’t so bad.

I am starting to feel more confident in my ability to use Twitter and can see the potential it has for establishing my PLN. I have already come across some good resources for teaching and supplementing information for concepts I am studying at the moment.

Have you used Twitter or a social networking tool for communicating resources and ideas with others?

 

References:

Bawden, D., & Robinson, L. (2009). The dark side of information: overload, anxiety and other paradoxes and pathologies. Journal of Information Science, 35 (2) 180–191. doi: 10.1177/0165551508095781

Carpenter, J. & Krutka, D. (2015). Engagement through microblogging: educator professional development via Twitter. Professional Development in Education, 41(4), 707-728. doi: 10.1080/19415257.2014.939294

Luca, J (2012, October 27). Personal Learning networks [online article]. Retrieved from http://education.abc.net.au/newsandarticles/blog?id=40029

McClintock Miller, S. (2010). Enhance your Twitter experience. Learning & Leading with Technology, 37(8), 14-17. Retrieved from https://www.iste.org/learn/edtech-research

Silver, T. (2019). Twitter – an update [blog post]. Retrieved from https://thinkspace.csu.edu.au/learningawaits/2019/05/25/using-twitter-an-update/

 

Networks

“The Water Basin Project network map” by Choconancy1 is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0

A knowledge of networking and networks is becoming increasingly important in our society and for education.

But what is a network? A network is a group of people joined together – today mostly by digital means (Oddone, 2017). Oddone also outlines four defining features of networks. They are:

  1. ‘Nodes – points on the network
  2. Relations – the lines in the network, connecting in one specific interaction
  3. Ties – also connectors, but reflecting the totality of relations between nodes
  4. The network itself – how the nodes, relations and ties combine to interact as networks’.

You can read more on Oddone’s post here. 

As technology becomes more readily available and information increases it is important that we know how to use networks to find information. Before beginning this course I had an understanding of networks in the traditional sense but no formal understanding of how they worked with technology. McClure (1994) and Rhinegold (2011) present two views on network literacy but they both believe it is imperative for people to understand networks and how they work in order to make the most of opportunities in their personal and professional lives. McLure defined network literacy as a set of knowledge and skills needed to have the ability to identify, access and use information from an electronic network.

Rhinegold explains that the way the internet coding protocols (ICP) were established at the creation of the net changed the way data could be sent. There is now no centralised control, although government, laws and markets influence the structure. This lack of centralised structure makes the internet available to anybody who knows ICP – it is the ‘end-to-end’ principle. Whereas McLure’s views were on information retrieval from the network Rhinegold uses many theories, including Reed’s Law to demonstrate how networks now function with the advancement of technology and the introduction of web 2.0. Now networks are based around groups and these groups interact with each other to share information and knowledge regardless of time or distance barriers.

As I progress through my learning, it becomes increasingly clear how important networks are to learning about new resources, practises and opportunities.

Network learning is also becoming increasingly important in our education systems. Network learning is ICT used to promote connections for learning. Schools are seeing an increased need to use ICT skills for teaching and learning, however, the way in which ICT is used in learning and assessments is different to how they would be used in the workplace. A lot of student’s skills are assessed in isolation without being able to use ICT knowledge and skills as they would in the workplace. Student’s are also often tested individually, rather than a mix of both individual and collaborative work as they would be expected to achieve in the workplace (Wilson, Scalise & Gochyyev, 2015).

The lack of integration between the way employers expect employees to utilise technology and collaborative skills and the way the education system teaches and assesses these skills leaves a widening gap. This leads to the question – are students taught to integrate ICT and networks into their lives in a way that will be beneficial to their future? Does the education system need to change the way it implements and assesses? How does a teacher achieve this in an institution steeped in traditional systems?

 

References:

McClure, C. R. (1994). Network literacy: A role for libraries? Information Technology and Libraries, 13(2), 115-125. Retrieved from Proquest Ebook Central.

Oddone, K. (2016, September 5). Networks, networking and network literacy – Part 1 [Blogpost]. Retrieved from https://www.linkinglearning.com.au/what-is-network-literacy-and-is-it-important/

Rheingold, H. (2011, February 13). Network literacy part 1 [online video]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/g6UKWozzVRM

Rheingold, H. (2011, February 13). Network literacy part 2 [online video]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/g6UKWozzVRM

Wilson, M., Scalise, K., & Gochyyev, P. (2015). Rethinking ICT literacy: From computer skills to social network settings. Thinking Skills and Creativity,  18, 65-80.

What is a PLN?

Photo by John Barkiple on Unsplash

These were my thoughts exactly ‘what is a PLN and what does it have to do with connected learning?’ when I first encounter the term.
The acronym PLN may stand for many terms – personal learning network, professional learning network or as Terrell (2010) likes to call it a ‘passionate learning network’. Whichever terminology you choose to use the concept is the same. A PLN at it’s most basic is a group of people (network) that you choose to engage with in order to share ideas and learn from each other (Digitalang, 2012). However, it is also more than that, it is a support group who will challenge your thinking and provide you with new ideas and act as a sounding board for your own ideas. Through PLNs more can be achieved than could be by the individual (DPG plc, 2015). As the network is usually global thanks to the advent of digital technology there may be people in your group from various backgrounds and professions that you may never meet.

To be part of a PLN you need to have qualities of being willing to learn, share, have an open mind to different opinions and ideas and contribute (Digitalang, 2012).

LaGarde & Whitehead (2012) outline 4 basic stages in using a PLN:

  1. Consume – observe and collect new ideas
  2. Connect – comment, ask questions
  3. Create – recreate ideas and apply to your own practise
  4. Contribute – share your ideas, practise and resources

But where can you find people for your PLN? – online is best. Way (2012) lists several places, which include:

  • Twitter
  • Facebook
  • Nings
  • Google+
  • Diigo

Other useful ways to connect with others are by reading blogs, listening to podcasts, attending webinars and being active on forums.

I find the idea/concept of PLNs both interesting and challenging at this stage in my connected networking path. Interesting because the potential for personal growth is huge but also the ability to use global networking in the classroom is amazing. As Tolisano (2014) demonstrates the benefits your PLN can range from crowdsourcing for authentic data (slide 66) to bringing in experts from outside the school (slide 56).
Challenging, because at the moment on the participation scale of connected learning according to Jenkins I am a lurker. I am unsure of the worthiness of my ideas and reluctant to contribute, which is quite characteristic of a lurker. As I begin to establish a PLN and reach out through the use of technology such as following twitter accounts and blogging I am becoming a more confident connected learner.

As an update my PLN has helped deliver to me ideas for professional enhancement, such as :

  • Using Bloom’s taxonomy for reflective thinking
  • Preparing for future class requirements
  • Infographics summarising research on digital natives
  • Evernote
  • Pearltrees
  • Pocket
  • Curation

Where are you in your PLN path? How do you use your PLN? Have you taken PLN ideas or benefits of your PLN into your workplace?

 

References:

Digitalang (2012, February 21). How to build your PLN (Personal Learning Network) [online video]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A667plNCzwA&feature=youtu.be

DPG plc (2015, November 23). What is a Personal Learning Network and why build one? [online video]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/IRHah3KPDYE

LaGarde, J. & Whitehead, T. (2012). Power up your professional learning. Knowledge Quest, 41(2), 8-13. Retrieved from https://knowledgequest.aasl.org/

Rheingold, H., & Weeks, A. (2012). Participation power. In Net smart: How to thrive online (pp. 111-145). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Terrell, S. (2010). Shelly Terrell: Global Netweaver, Curator, Passionate Learning Network (PLN) Builder [online video]. Retrieved from: http://vimeo.com/15880455

Tolisano, S. (2014). The globally connected educator – Beyond plugging in, towards global pedagogy [online slideshow]. Retrieved from https://www.slideshare.net/langwitches/the-globally-connected-educator-beyond-plugging-in-towards-global-pedagogy

Way, J. (2012). Developing a personal learning network for fast and free professional learning. Access, 26(1), 16-19. Retrieved from https://asla-org-au.ezproxy.csu.edu.au/access