The Digital Learning Environment

The disruptive nature of current technological advances is forcing us to re-evaluate, and in many cases re-design, re-invent or at least adapt many aspects of our society – the learning environment is no exception. A learning environment is no longer a classroom where students quietly sit, all facing forward, while the teacher delivers content from a printed textbook (Graetz, 2006).

A digital learning environment (DLE) is an environment where learning is facilitated and supported through the affordances of digital technology. The DLE consists of all resources: hardware, software and educational content, that the learner and teacher employ to facilitate learning. Because the DLE is “digital”, connected and networked, it is not bound by time or space. Learning can happen 24/7/365 and outside of the physical restrictions and constraints of traditional learning environments, just-in-time and on-demand. Learning can not only take place when we want, but where we want, with and from whom we want and about what we want (Richardson & Mancabelli, 2011, p. 2). Learning in DLEs are not restricted to the group of students in a class but can naturally extend to include experts and communities of interest and practice, allowing for more authentic, “situated” or context-dependent learning experiences (Brown, Collins, & Duguid, 1989, p. 39).

photo by rawpixel, dowloaded from pixabay

Digital learning environments include, but are not exclusive to, learning management systems (LMS) or virtual learning environments (VLE).  These environments should be intentionally designed, allowing for personalised, empowering, learner-centred and learner-directed learning (Veletsianos, 2016, pp. 246-7). DLE should make the most of Web 2.0, media and tools, which are open, social and participatory –  allowing learning through communication, collaboration, co-creating and sharing of knowledge (Conole, 2013, p. 47). The DLE is hyper-connected and allows for learning that is dynamic and fluid, a blend of formal, informal, experiential, problem-based and inquiry learning.

The existence of a DLE does not guarantee maximisation of learning. Intentional steps must be put into place to ensure that students and teachers develop the skills necessary to succeed in the 21st century, as well as the behaviour and attitudes needed to learn and socialise safely, ethically and effectively in these environments.

The DLE in our school is complex, but none the less reasonably effective, focussed on supporting the teaching and the learning of our students in a collaborative and transparent environment. We use Managebac as learning management system, a good choice – from an administrative point of view, since it is tailor-made for our IB school. Managebac creates a transparent online DLE where teachers, students and parents have – at all-time – a transparent overview of curriculum, learning objectives, learning tasks and assessments. Much of the active learning activities take place in the Google Suite environment, where tools are integrated, and collaboration is easily facilitated and monitored through sharing of digital artefacts. Students have access to Managebac and the Google environment at all times, at school, home and elsewhere, and can easily share access to their work with peers, teachers and parents. Other Web 2.0 tools are often used for specific learning activities. In my grade 6 Digital X (technology and design-based course) , for example, students are experimenting with free online tools to create audio recordings (Twistedwave), video recordings (WeVideo) and photo manipulation software (Photopea). The artefacts that students create are showcased in an ePortfolio, which is a Google slide presentation. Assignments, grades and assessment comments for tasks in the ePortfolio is published on Managebac.

Our course notes describe a DLE as “the tools, skills, standards, attitudes and habits for learning while using technology and accessing digital resources” (Lindsay & O’Connell, 2018). All of those elements are important in creating a successful learning environment, but the skilful creation of authentic and challenging learning opportunities by the teacher, is needed to ensure that our students thrive and grow.


References

Brown, J. S., Collins, A., & Duguid, P. (1989). Situated cognition and the culture of learning. Educational Researcher, 18(1), 32-42. Retrieved from JSTOR database.

Conole, G. (2013). Designing for learning in an open world. New York, NY: Springer.

Graetz, K. A. (2006). The psychology of learning environments. In D. G. Oblinger (Ed.), Learning spaces. Retrieved from https://www.educause.edu/research-and-publications/books/learning-spaces/chapter-6-psychology-learning-environments

Lindsay, J., & O’Connell, J. (2018). Topic 1.0: Introduction to the digital learning environment. Retrieved March 3, 2018, from ETL 523: Digital citizenship in schools website: https://interact2.csu.edu.au/webapps/blackboard/execute/displayLearningUnit?course_id=_34634_1&content_id=_2002176_1

Richardson, W., & Mancabelli, R. (2011). Personal learning networks: Using the power of connections to transform education. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree Press.

Veletsianos, G. (2016). Digital learning environments. In N. Rushby & D. Surry (Eds.), Handbook of learning technologies (pp. 242-260). Retrieved from http://www.veletsianos.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/digital_learninig_environments.pdf

INF532 Assignment 2: Network literacy evaluative report

Evaluating my networked learning experiences

Knowledge Networking for Educators (INF532) is only the second module of my Master’s studies and already my conceptual understanding of fundamental concepts such as learning and knowledge, and the role networks are playing in the information age, has changed significantly (Wocke, 2017a, Wocke, 2017b, Wocke 2017c).

Siemens’ (2006) views on connectivism informed my emerging understanding of learning and knowledge: Knowledge is no longer only recorded in artefacts such as books and journals, nor is its creation and exchange exclusively the task of institutions such as schools, universities, and libraries – knowledge and information now also resides in vast and complex digital networks. We can learn from anyone, anywhere, at any time. Learning is now more than static personal knowledge acquisition, it also involves dynamic processes such as decision-making and connection-making – learning requires participating and creating in these networks of knowledge. Siemens says it well: “Instead of the individual having to evaluate and process every piece of information, she/he creates a personal network of trusted nodes: people and content, enhanced by technology.” (p.33).

I was not very well “connected” when I started this module, but quickly my INF532 studies convinced me of the need to engage in learning in these knowledge networks. The practice-based and experiential learning format of this course provided me with the opportunity to explore this networked environment. I developed the skills and competencies needed to choose who I will connect with, in which spaces I will learn, and which tools and new formats of information production I will use to manage and harness the continuous flow of resources and information. Some of my explorations were recorded in journal format on Exploring KN tools, a page on my blog (Wocke, 2017d).

Using Twitter, the social networking and microblogging service, was my first intentional step to connect with the global network of educators. This is where I read the “headlines” of what is happening in the world of education and daily receive DIY-professional development, presented by people I choose to listen to and learn from.

 

Direct contact with great educators who can and will respond to me thrills and inspires me! I learnt to curate this flow of information with Tweetdeck and Twitter lists. Together with the “#INF532”-cohort I explored a Tweet chat, a format I did not find very effective, more meaningful conversations happened in spontaneous twitter messages with other students. This is a clear illustration to me that tools must be carefully evaluated and chosen for personal use, as I wrote in the second part of this contribution to the discussion forum (Wocke, 2017e).

Communication, cooperation and collaboration with members of my INF532 cohort convinced me of the value of peer-learning in networked communities. The INF532 “ecosystem”, or knowledge network, acted as the catalyst through which new knowledge could emerge (Cormier, 2010), it is regrettable that more exchange and development of ideas did not take place in the discussion forums and that few students blogged during the study session. Links made during online meetings and in the discussion forums led to a fun collaboration experiment that one of my classmates blogged about (GWTeaches, 2017a; Gillingham, 2017). We both learnt and were inspired by the experience. While I had previously blogged about Lucier (2012)and Tolisano’s (2012) “Seven degrees of connectedness”, I was not convinced that mere connectedness would lead to friendship – this collaborative experience convinced me: I am now connected with an Australian teacher librarian who will be a friend, as well as a valuable member of my personal learning network (PLN), for a long time (Wocke, 2017f)!

I continued to build my PLN and social learning environment by joining various wikis, Facebook and WhatsApp groups for librarians. These communities act as knowledge networks where I can ask questions, volunteer answers and suggestions, and share good practice. I wrote about one such experience here (Wocke, 2017g). My “learning” has now moved out into digital spaces and platforms, taking on a social form, it happens on-demand and is completely self-directed and personalised. Learning is no longer something formally planned, but happens informally and spontaneously all the time. I am convinced that this is what learning should be and am committed to further explore alternative flexible technology-based learning environments and approaches, such as flipped, blended- and flat learning, to create authentic student learning experiences, which are teacher-crafted, but student-directed (Wocke, 2017h).

As I found it almost impossible to keep track of all the great resources I was exposed to in this world of information overload, I experimented with a number of tools until I settled on feedly, as news aggregator and diigo as social bookmarking tool. Diigo groups now form part of my knowledge networking web. I find tagging and commenting valuable knowledge networking practices, with which I curate and contribute value to my PLN (Wocke, 2017e).

For production of the required INF532 artefact, I explored many tools (see Exploring KN tools), created and narrated a presentation, uploaded the resulting video to YouTube and posted on social media for feedback – all unchartered and terrifying territory (GWTeaches, 2017b; Wocke 2017d; Wocke 2017i)!

The comments from a critiquing fellow-student provided valuable perspective on my artefact and I learnt much about design and presentation principles from viewing and critiquing the artefacts produced by my cohort (Mifsud, 2017; Wocke, 2017j). My investigations into instructional design, as part of creating the artefact led to the conviction that well-designed knowledge network artefacts makes learning more efficient and engaging and leaves the teacher free to focus on supporting student learning (Reeves, 2011).

Blogging started as a requirement for my studies. On a theoretical level, I understood that blogs are powerful platforms that encourage reflective learning; it was only after reading some of my recent posts that I realised that I had stopped creating mini-essays and am now truly reflecting on my learning (Wocke, 2017k). Reading the blogs of my cohort, and educators that I value, is contributing to my understanding of their thinking and helping me develop the use of this new mode of information production (Wocke, 2017l; De Saules, 2012, 14). Blogging is not only about publishing, but about connecting (Richardson and Mancabelli, 2011, p. 34). Jarche (2016) finds blogging his strongest form of learning, the keystone of his sense-making, but acknowledges that for him it also took time and practice to develop routines of critical thinking, processing knowledge, and creating something new (Jarche, 2010). Tolisano (@langwitches) recently tweeted: “Blogging is NOT and activity, but a process” (2017).

Through the learning experiences discussed above, I have become convinced that in our digital environment – where the Internet mediates connections – educators must utilise the affordances of the world-wide-web to connect with, learn from, and be inspired by other educators (Warlick, 2009, p. 13). By developing PLNs to learn through and from, educators can be  “connected” and harness these digital networked learning environments, not only for their own professional learning, but to facilitate authentic and meaningful learning experiences for their students.

 

Reflecting on my development as connected educator

Through my studies of INF532 my understanding of what it means to be a connected educator in the 21st century has developed, here is what I learnt:

  • A connected educator is a life-long and connected learner. A learner who consciously and intentionally develops a personalised learning network of experts, mentors and peers to learn with and from (EdTechReview, 2014; Meador, 2016).
  • A connected educator cultivates this network through social media networks and in online communities of practice, utilising this network as a resource and curation mechanism (Bumgardner & Knestis, 2011; Wenger, 2011; Cisnero, 2014).
  • A connected educator contributes to and leads collective intelligence practices through the transparent sharing of experiences, practice, and content (Nussbaum-Beach & Hall, 2012, p. 48).
  • A connected educator is a leader who brings what is learnt in these collective online experiences and communities back to his/her own institution. S/he leads educational reform by introducing innovative approaches to learning and instruction, that leverages the affordances of technology. S/he integrates creatively and intentionally designed knowledge products, creating authentic learning experiences that fosters student-driven learning and engagement (Groff, 2013, p. 9; Revington, n.d.).
  • A connected educator is a leader who contributes to and facilitate the professional development of colleagues, by modelling his/her own networked life-long-learning practices and leading peers in knowledge networking practices (Edudemic, 2015).

Here is my reflection on my journey to become a connected educator (this far) and how I see the path ahead:

The connected educator is firstly a connected learner”, I wrote early in my INF532 journey (Wocke, 2017f). I agree with the views of Nussbaum-Beach & Hall (2012, p. 18) and Richardson and Mancabelli (2011, p. 42) that connected learning is about participation, about learning in relationships, engaging in self-directed, interest-based learning, while connecting and collaborating online. As I started to participate in online communities and building my personal network, I realised that learning is social, continuous and fluid, not only formal, but also informal and spontaneous and unstructured. I became convinced of the need for “the new culture of learning” that Thomas and Brown (2011)  proposes and I wrote about it here (Wocke, 2017m).

Once committed to developing my PLN I found myself constantly reading, favourite-ing, tagging, commenting, subscribing, sharing. I now have a healthy and developing PLN of experts, mentors and peers that I utilise to enhance my professional and academic growth, to motivate and to inspire me. When I evaluate my online participation according to White and Le Corno’s model (2011) of online behaviour (that I wrote about in Visitor or Resident in the online world? (Wocke, 2017n), I note an interesting progression:

My online participation and connectedness has increased and shifted from personal to professional, due to the active engagement with knowledge networking environments and innovative social networking tools and content curation platforms exposed to through INF532.  Reflecting on the crowded state of the professional side of my diagram, it is obvious that carefully direction of my online activities, focus and organization is needed to ensure a healthy work-life balance (Richardson and Mancabelli, 2011, p.36). Kanter’s (2012) adaptation of Jarche’s (2011) Personal Knowledge Mastery model, is a good starting point. “Seeking” information and resources, must be streamlined through the use of appropriate tools, services and aggregators; making “sense” happens by thoughtfully and reflectively annotating, tagging, blogging, and adding value; and “sharing” – giving the worthwhile back to your network in enhanced, or distilled format.

With a solid PLN now in place, exploring combinations of online tools,  and spaces, engaging in connected learning environments, I am aware that I am still primarily a consumer (even an “active consumer”, according to Danah Boyd (2005)), but not often bold enough to be producer and creator. Mayfield challenges me when he says: “To Refactor, Collaborate, Moderate and Lead requires a different level of engagement – which makes up the core of a community.” I contribute, cooperate, but do not yet truly collaborate or lead. The next steps in my connected educator journey are clear:

  • I must implement lessons learnt through the case studies we evaluated in INF532 that clearly illustrate the way to construct authentic global learning experiences by seeking and facilitating collaboration opportunities for my students to become participating global citizens.
  • I must boldly and transparently publish and share my knowledge products and clearly and deliberately develop my online identity, reputation and brand (Lindsay, 2016, p. 14). I must continue to blog. I must develop my identity and brand on Google+.

As teacher librarian, I have the opportunity to co-create knowledge artefacts, to collaborate, introduce online tools and spaces for creative knowledge production, to implement flexible technology-based learning environments (Wocke, 2017h).

I have started to take a more active leadership role in my school, presenting at professional development opportunities, as with this presentation/turned knowledge creating artefact , (which I documented here) (GWTeaches, 2017b, Wocke, 2017o). It was such a motivation when our principal tweeted and blogged as a result (Butterworth, 2017)!

Lambert (1998) writes that the core of leadership is about learning together and constructing meaning and knowledge collectively and collaboratively (p.5). This is the journey I am on – to be a connected educator, learning through and with – and contributing to – my PLN; bringing back to my school innovative ideas and sound practice, leading by example.

 

 

 


References

Boyd, D. (2005, October 8). Remix is active consumption not production [Blog post]. Retrieved from Apophenia website: http://www.zephoria.org/thoughts/archives/2005/10/08/remix_is_active.html

Bumgardner, S., & Knestis, K. (2011, May 1). Social networking as a tool for student and teacher learning. Retrieved September 30, 2017, from https://www.districtadministration.com/article/social-networking-tool-student-and-teacher-learning

Butterworth, R. (2017, August 13). @GrethaWocke inspired me in her presentation at http://www.icsz.ch to share my blog [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/Rebecca_Butters/status/896816876906573825

Cisnero, K. (n.d.). A beginner’s guide to content curation [Blog post]. Retrieved from https://blog.hootsuite.com/beginners-guide-to-content-curation/

Cormier, D. (2010, December 8). What is a MOOC? [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/eW3gMGqcZQc

De Saulles, M. (2012). New models of information production. In Information 2.0: New models of information production, distribution and consumption (pp. 13-35). Retrieved from https://www.csu.edu.au/division/library/ereserve/pdf/desaulles-m.pdf

Gillingham, A. (2017, July 28). Collaboration in action [Blog post]. Retrieved from Creating our future website: http://thinkspace.csu.edu.au/adrienne/2017/07/28/inf-532-using-twitter/

Groff, J. (2013, February). Technology-rich innovative learning environments. Retrieved from https://www.oecd.org/edu/ceri/Technology-Rich%20Innovative%20Learning%20Environments%20by%20Jennifer%20Groff.pdf

GWTeaches. (2017, July 28). TweetstoBlog [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/9nk0NztZscc

GWTeaches. (2017, August 12). ICSZ personal learning networks [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/SBp8AbwTXr4

Jarche, H. (2010, March 30). Critical thinking in the organization [Blog post]. Retrieved from https://jarche.com/2010/03/critical-thinking-in-the-organization/

Jarche, H. (2011, July 12). Personal knowledge mastery [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://jarche.com/pkm/

Jarche, H. (2016, March 22). Sense-making with social media [Blog post]. Retrieved from https://jarche.com/2016/03/sense-making-with-social-media/

Kanter, B. (2012, October 4). Content curation primer [Blog post]. Retrieved from Beth’s Blog: http://www.bethkanter.org/content-curation-101/

Lambert, L. (1998). Building leadership capacity in schools. Alexandria, Va.: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Lifelong learning is a crucial educational mindset. (2015, January 5). Retrieved September 30, 2017, from Edudemic website: http://www.edudemic.com/lifelong-learning-educational-mindset/

Lindsay, J. (2016). The global educator: Leveraging technology for collaborative learning & teaching. International Society of Technology in Education.

Lucier, R. (2012, June 5). Seven degrees of connectedness [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://thecleversheep.blogspot.ch/2012/06/seven-degrees-of-connectedness.html

Mayfield, R. (2006, April 27). Power law of participation [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://ross.typepad.com/blog/2006/04/power_law_of_pa.html

Meador, D. (2016, August 22). Building a Personal Learning Network Will Make You a Better Teacher. Retrieved September 30, 2017, from ThoughtCo. website: http://Building a Personal Learning Network Will Make You a Better Teacher

Mifsud, K. (2017, September 17). Knowledge networking artefact review [Blog post]. Retrieved from Head full of books website: http://thinkspace.csu.edu.au/kristie/2017/09/17/knowledge-networking-artefact-review/

Nussbaum-Beach, S., & Hall, L. R. (2012). The connected educator: Learning and leading in a digital age. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree Press.

Reeves, A. R. (2011). Where great teaching begins: Planning for student thinking and learning. Retrieved from http://bit.ly/2xOit9g

Revington, S. (n.d.). Authentic learning. Retrieved from http://authenticlearning.weebly.com/

Richardson, W., & Mancabelli, R. (2011). Personal learning networks: Using the power of connections to transform education. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree Press.

Siemens, G. (2006). Knowing knowlegde. Retrieved from http://www.elearnspace.org/KnowingKnowledge_LowRes.pdf

Thomas, D., & Brown, J. S. (2011). A new culture of learning: Cultivating the imagination for a world of constant change. Retrieved from http://www.newcultureoflearning.com/newcultureoflearning.pdf

Tolisano, S. (2012, June 7). Seven degrees of connectedness (The infographic) [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://langwitches.org/blog/2012/06/07/seven-degrees-of-connectedness/

Tolisano, S. (2017, September 29). Blogging is NOT an activity, but a process! #blogging #learning #metagognition [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/langwitches/status/913540184666398721

Warlick, D. (2009, March/April). Grow your personal learning network. Learning & Leading With Technology, 12-16. Retrieved from http://www.learningandleading-digital.com/learning_leading/200904?pg=14#pg14

Wenger, E. (2011, December 28). What is a community of practice? Retrieved October 2, 2017, from http://wenger-trayner.com/resources/what-is-a-community-of-practice/

What is a connected learner? (2014, January 31). Retrieved September 30, 2017, from EdTechReview website: http://edtechreview.in/dictionary/1005-what-is-a-connected-learner

White, D., & Le Cornu, A. (2011). Visitors and residents: A new topology for online engagement. First Monday, 16(9). Retrieved from http://firstmonday.org/article/view/3171/3049

Wocke, G. (2017l, July 11). New models of information production – characteristics and challenges [Blog post]. Retrieved from Gretha Reflecting website: https://thinkspace.csu.edu.au/grethaw/2017/07/11/new-models-of-information-production-characteristics-and-challenges/

Wocke, G. (2017m, July 19). Adapting to “a new culture of learning” [Blog post]. Retrieved from Gretha Reflecting website: https://thinkspace.csu.edu.au/grethaw/2017/07/19/adapting-to-a-new-culture-of-learning/

Wocke, G. (2017f, July 23). Becoming a connected educator [Blog post]. Retrieved from Gretha Reflecting website: https://thinkspace.csu.edu.au/grethaw/2017/07/23/becoming-a-connected-educator/

Wocke, G. (2017c, July 27). The need for network literacy [Blog post]. Retrieved from Gretha Reflecting website: https://thinkspace.csu.edu.au/grethaw/2017/07/27/the-need-for-network-literacy/

Wocke, G. (2017n, July 27). Visitor or resident in the online world? [Blog post]. Retrieved from Gretha Reflecting website: https://thinkspace.csu.edu.au/grethaw/2017/07/27/visitor-or-resident-in-the-online-world/

Wocke, G. (2017o, September 9). KN Artefact: Introduction to developing an online PLN [Blog post]. Retrieved from Gretha Reflecting website: https://thinkspace.csu.edu.au/grethaw/2017/07/27/visitor-or-resident-in-the-online-world/

Wocke, G. (2017i, September 9). KNArtefact post [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/GrethaWocke/status/906453046347096066

Wocke, G. (2017b, September 11). Knowledge changed, and so must I [Blog post]. Retrieved from Gretha Reflecting website: https://thinkspace.csu.edu.au/grethaw/2017/09/11/knowledge-changed-and-so-must-i/

Wocke, G. (2017g, September 16). Knowledge network effectiveness, a facebook group as example [Blog post]. Retrieved from Gretha Reflecting website: https://thinkspace.csu.edu.au/grethaw/2017/09/16/knowledge-network-effectiveness/

Wocke, G. (2017h, September 17). Facilitating flexible learning environments [Blog post]. Retrieved from Gretha Reflecting website: https://thinkspace.csu.edu.au/grethaw/2017/09/17/facilitating-flexible-learning-environments/

Wocke, G. (2017j, September 17). Introduced to Google+ [Blog post]. Retrieved from Gretha Reflecting website: https://thinkspace.csu.edu.au/grethaw/2017/09/17/introduced-to-google/

Wocke, G. (2017k, September 19). Bloggin’ away [Blog post]. Retrieved from Gretha Reflecting website: https://thinkspace.csu.edu.au/grethaw/2017/09/19/bloggin-away/

Wocke, G. (2017d, September 20). Exploring KN tools [Blog post]. Retrieved from Gretha Reflecting website: https://thinkspace.csu.edu.au/grethaw/tools-and-strategies-for-establishing-a-productive-pln/

Wocke, G. (2017a, September 23). Learning – knowing where [Blog post]. Retrieved from Gretha Reflecting website: https://thinkspace.csu.edu.au/grethaw/2017/09/23/learning-knowing-where/

Wocke, G. (2017e, September 24). Module 2.2 discussion forum post [Blog post]. Retrieved from Gretha Reflecting website: https://thinkspace.csu.edu.au/grethaw/2017/09/24/module-2-2-discussion-forum-post/

 

 

Facilitating flexible learning environments

Todhunter (2013) is correct, there is some confused use of terminology in the confusing field of online learning. His discussion of blended learning, online education, open learning, and flexible learning motivated me to clarify my understanding of these principles and determine what I believe they mean when applied to a school environment.

Convergent information and communication technologies (ICT) have transformed our entire world, not excluding the educational environment. ICT is a tool, be it a very powerful tool, to be used in education; it is our task to know its possibilities and limitations as we employ this tool to design and craft real, authentic and meaningful learning experiences for our students.

Electronic devices and the networked environment of the Internet allow access to digital tools and online platforms that enable the inclusion of virtual learning experiences into face-to-face classroom instruction. This extension of the classroom and classroom instruction enable us to consider the different learning styles, preferences and needs of our students in learning design. We can utilise the tools at our disposal to facilitate student-driven learning experiences that are personalised and adaptable. We can facilitate flexible learning.

I like the approach from the University of British Columbia to Flexible learning, which helped me develop my own understanding:

  • Some learning will happen in the classroom. Some of it individually, some of it socially, with collaboration, participation and cooperation.
  • Some learning will happen outside of the classroom. Here structured as flipped learning, and blended learning approaches, (and here is the difference).
  • Some learning will be aided through resources inside the classroom and some resources will be outside of the classroom, incorporating our flat and connected world, as Julie Lindsay explains in this video: 

We have always acknowledged that the learning needs of all students are not the same, differentiated learning, individualised according to additional support or extension is possible when we include e-learning as we scaffold and create learning experiences for our students.

Learning in the digital age is no longer static, but fluid. We have to be flexible to make the most of it.


References

Australian Government, Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations. (n.d.). Learning design. Retrieved September 17, 2017, from http://ldt.eworks.edu.au/PartA/S11_1.aspx

Flipped Learning Network. (n.d.). The four pillars of F-L-I-P. Retrieved September 17, 2017, from https://flippedlearning.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/FLIP_handout_FNL_Web.pdf

Julie Lindsay. (2017, August 14). Thinkpiece 2017 Julie Lindsay [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=3&v=n4iR-zm7dIE

Todhunter, B. (2013). LOL — limitations of online learning — are we selling the open and distance education message short? Distance Education, 34(2), 232-252. https://doi.org/10.1080/01587919.2013.802402

University of British Columbia. (n.d.). Flexible learning. Retrieved September 17, 2017, from http://flexible.learning.ubc.ca/

University of South Florida. (n.d.). What is blended learning? Retrieved September 17, 2017, from The Blended Leanring Toolkit website: https://blended.online.ucf.edu/about/what-is-blended-learning/