Archive of ‘INF532’ category

Evaluative Report


(a) Evaluative statement

Information and knowledge are no longer only bound in books or broadcast by television and radio networks, they have been set free. The internet has forever changed the way information is distributed, consumed and shared (De Saulles, 2012). Where once information was scarce and the preserve of the elite, it is now plentiful and potentially available to anyone with the skills to manage and exploit it (Wesch, 2009).

The defining characteristics of New models of information production (Malbon, 2016) include access to free or low cost information from local and global sources, web 2.0 tools for the consumption and creation of information and knowledge and network capabilities for communication and collaboration. According to Wesch (2009), these new and emerging models exist because of technology and network infrastructure but the way they are appropriated and harnessed is a social revolution. New and emerging models of information production have disrupted existing systems (Wheeler, 2015) and present challenges and opportunities for educators and information professionals in areas such as digital literacy, digital citizenship and knowledge management. For equitable participation in society, educational institutions must teach students about networks, while also using these networks (Pegrum,2010). 

In addition to information and digital literacy, network literacy (Malbon, 2016) is essential for lifelong learning. Rheingold (2011) asserts that network literacy allows people to form groups, participate and innovate. Networks are not new. People have been gathering, participating in communities and sharing common interests long before mass computing came along. Networked publics, mediated by social media allow people to connect and construct communities without geography being an issue (boyd, 2014). As the internet was emerging McClure (1994) could foresee that new skills would be required to use electronic information effectively. McClure was concerned that individuals that were network illiterate would be disadvantaged and become second-class citizens. Sixteen years later and with the impact of the social networks, Pegrum (2010) also stated that without network literacy, individuals risk being excluded from society. Schools therefore have a role to play in teaching students how to navigate networks for informal and formal learning.

In a networked society, schools and the transfer of knowledge by teachers are just one node in a student’s network (Pegrum, 2010). Many young people, but certainly not all, have the ability to leverage digital media to pursue personal interests outside of school (Ito, 2013). A Connected educator (Malbon, 2016), as reflected on in the blog post, realises that network learning is possible in the classroom too and takes advantage of blogs, wikis, collaborative tools, social networks and other digital tools for engagement and learning. Educators have to understand the tools and technology themselves before they can share their knowledge with their students (Nussbaum-Beach & Ritter Hall, 2011). Looking into the future (Malbon, 2016) outlines the trends that are beginning to impact schools and the need for educators to adapt. Connected learning is becoming possible with the increase in one-to-one computing, network infrastructure that includes wi-fi and cloud computing and the inclusion of twenty-first century skills in government curriculums. The difficulty in assessing so called “soft skills” (Scardamalia, Bransford, Kozma & Quellmalz, 2011) is a barrier that has to be overcome by innovative educators.

Becoming a connected educator involves taking ownership of one’s learning and being willing to share successes, failures and learning with others. The shift from isolation to connecting and sharing takes time and effort (Nussbaum-Beach & Ritter Hall, 2011). Self-directed learning and the development of a personal learning network (PLN) is crucial to adapting to a changing digital environment (Rajagopal, Joosten-ten Brinke, Van Bruggen & Sloep, 2012). Face-to-face networking can occur in person or can be mediated by technology. My first Teachmeet (Malbon, 2016) is an example of how networks can leverage technology to organise “in real life” events. Exploring and learning how to use web 2.0 tools such as Storify, Tweetdeck, LinkedIn (Malbon, 2016) is made easier by online tutorials and reviews. By playing with tools, strengths and weaknesses can be identified and application to one’s own situation or to the classroom determined (Wheeler, 2015). Once an educator is familiar with a variety of tools and new information seeking strategies, decisions can be made on appropriate pedagogical approaches.

The development of a PLN, use of web 2.0 tools and social networks can lead to information overload (Christozov & Toleva-Stoimenova, 2013). Strategies to filter and critically evaluate information are essential to manage and make sense of information (Jarche, 2010). Digital curation is an information life skill for educators and students (Valenza, 2012). The blog post Digital curation and Storify (Malbon, 2016) is both an example of digital curation and confirmation of its importance to lifelong learning. The 2016 ISTE Standards for Students acknowledge that students need to critically curate using digital tools to be effective knowledge constructors (International Society for Technology in Education, 2016). Consequently educators will need to model digital curation and teach students how to locate, select, analyse, organise and present information (Antonio & Tuffley, 2015).

Delivering learner-centred instruction that utilises blended learning is achievable in schools with good information technology infrastructure and one-to-one mobile device policies. Knowledge of instructional design can assist educators to produce artefacts, make use of distributed resources (Prensky, 2010) and take advantage of collaborative opportunities. A novice attempt at using instructional design to produce a short video for use in a blended classroom can be viewed in the blog post Knowledge networking artefact (Malbon, 2016). The willingness to experiment with tools, make mistakes, gain feedback and share the artefact with others resulted in a valuable resource for the creator and their PLN to use in a blended environment. Viewing and critiquing other people’s artefacts also helps in recognising instructional design elements and how they contribute to engagement and learning. Peer review such as Critique – What is a PLN (Malbon, 2016) also provides constructive feedback to the creator that can be taken into consideration for future artefacts.

The cultivation of skills for self-directed and lifelong learning are essential in an ever changing technological world and knowledge-based economy where “everything – and everyone – around us can be seen as resources for learning” (Thomas & Brown, 2011, p. 32). Learning, growing and exploring (Malbon, 2016) is supported and facilitated by our personalised networks.  


(b) Reflective Statement

I am a teacher librarian and describe myself an information professional so I was quite confident when I began studying Knowledge networking for educators (INF532). Filtering, sifting, organising, analysing, categorising and presenting information and knowledge are skills I learned in my undergraduate degree twenty-three years ago and have continued to develop using my personal learning network (PLN).

In my blog post Network Literacy (Malbon, 2016) I reflected on how networks have changed during my adult life. As an undergraduate student I received no formal education or training using the internet because it was not available. I had to be a self-directed learner and learn about the internet informally using books, asking colleagues questions and by using it.

Fast forward to 2016 and I am learning about information production, distribution and transmission in a formal university setting, however this university online. I access my course material through a learning management system, I attend virtual meetings and I can use the library twenty-four hours a day. I openly and regularly discuss course content in an online forum and I use Twitter (@KMalbon) to connect and share resources with my peers using the hashtag #INF532. Collaboration with my assigned module summary group was made easy using the collaborative features of Google Docs and Google Hangouts allow me to have face-to-face conversations. With five subjects already completed and a digital toolkit established I felt that I was well on my way to being a connected educator.

A connected educator directs their own learning, connects and collaborates so they can grow professionally (Nussbaum-Beach & Ritter Hall, 2011). With technology and web 2.0 tools, educators are no longer restrained by geography and the need to meet face-to-face. Educators can connect synchronously and asynchronously using social networks and web 2.0 tools to communicate, collaborate, curate and create (Whitby, 2014). When writing my Connected Educator Reflection (Malbon, 2016) blog post I realised that my participation levels were not that high. I consumed information, shared interesting links and articles with colleagues and curated material for myself but I was hesitant to start conversations or be involved in collaborative projects.

flickr photo shared by kleem9 under a Creative Commons ( BY-NC-SA ) license

Following on from two comments I made in forum 2.2 and 2.4 I set myself some goals to become more connected:

  • Comment on blog posts (Thinkspace and external) and reply to comments on my blog
  • Ask questions on Twitter and participate in a Twitter chat
  • Participate in a Teachmeet
  • Share my knowledge networking artefact through various social networks
  • Progress from aggregating resources for myself to curating resources and sharing with my PLN
  • Share what I have learned from INF532 with my colleagues at work

Using my already established Feedly account I followed and categorised INF532 student blog posts. I felt that I got to know my fellow students better by commenting on their blog posts. Some of the comments led to mini conversations taking place in the comments section such as these with Emma (Hinchcliffe, 2016) and Kelly (Hollis, 2016). I also commented on a blog post by Kaye Oddone (Oddone, 2016) on content curation that helped me to clarify the topic of my knowledge networking artefact. My initial comment led to a conversation between Kaye, myself and content curation guru Robin Good. I also made an effort to reply to most of the comments made on my blog posts like I have here on the post My First Teachmeet (Malbon, 2016). Commenting and replying to blog posts was so valuable to me during INF532. I was no longer just following people and passively consuming content, I was engaging. I was able to discuss, share knowledge, ask questions, provide feedback and get feedback.

Early in the session I nervously participated in my first Teachmeet and then reflected on it with the blog post, My First Teachmeet (Malbon, 2016). Teachmeets are a wonderful blend of face-to-face and online network learning. Organised by educators for educators, the aim of a Teachmeet is to share experiences with your peers (New South Wales Department of Education, 2016) using short face-to-face presentations and continuing conversations using a Twitter hashtag. I have found that Teachmeets allow me to direct my own learning, improve my professional practice and strengthen my personal learning network. I have signed myself up to present at  another Teachmeet Melbourne in November.

Retrieved from

Twitter has been an essential tool in my PLN for a number of years but I was not using it to its full potential. I increased my participation level by asking questions, answering questions and having more conversations. Although most of my questions went unanswered, the reward I got when someone replied to them was thrilling. I tweeted my knowledge networking artefact directly to some curation experts and as shown in my blog post Knowledge Networking Artefact (Malbon, 2016) they replied and shared my artefact with their PLN. The sharing of my knowledge networking artefact to my PLN on Twitter and Facebook has resulted in my artefact being viewed on YouTube 169 times. 

Unfortunately my goal to participate in Twitter chats was not fully realised. I used TweetDeck to participate in the #INF532 Twitter chat and found it an exhilarating experience. Now that I have some more time available to me I will definitely be participating in some more Twitter chats. As explained in my blog post, TweetDeck (Malbon, 2016) is now part of my personal knowledge management strategy (Jarche, 2013) because after a little practice it makes following hashtags and participating in Twitter chats easier.

As a teacher librarian I have always been collegial and willing to share my experiences and resources with others through my PLN. I was already sharing through social networks and curation platforms but INF532 has given me the confidence to take the next step. I have discovered new tools and increased my participation level in my PLN so I am ready to model and provide leadership to my colleagues in knowledge networking, developing a PLN and becoming connected educators. I would also like help students cultivate their social networks and PLN for learning (Richardson & Mancabelli, 2011). In the blog post Looking into the future (Malbon, 2016) I noted trends such as online learning and students as creators that the library must support and resource. The instructional design knowledge I have acquired will be extremely beneficial in developing a digital library for students to access anytime and anywhere and in the design of blended learning experiences. I am a teacher librarian who is becoming a connected educator by being a networked, lifelong learner.


Antonio, A., & Tuffley, D. (2015). Promoting Information Literacy in Higher Education through Digital Curation. M/C Journal, 18(4). Retrieved from

boyd, d. (2014). It’s complicated: the social lives of networked teens. London: Yale University Press

Christozov, D., & Toleva-Stoimenova, S. (2013). Knowledge Diffusion via Social Networks: The 21st Century Challenge. International Journal of Digital Literacy and Digital Competence (IJDLDC), 2(4), 1-12. doi:10.4018/jdldc.2013040101

De Saulles, M. (2012). New models of information production. In Information 2.0 : new models of information production, distribution and consumption (pp. 13-35). London : Facet.

Hinchcliffe, E. (2016, September 21). Content curation and the digital age [Blog post]. Retrieved from

Hollis, K. (2016, September, 25). Building a knowledge network [Blog post]. Retrieved from

International Society for Technology in Education. (2016). ISTE standards for students. Retrieved from

Ito, M., Gutierrez, K., Livingstone, S., Penuel, B., Rhodes, J., Salen, K., . . . Watkins, S. C. (2013). Connected learning: An agenda for research and design. Retrieved from Irvine, California:

Jarche, H. (2010). Network learning: Working smarter with PKM. Life in perpetual beta. Retrieved from

Malbon, K. (2016, July 17).  Discovering a philosophy of information in digital environments [Online forum comment]. Retrieved from

Malbon K. (2016, July 26). Connected educator reflection [Blog post]. Retrieved from

Malbon K. (2016, August 4). Network literacy [Blog post]. Retrieved from

Malbon K. (2016, August 25). Digital curation and Storify [Blog post]. Retrieved from

Malbon K. (2016, September 14). Knowledge networking artefact [Blog post]. Retrieved from

Malbon K. (2016, September 21). Looking into the future [Blog post]. Retrieved from

Malbon K. (2016, September 28). TweetDeck [Blog post]. Retrieved from

Malbon K. (2016, October 3). Critique – what is a PLN?  [Blog post]. Retrieved from

Malbon K. (2016, October 5). Learning, growing and exploring [Blog post]. Retrieved from

Malbon K. (2016, October 5). LinkedIn [Blog post]. Retrieved from

Malbon K. (2016, October 5). My first Teachmeet [Blog post]. Retrieved from

McClure, C. R. (1994). Network literacy: A role for libraries? Information Technology and Libraries, 13(2), 115-125.

New South Wales Department of Education. (2016). What is a Teachmeet? Retrived from

Nussbaum-Beach, S., & Ritter Hall, L. (2011). Classroom Strategies : The Connected Educator : Learning and Leading in a Digital Age (1). Bloomington, US: Solution Tree Press.

Oddone, K. (2016, August 3). Digital content curation: More important that ever! [Blog post]. Retrieved from

Pegrum, M. (2010). ‘I Link, Therefore I Am’: Network Literacy as a Core Digital Literacy. E-Learning and Digital Media, 7(4), 346-354. doi:10.2304/elea.2010.7.4.346

Prensky, M. (2010). Teaching digital natives: Partnering for real learning. London: Sage.

Rajagopal, K., Joosten-ten Brinke, D., Van Bruggen, J., & Sloep, P. (2011). Understanding personal learning networks: Their structure, content and the networking skills needed to optimally use them. First Monday, 17(1). doi:10.5210/fm.v17i1.3559

Rheingold, H. (2012). Introduction: Why you need digital know-how—Why we all need it. In Net smart: How to thrive online. Retrieved from

Richardson, W., & Mancabelli, R. (2011). The power of networked learning. In Personal learning networks : using the power of connections to transform education (pp. 1-14). Moorabbin, Victoria: Solution Tree Press.

Scardamalia, M., Bransford, J., Kozma, B., & Quellmalz, E. (2012). New assessments and environments for knowledge building. In Assessment and teaching of 21st century skills (pp. 231-300). Netherlands: Springer Retrieved from

Wesch, M. (2009, January 7). From kowledgable to knowledge-able: learning in new media environments [Blog post]. Retrieved from

Valenza, J. K. (2012). Curation. School Library Monthly, 29(1).

Wheeler, S. (2015). Learning with ‘e’s: Educational theory and practice in the digital age. [Kindle edition].

Whitby, T. (2014, October 1). The connected educator: It begins with collaboration. Retrieved from


Learning, growing and exploring

I have read the chapter Arc of Life Learning by Thomas & Brown (2011) a few times since starting this course. When I read it recently, it reminded me of the local photography club I belong to. It is a made up of a group of adults who share a common interest and meet regularly to listen, discuss, share, learn and teach each other about their passion. Most members of the club are motivated to participate and experiment (Thomas & Brown, 2011), just like those mentioned in the chapter because of their passion and desire to learn more.

The club also has virtual spaces for the communication, dissemination and sharing of information. A website includes club news, the history of the club, the calendar of events, competition rules images by members and curated resources on photography. Email is used to remind people of upcoming events, to summarise club meetings for those who were unable to attend and other organisational activities. Recently a members only Facebook group was established where members can continue conversations between meetings by asking each other questions and sharing images, resources and knowledge. Some members are learning how to use Facebook from their peers at the club so that they can participate.

Learning and the transfer of knowledge amongst members occurs through a fusion of resources (Thomas & Brown (2011):

  • expert presenters
  • club member presentations
  • workshops
  • photography competitions with judging/critique
  • excursions
  • video tutorials
  • books and magazines
  • informal conversations

Image by Karen Malbon ©

Some members also participate in online photography groups and meetups that are organised online through social media networks such as Meetup, IgersMelbourne, Canon Collective and Facebook groups.

Members are creating something meaningful (Thomas & Brown (2011) and sharing their photography on Instagram, Flickr, 500PX or making photobooks and prints. Members of my local photography range in age, experience and formal education level attained but their passion keeps them “learning, growing, and exploring”  (Thomas & Brown (2011, p. 18).


Thomas, D., & Brown, J. S. (2011). Arc-of-Life learning. In A new culture of learning: Cultivating the imagination for a world of constant change (pp. 17-33). Lexington, KY: CreateSpace.





CC0 Public Domain – Pixabay

I signed up to LinkedIn last year and created a brief profile but did not use it or make any connections. Throughout this session I have been exploring LinkedIn as a possible tool to expand my personal learning network (PLN).

I now have 52 connections made up mostly of teacher librarians, librarians, CSU students and educators. I have fleshed out my profile a little bit but it still needs some more work. I looked at the profiles of my connections to get some ideas of what to include on my own profile.

I sent a LinkedIn message to fellow INF532 student and new LinkedIn connection Kathryn McGilvray and she kindly offered to have a chat to me about her experiences with LinkedIn using a Google Hangoutscreen-shot-2016-10-04-at-10-18-14-pmAlthough the hangout was to talk about LinkedIn we strayed to other topics and talked about our experiences studying online at CSU. It was wonderful to connect with another student and have a chat that was “face-to-face” but mediated by technology. Within Kathryn’s tertiary industry she finds different people on LinkedIn than Twitter. So far on LinkedIn I have connected mostly with people that I am already following on Twitter.

I have requested to join groups relating to school libraries and education but most of them are still pending weeks later. This indicates to me that LinkedIn may not be the preferred network for my sector. Teacher Librarians appear to be more active on Twitter. However it is early days for me and LinkedIn so I will persist and try and get into the habit of using it like I do with Twitter and Facebook. Perhaps in the near future these weak ties in my PLN (Pegrum, 2010) will prove useful and fruitful.


Pegrum, M. (2010). ‘I Link, Therefore I Am’: Network literacy as a core digital literacy. In E-Learning and Digital Media, 7(4), 346-354.

Critique – What is a PLN?

What is a PLN? by Kath Ellis

I chose to critique this artefact because the target audience is senior students, the same audience I chose for my artefact. Within my own artefact for senior students on digital curation, I referred very briefly to personal learning networks. I think that this artefact complements mine and could be paired with mine to give students a better understanding of PLNs and the tools that they can use to learn now and into the future. I was also intrigued by the animation tool utilised to create the knowledge networking artefact.

Retrieved from

What is a PLN? is a brief animated video constructed using Animatron and hosted on YouTube. Animation, text and narration complement each other and clearly convey what a PLN is, why students should cultivate one and practical suggestions on how to get started. The narrator begins by concisely explaining the different terminology that is used to describe a personal learning network and reinforces the terms with a simple animation. It is evident early in the video that senior students are the intended audience through the inclusion of “vox pops” of students being filmed and asked what they think a personal learning network is. This element engages the target audience and sets the scene for further exploration.

In designing the artefact, the attention span of the audience has been considered and the running time of just over three minutes is appropriate to introduce the topic and not overwhelm the audience.  A basic instructional design of tell, show, do and review is utilised. The narrator tells the audience what a PLN is, why developing PLN is important and how students can leverage tools to develop a PLN. Social networking logos appear and show familiar social tools that can be used for learning and to develop a PLN. By using familiar social tools as examples, the creator provides students with a non-threatening starting point. The narrator and accompanying visuals indicate, very briefly, how the tools could be used by students. The narrators’s call to action, extolling the benefits of PLNs, encourages students to go ahead and do it.

The video does stand alone, however the lack of interaction required by the viewer makes the learning experience rather passive. This passivity could easily be overcome by using the video as a stimulus for further discussion in the classroom and thus providing multiple opportunities for learner engagement. The video is well paced, clearly narrated, uncluttered and adequately answers the question in the title.


As a regular Twitter user I decided to explore TweetDeck to determine whether it would streamline my Twitter experience. TweetDeck is a dashboard application that helps users manage their Twitter account. Using columns, you can follow hashtags, individual accounts, lists, what is trending and more. I found this brief video useful in getting started with TweetDeck.

Retrieved from

Before starting this subject I would scroll through my Twitter feed and check on a few favourite hashtags using the Twitter application. I had tried Hootsuite and knew about TweetDeck but only used them a couple of times to participate in Twitter chats. I decided to commit to using TweetDeck regularly to determine whether I should add it to my digital toolkit.

I set myself some Twitter goals at the start of the session:

  • ask questions
  • follow hashtags
  • reply to Tweets
  • participate in Twitter chats
  • use TweetDeck daily

Using TweetDeck made following hashtags very easy by adding columns. See image below. TweetDeck saves me having to search for hashtags over and over again. I can simply dip in and out of hashtags when I need to. After a bit of practice TweetDeck was also great for Twitter chats. I was very disappointed to find out that TweetDeck does not have an iPad app. You can use TweetDeck in a browser on mobile devices but an app would be more convenient. I still have not got into the habit of using TweetDeck on my iPad and tend to tap on the iPad app instead. There are other features such as scheduling tweets and managing multiple accounts that I do not use at this stage but I will take advantage of these if the need arises.


Click image to enlarge

Using TweetDeck has become a daily habit and is now part of my personal knowledge management strategy (Jarche, 2013). My Twitter goals seem easier to achieve using TweetDeck. One day something better or different may replace it but for now it fulfils its purpose of helping me to manage the Twitter flow.


Jarche, H. (2013). PKM in 2013. Life in perpetual beta. Retrieved March 8, 2014, from

My First Teachmeet

Encouraged by fellow CSU student Heather Bailie I participated in my first Teachmeet in July. The Melbourne Immigration Museum hosted the event where educators take ownership of their own personal learning and meet face-to-face to share their ideas, strategies and tools by presenting or simply attending. Presenters can sign up for a 2 minute or 7 minute slot. I co-presented with Heather on Ethical Participation in the Digital Environment, a wiki we collaboratively created along with Amanda Lucas and Glenda Morris for ETL523, Digital Citizenship in Schools.

Heather speaks about the benefits of participating in Teachmeets in this video.

Retrieved from

Leading up to the Teachmeet, we did a Google Hangout to plan our presentation and kept in touch using Twitter. We both promoted the Teachmeet to our personal learning networks (PLNs) on Twitter and Facebook.

Teachmeet Melbourne uses a wiki to organise and promote upcoming events. Teachmeet Melbourne is also on Twitter as @Teachmeet Melbourne and uses the hashtag #TMMelb so that the community can continue to engage virtually. This is a great example of computer networks mediating communication and linking people (Siemens, 2008).

I was a bit nervous because I had not presented outside of my own workplace before but I need not have worried. Everyone at the Teachmeet was so welcoming and the atmosphere was informal and relaxed. Presenting at the Teachmeet also led to me being approached to be part of a panel of presenters at an ALIA Schools seminar in August (thanks to Heather recommending me).

These two presenting experiences have given me a new found confidence that what I know and can share is valuable to others. I met new people in person and will continue to follow or connect with them online and leverage these weak ties (people outside my usual social network) when I need them (Pegrum, 2010). My PLN is expanding and I am becoming more active by participating, sharing and connecting rather than just consuming and lurking.


Pegrum, M. (2010). ‘I Link, Therefore I Am’: Network literacy as a core digital literacy. In E-Learning and Digital Media, 7(4), 346-354.

Siemens, G. (2008, September 28). A brief history of networked learning. Retrieved from

Looking into the Future

I have just read the NMC Horizon Report 2016 K-12 edition and have been thinking about how the trends, developments in technology and challenges will impact on school libraries and teacher librarians.


Adams Becker, S., Freeman, A., Giesinger Hall, C., Cummins, M., and Yuhnke, B. (2016). NMC/CoSN Horizon Report: 2016 K-12 Edition. Austin, Texas: The New Media Consortium.
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

I foresee the school library playing a resourcing and support role in the areas the school chooses to implement.
The trends I think libraries will play a significant role in are:

  • Students as creators – ensuring staff and students understand copyright, ethical use of information and Creative Commons
  • Deeper learning approaches – supporting and resourcing inquiry-based, project-based, collaborative and self-directed pedagogies

The developments in technology I think libraries will play a significant role in are:

  • Online learning – working collaboratively with teachers to design digital resources that can be accessed anywhere and anytime
  • Makerspaces – these spaces already feature in many school libraries. Teacher librarians can also assist in the setting up of makerspaces in other areas of the school by providing research and resources

The challenge I think libraries will play a significant role in is:

  • Advancing digital equity – internet access, computer access, access to other technologies and to a teacher librarian can be provided by the school library

View an introduction to the NMC Horizon Report 2016 K-12 edition here

Retrieved from


Knowledge Networking Artefact

My knowledge networking artefact proposal for a video on digital content curation for senior students has been produced and submitted for assessment. In my proposal I indicated that I would use Adobe Spark Video, however I switched to iMovie. Although I had not used iMovie before I found it very easy to use after watching a YouTube tutorial. iMovie allowed me to manipulate and edit images, video, narration and a soundtrack and host the video on YouTube. The tools I used are listed below:

I was pleased that I kept to my proposed timeline and completed the artefact with enough time to elicit some feedback. The timing was not great for getting feedback from students. I surveyed ten students but only one responded during the last week of a very busy term for senior students. This was better than nothing and the answers gave me some confidence that the video production quality was good and that the main message was clear. I also tweeted my video to some curation experts and was very excited to get responses and shares of my video from Kaye Oddone and Robin Good.

The video can be used by teachers or teacher librarians to introduce students to digital curation. I envisage educators then working alongside their students to expand on the video by discussing the process of curation and the information and digital literacy skills required to be a good curator.

Retrieved from


Organisations, libraries and individuals practice content curation as a way of filtering, managing and making sense of huge volumes of digital and physical information. Content curation involves sifting, selecting, sorting, arranging, publishing and sharing the best information on a topic (Kanter, 2011). In a network age, students need to develop the skills of content curation and know how to use digital curation tools to become adept knowledge constructors (International Society for Technology in Education, 2016).

The artefact, Digital Curation for Senior Students (Malbon, 2016) is a short video that educators can use in the library or classroom to introduce content curation and digital curation tools to students aged between fifteen and eighteen. Most senior secondary students are immersed in social networks and use the internet to satisfy the majority of their information needs (ACMA, 2014). The ability to access networks does not guarantee that students have the necessary metacognitive skills to negotiate the online environment and the abundance of information flowing through it. (Antonio & Tuffley, 2015). The video emphasises that information overload can be managed by understanding the process and tools of digital content curation.

A blog post about content curation by Kaye Oddone (2016) was the catalyst for creating a video on digital curation aimed at students. Employing the practice of digital storytelling, the video is an amalgamation of still images, video clips, narration and a music soundtrack. The final product was created with iMovie, an application supplied with iMac computers and hosted on YouTube.

The design thinking process for educators of discovery, interpretation, ideation, experimentation and evolution was utilised by the creator. This process helped to shape a vague idea into a useful artefact. The creator was willing to make mistakes, learn from them, make adjustments and elicit feedback from a variety of sources.

To sustain the viewer’s attention, keeping the length of the video to between three and four minutes was a priority. To achieve this aim, a basic storyboard guided the selection and creation of appropriate media and the script. The time constraint was challenging and resulted in the script being edited and some content and media being cut from the final artefact.

A metaphor was introduced at the beginning of the video to gain the viewer’s attention, make the content instantly relatable to students and to structure the narrative. The metaphor of an overflowing wardrobe was used to illustrate information overload. Curation as a method of managing abundance was explained and demonstrated to the viewer.

The curation process was explained using narration and text. Quotes from digital content curation experts were interspersed throughout the video to complement the narration. Quote and text slides were produced in Canva using Creative Commons images. The screencasting tool Screencast-o-matic was utilised to demonstrate selected digital curation tools. Due to time constraints not all of the tools featured could be demonstrated. A suggested toolkit of digital curation tools suitable for senior students was curated in Symbaloo and displayed multiple times throughout the video. A word cloud of the vocabulary synonymous with curation was created in Tagul and also displayed at various times throughout the video to reiterate the language of digital content curation.

The creator envisaged the artefact being used predominantly by educators as an introductory resource to stimulate discussion and further learning or embedded into a research task. The video does however stand-alone and could be viewed by individuals in a formal or informal learning environment.

Content curation is a valuable information life skill (Valenza, 2012) that can be used by students to manage and make sense of information in a networked environment. The negative impacts of information overload can be reduced by using strategies to filter, classify and annotate material (Jarche, 2010). Students can take control of their information environment (Bawden & Robinson, 2009) by using digital curation processes and tools. The video’s narrative and accompanying images communicates this message to students and introduces them to appropriate tools.

The video aims to encourage students to delve deeper and explore digital curation with the guidance of their teacher or teacher librarian. Educators can empower students to be thoughtful digital citizens by providing them with guidance (Orth & Chen, 2013). The attributes of good curation tools are identified and a selection of tools suitable for secondary students are briefly outlined in the artefact. In the classroom the educator could expand on the video and present more detailed demonstrations of the tools or get students to investigate the tools further and demonstrate them to their peers.

Being able to locate, evaluate, store, retrieve, ethically use, create and communicate knowledge are elements of information literacy (Catts & Lau, 2008) that are essential to being a good curator. It is recognised that expert curators engage high level thinking skills to deliver quality curated collections (Tolisano, 2011). The video could initiate a class discussion on information literacy skills and ways to improve and develop them when information and knowledge is distributed through global participatory networks such as blogs, wikis and social networks (Wesch, 2014). Many students are exploring their interests outside of school using technology and networks, however it cannot be assumed that all students are capable of using these tools for learning (Richardson & Mancabelli, 2011). For students to fully participate in the digital world the teaching of digital information literacy is necessary (Antonio & Tuffley, 2015) and the digital curation process provides opportunities for authentic learning experiences.

Teaching students about professional learning networks or personal learning networks helps their current learning and prepares them for future work (Clifford, 2013). Employers value lifelong learning skills and the ability to connect and network with others. Lifelong learning is a habit of mind that requires effort and commitment (Whitby, 2013). A professional learning network provides anytime, anywhere learning opportunities and also support when requested (Rajagopal, Joosten-ten Brinke, Van Bruggen & Sloep, 2012). Knowing how to use digital curation tools to manage information and to collaborate with others is beneficial to developing and maintaining an active and vibrant personal learning network. By developing a personal learning network, students can also follow their own interests and passions using digital curation tools (White, 2012). Many curation tools facilitate collaborative curation that enables students to connect locally or globally with people who share similar passions. While the artefact only touched briefly on the collaborative aspect of digital curation, educators could adopt a tool for their class to use. This would allow students to practice the social skills of curation such as tagging and sharing.

Instructional design was a consideration during the planning, design and creation of the artefact. Instructional design is a way of analysing the learning needs of the audience and developing experiences to meet these needs (Culatta, 2016). The creator used the ADDIE model, Gagne’s nine events and the simple model of Tell, show, do and review to plan the artefact (Kunkle, 2011).

A simple method of instructional design, tell, show, do and review was used in the ideation phase of the artefact to provide the creator with a scaffold for producing the video. The video would tell students what digital curation was, why it is an important skill for making sense of information and how they could do it using digital curation tools. The video would show information, present tools and demonstrate tools. Challenge statements or call to action statements to experiment with digital curation tools and learn the skills of digital curation would set the expectation to do it. Review was not applicable in the ideation phase. The creator believes the final product achieved these broad goals.

The ADDIE model consists of analyse, design, develop, implement and evaluate. During the analyse stage; the creator spoke to students in the target audience about their information management strategies. From these conversations it was determined that digital curation was not widely practiced by these students. A literature review uncovered many articles about digital content curation for organisations and educators but very few articles about the pedagogical advantages for secondary school students. The ISTE Standards for Students 2016 (International Society for Technology in Education, 2016) states that students, as knowledge constructors, should be able to critically curate digital information using tools, create artefacts and make connections. The creator determined that there was a need for an artefact on this topic, aimed at senior secondary students that educators could use as an introductory resource that would lead to further discussion and exploration.

In the develop phase, the creator settled on a metaphor for the narrative after consulting with the school’s media studies teacher. The opening scene of the video introduces the metaphor and uses the first of Gagne’s nine events to gain the audience’s attention. The decision to limit the video to four minutes was made to cater for the attention span of the audience. This placed constraints on the amount of content in the video. Inform the learner of the objective and present information are the second and third events and were limited to a brief outline of the process of curation as a way of managing information. Time did not allow for an explanation of lifelong learning and personal learning networks. The fifth event, provide guidance, was attempted using screencasting videos to demonstrate two digital curation tools. The demonstrations only gave viewers a glimpse at the tools and did not meet the intention of guiding the learner. The sixth event, elicit performance was limited to the narrator imploring students to experiment with digital curation tools and attempt the steps of digital curation. More opportunities to expand on the content of the video and put into practice the skills would need to be presented in the classroom with the support of the educator.

The evaluation phase took advantage of the creator’s personal learning network to elicit feedback. The completed video was tweeted with the Knowledge Networking for Educators subject hashtag INF532 and to specific people, including Kaye Oddone who inspired the artefact. Feedback was positive and the use of the metaphor was said to make the content immediately relatable to students. A Google form including the video, nine multiple choice questions and one open ended question was sent to ten senior school students asking for their feedback. Disappointingly only one response was received however it was positive and confirmed that the video’s message was clear and the technical quality was high. A bigger sample size of students is required to determine whether students would respond as positively to the video as the adults considering the creator is much older than the students.

The genesis of the artefact came from a blog post shared on social media by a connected educator geographically distant from the creator. Content, media and feedback was sourced using social media and web 2.0 tools made possible because “digital networked infrastructure is amplifying our ability to access and use nearly unlimited resources and incredible instruments while connecting with one another” (Thomas & Brown, 2011, p. 17). The creator’s personal learning network and knowledge of social media was integral to the creation of a relevant artefact that introduces students to personal knowledge management. As a pedagogical tool, digital curation can enable students to build personal learning networks, to fully participate in a networked environment and become confident knowledge constructors.


ACMA. (2014). Aussie teens online. Retrieved from

Antonio, A., & Tuffley, D. (2015). Promoting Information Literacy in Higher Education through Digital Curation. M/C Journal, 18(4). Retrieved from

Bawden, D., & Robinson, L. (2009). The dark side of information: overload, anxiety and other paradoxes and pathologies. Journal of Information Science, 35(2), 180-191. doi:10.1177/0165551508095781

Catts, R., & Lau, J. (2008). Towards information literacy indicators. Retrieved from

Clifford, M. (2013). 20 tips for creating a professional learning network. Retrieved from

Culatta, R. (2016). Instructional design. Retrieved from

International Society for Technology in Education. (2016). ISTE standards for students. Retrieved from

Jarche, H. (2010). Network learning: Working smarter with PKM. Life in perpetual beta. Retrieved from

Kantar, B. (2011, October 4). Content curation primer. Retrieved from

Kunkle, M. (2011). Instructional design primer [PowePoint slides]. Retrieved from

Malbon, K. (2016, September 3). Digital curation for senior students [Video file]. Retrieved from

Oddone, K. (2016, August 3). Digital content curation: More important than ever! Retrieved from

Orth, D., & Chen, E. (2013). The strategy for digital citizenship. Retrieved from

Rajagopal, K., Joosten-ten Brinke, D., Van Bruggen, J., & Sloep, P. (2011). Understanding personal learning networks: Their structure, content and the networking skills needed to optimally use them. First Monday, 17(1). doi:10.5210/fm.v17i1.3559

Richardson, W., & Mancabelli, R. (2011). The power of networked learning. In Personal learning networks : using the power of connections to transform education (pp. 1-14). Moorabbin, Victoria: Solution Tree Press.

Thomas, D., & Brown, J. S. (2011). Arc-of-life learning: A new culture of change. Lexington, Ky: CreateSpace.

Tolisano, S. R. (2011, June 12). Students becoming curators of information [Blog post]. Retrieved from

Wesch, M. (2009). From knowledgeable to knowledge-able: Learning in new media environments. In The Academic Commons. Retrieved from

Whitby, T. (2013). How do I get a PLN? Retrieved from

White, N. (2012, July 27). Developing future workskills through content curation. Retrieved from

Valenza, J. K. (2012). Curation. School Library Monthly, 29(1).



Digital Curation and Storify

I have been experimenting with curation tools for many years. The urge to organise information and collections is part of being a Teacher Librarian. Teacher Librarians are experienced in finding, selecting, evaluating and sharing print and digital collections. As Valenza says human filters, such as librarians can turn overwhelming amounts of information into “gentle and continuous streams” (2012, para 2). The prevalence of digital curation tools in recent years means that digital collections can be shared in highly visual ways. A good example of this is in the right frame of my blog where I have my Pearltrees embedded.

A great blog post by Kay Oddone appeared in my Feedly feed last month that sowed the seed for my digital artefact proposal. Kay’s blog post spoke about the need for not only Teacher Librarians to be curators but for them to get their students involved too. As a networked learner, I commented on Kay’s blog post and even got to interact with curation guru Robin Good!

Storify is a tool that is commonly mentioned in the literature as a good digital curation tool for students. I had dabbled with it before for compiling tweets at conferences but I wanted to explore it further. Using Storify I followed a tip that Joyce Valenza mentioned in a video about social media curation at the Cue 2016 National Conference. Her tip was to search within curation tools. It sounds obvious but it was not something that I was doing all that often. I found a few gems that I had not discovered by doing a Google search by searching within Storify. See below for my Storify experiment.



Valenza, J. K. (2012). Curation. School Library Monthly, 29(1).

Proposal – Knowledge Networking Artefact

Proposed topic: Content curation for senior students

Proposed digital tools and/or spaces:

Brief description of nature of artefact:

This artefact will introduce senior secondary students (years 10-12) to content curation, the ability to organise, categorise, tag, present and share content (Tolisano, 2011). The artefact will present a range of tools that students can use to filter and make sense of vast amounts of information that they are exposed to through digital networks. The artefact will be used by teacher librarians during research and information literacy classes and be made available online.

Assignment plan:

  • Conduct a literature search (week 5)
  • Using my preferred curation tool Pearltrees, curate relevant resources from internet search, social networks, and literature search (week 5 and 6)  
  • Converse with students about how they bookmark, aggregate and curate resources for school and personal interests outside of school. To be used as quotes in the video (week 5 and 6)
  • Synthesise the information curated (week 7)
  • Create a storyboard of images, clips and narration for the video (week 7)
  • Just-in-time learning of specific features of Adobe Spark using tutorials and help (week 5 onwards)
  • Compile and narrate the video with my own voice (week 8 and possibly week 9)

Curation (song parody) from joyce valenza on Vimeo.


Tolisano, S. R. (2011). Students becoming curators of information? Retrieved from

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