Portfolio – ICT use and the Role of the School Library

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) plays such an important role in education today that it is highlighted as a General Capability in the Australian Curriculum. The organising elements of this capability are: ‘Applying social and ethical protocols and practices when using ICT, Investigating with ICT, Creating with ICT, Communicating with ICT and Managing and operating ICT’ (ACARA 2016). In 2014 I undertook the elective unit of ETL411 ICT for Innovative Practice. In this unit I came to more fully appreciate the important role that the teacher librarian (TL) plays in embedding ICT in school teaching and learning practices. This role is highlighted in NSW Department of Education’s School Policy – Library. It explicates that teacher librarians should ‘collaborate with teachers in the planning, implementing and evaluating of teaching and learning programs, including the integration of Information Communications Technology and literacy’ (NSW DoE 2016a). The Australian School Library Association (ASLA) also expands that excellent teacher librarians ‘comprehensively understand the role of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in lifelong learning’, ‘appreciate the dynamic nature of ICTs and their role in education’ and ‘teach the appropriate and relevant use of ICTs and information resources’ (ASLA 2016).

General Capabilites (ACARA 2016)

With changes to the information landscape, school libraries now play a crucial role in promoting the integration of ICT in the curriculum (Coombes & Valli 2007). Many innovative TLs have seized the opportunities offered by the advent of the digital age and have transformed their school libraries into vibrant 21st century learning hubs or icentres (Hough 2011; Purcell 2010; Zmuda & Harada 2008). Indeed, well before it became a buzz word in Canberra, Moyle predicted that ‘innovation may well be the most important educational issue of the day’ (2010). Libraries provide access to a range of ICT hardware, software and Web 2.0 tools. Moreover, TLs play a crucial role in helping to leverage technology to promote ‘futures learning’. (Alliance for Excellent Education 2016; NSW DoE 2016b; Godfrey 2015;). As TLs, we can position ourselves as ICT leaders in the school as we provide both formal and informal ICT training to students and staff. (Coombes & Valli 2007; Hay & Foley 2009 ; O’Connell 2012). In my library I have been able to make some modest changes with the aim of remodelling the library as an icentre. I have designed flexible spaces, purchased flexible furniture and iPads, and set up charging docks for students to charge devices (Hay & Todd 2010; Johnson 2010′ O’Connell 2012).  In addition, I have recently been successful in lobbying for school funds to build a maker space in our library to help plan for ‘futures learning’ (NSW DoE 2016b; Provenzano 2015). Furthermore, I was successful in advocating to be included on the school Technology Team. Thus far in this role, I have helped to put together a Professional Training workshop on the use of Google Apps in the classroom. I have, likewise, provided staff training on the teaching and learning applications of Oliver LMS at various faculty meetings (Costello 2017b).

My Library icentre (CPAHS 2015)

In my ETL411 reflection blog I related how I perceived myself to be fairly tech savvy and, therefore, quite competent with ICT (Costello 2014a; Lamb 2011). I was to find out later in the unit that there was so much more to learn. I am still on that learning journey, continually adding more knowledge and skills to my repertoire as the technological landscape evolves (O’Connell 2012; Moyle 2010). One of the professional learning ICT tools I have been utilising is DoE’s Yammer. Yammer is an online professional learning network (PLN). Online PLNs are a fantastic way to share ideas with a community of other educational professionals. I am an active member and have learned many valuable tech tips and ideas to improve classroom practices. I have also set up a new Yammer group for secondary school librarians for school TLs to share their expertise pertaining to specifically secondary school teaching and learning.  As a corollary, the use of PLNs, models lifelong learning and collaborative ICT practices for students and colleagues (O’Connell 2012; Pegrum, Oakley& Faulkner 2013).

Screenshot of Yammer PLN

I also made reference in my 2014 ETL411 blog to an assessment on using Web 2.0 tools such as bubbl.us, Socrative, Weebly and Delicious (Costello 2014a; Costello 2014b). I continue to make good use of these web 2.0 tools both in the library and in the classroom. I have used Weebly website builder, in particular, quite extensively as it hosts my Virtual Library website (Costello 2017a). It was interesting to note that in my ETL523 blog I exhorted the need to ‘integrate technology to support our students in developing the high order skills they will need to participate in the 21st century’ (Costello 2014c). In the ETL411 blog later in the year, however, I conceded that I had not fully mastered the art of integrating ICT into the curriculum in student-centre approaches (Costello 2014a).

SAMR Model  (Puentedura 2014)

The integration of ICT into the curriculum requires careful planning so that programs are designed to provide authentic learning experiences (Gurung & Rutledge 2014). ICT should not be included as ‘technlology for technology’s sake’ (Borsheim, Merritt & Reed, 2008). Rather, ICT learning experiences should: be inquiry-based, include collaborative practices, explore real world issues and promote deeper learning (ISTE 2008; Moyle 2010; Partnership for 21st Century Skills 2011). One framework that has been designed to help teachers design meaningful learning experiences with technology is the SAMR model (Braxton 2016; Kharbach 2015; Puentedura 2014). SAMR has four enhancement levels: Substitution, Augmentation, Modification and Redefinition. When aligned with Bloom’s taxonomy, the lower enhancement levels of Substitution and Augmentation equate with Bloom’s Remember, Understand and Apply lower order thinking skills. The higher enhancement levels of SAMR’s Modification and Redefinition equate with Bloom’s higher order thinking levels of Analyse, Evaluate and Create (Costello 2017c; Puentedura 2014). To illustrate, an example of a Substitution level might be substituting a physical textbook with an ebook. An example of a Redefinition level, on the other hand, might be an activity where students connect online with another class to collaboratively write a narrative that is then created into a stop-motion animation (Kharbach 2015; Puentedura 2014).

In my classroom practices I have integrated ICT into learning programs where students collaboratively create end-products using tools such as Wikispaces, Powtoon, GoAnimate, Xtranormal and Weebly.  After recently learning about the SAMR model, and conducting an appraisal of my ICT integration practices, I determined that further improvement was needed in this area. This self-evaluation revealed that ICT use in my lessons had merely reached the SAMR Modification enhancement level. To rectify this, I plan to design more ‘creating with ICT’ tasks in future programs with the aim of attaining the ultimate Redefinition level  (ACARA 2016; Puentedura 2014).

GoAnimate Student Work Sample

References

ACARA. (2016). Information and communication technology (ICT) capability. Australian Curriculum v 8.3. Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority Retrieved from: http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/GeneralCapabilities/information-and-communication-technology-capability/introduction/introduction

Alliance for Excellent Education. (2016). Future ready librarians. Future Ready Schools. Available at: http://1gu04j2l2i9n1b0wor2zmgua.wpengine.netdna-cdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/Library_flyer_download.pdf.

ASLA. (2016). Standards of professional excellence for teacher librarians. Australian School Library Association. Retrieved from: http://www.asla.org.au/policy/standards.aspx

Borsheim, C., Merritt, K. & Reed, D. (2008). Beyond Technology for Technology’s Sake: Advancing Multiliteracies in the Twenty-First Century. Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas, 82(2), 87-90.

Braxton, B. (2016). The technology hat. 500 Hats: The Teacher Librarian in the 21st Century. Retrieved from http://500hats.edublogs.org/2016/01/29/the-technology-hat/

Combes, B. & Valli, R. (2007). Fiction and the 21st century: A new paradigm. Cyberspace, D-world, E-learning: Giving libraries and schools the cutting edge, the 2007 IASL Conference and Research Forum, Taiwan.

Campbelltown Performing Arts High School (2015). Campbelltown Performing Arts High School Newsletter. 11 March 2015. Retrieved from http://cpahs.schoolzinenewsletters.com/2015/20150310/

Costello, C. (2014a). ETL411 – Critical Reflection. Edumacational. Retrieved from http://edumacational.edublogs.org/2017/01/28/etl411-critical-reflection/

Costello, C. (2014b). ETL411 ICT 4 Innovation. Wikispaces. Retrieved from http://etl411ict4innovation.wikispaces.com/

Costello, C. (2014c). ETL523 Critical Reflection. Edumacational. Retrieved from http://edumacational.edublogs.org/2014/06/09/etl523-critical-reflection/

Costello, C. (2017a). Virtual Library – Home. Virtual Library. Retrieved from http://www.virtuallibrary.info/

Costello, C. (2017b). Oliver library. Virtual Library. Retrieved from http://www.virtuallibrary.info/oliver-library.html

Costello, C. (2017c). Bloom’s Taxonomy. Virtual Library. Retrieved from http://www.virtuallibrary.info/blooms-taxonomy.html

Godfrey, N. (2015). ASLA 2015 Conference: Provoking the future: school libraries, pedagogy and technology. Australian School Library Association. Retrieved from http://www.asla.org.au/professional-learning/ASLA-Conference-2015/speakers1.aspx

Gurung, B. & Rutledge, D. (2014). Digital learners and the overlapping of their personal and educational digital engagement. Computers & Education, 77, 91-100

Hay, L., & Todd, R. (2010). School libraries 21C: The conversation begins. Scan, 29(1), 30-42.

Hough, M. (2011). Libraries as iCentres: Helping Schools. ACCESS, 25(1) 5-9.

ISTE. (2008). NETS: The standards for learning, leading and teaching in the digital age. International Society for Technology in Education. Retrieved, from http://www.iste.org/standards

Johnson, D. (2010). Changed but still critical: Brick and mortar school libraries in the Digital Age. For InterED, Association for the Advancement of International Education [AAIE], Fall. Retrieved July , 2013 from http://www.doug-johnson.com/dougwri/changed-but-still-critical-bricks-and-mortar-libraries-in-th.html

Kharbach, M. (2015). SAMR Model Explained for Teachers. Educational Technology and Mobile Learning. Retrieved from http://www.educatorstechnology.com/2013/06/samr-model-explained-for-teachers.html

Lamb, A. (2011). Bursting with potential: Mixing a media specialist’s palette. Techtrends: Linking Research & Practice to Improve Learning, 55(4), 27-36.

Moyle, K. (2010). Building innovation: learning with technologies. Victoria: ACER.

NSW Department of Education. (2016a). Library Policy – Schools. Retrieved from: https://education.nsw.gov.au/policy-library/policies/library-policy-schools

NSW Department of Education. (2016b). Leveraging technology. Futures Learning. Retrieved from https://education.nsw.gov.au/futures-learning/learning-space/leveraging-technology

O’Connell, J. (2012). Change has arrived at an iSchool library near you,  in P.Godwin & J. Parker (Ed.) Information literacy beyond Library 2.0. London:Facet Publishing, UK.

Partnership for 21st Century Skills. (2011). Appendix: P21 Framework Definitions. P21 Common Core Toolkit: A Guide to Aligning the Common Core State Standards with the Framework for 21st Century Skills, 35-43. Retrieved from http://www.p21.org/storage/documents/P21CommonCoreToolkit.pdf

Provenzano, N. (2015). Fostering Creativity With Makerspaces. Edutopia. Retrieved from https://www.edutopia.org/blog/fostering-creativity-with-makerspaces-nicholas-provenzano

Puentedura, R. (2014). SAMR and Bloom’s Taxonomy: Assembling the Puzzle. Common Sense Education. Retrieved from https://www.commonsense.org/education/blog/samr-and-blooms-taxonomy-assembling-the-puzzle

Purcell, M. (2010). All Librarians Do Is Check out Books, Right? A Look at the Roles of a School Library Media Specialist. Library Media Connection, 29(3), 30-33.

Zmuda, A., & Harada, V. H. (2008). Librarians as learning specialists: moving from the margins to the mainstream of school leadership. Teacher Librarian, 36(1), 15-20.

Portfolio – Information Literacy

As information specialists, teaching information literacy is a Teacher Librarian’s main area of expertise (Gordon 2010; Herring 2007). Indeed, ASLA’s Standards of professional excellence for teacher librarians elucidates the expectations that a TL’s teaching and learning role will focus on implementing Information Literacy programs (ASLA 2004). Likewise, NSW DoE’s Library policy documents also highlight the teaching of ‘information skills’ as a key TL teaching and learning role (DoE 2016; Dawson & Kallenberger 2015). Information Literacy can be defined as the set of skills needed to locate, retrieve, assess and use information to solve problems and become independent lifelong learners (Bundy 2004).  As such, Information literacy is viewed as the core set of skills needed for 21st century learning (Eisenberg 2008; Herring 2011). Before beginning this course, I had little idea of what information literacy (IL) entailed. After completing ETL401, I was able to expound at length in my blog about what I had learned in theory, but not in practice, about information literacy teaching approaches (Costello 2014a).

Before undertaking my masters, I had the opportunity to present but a few information sessions to classes on topics such as ‘Ways to avoid plagiarism’ and ‘How to reference’ (Costello 2013). I had not realised at that stage, that these were, in fact, information literacy skills. These sessions, however, were isolated sessions and not integrated in the curriculum (Eisenberg 2008; Dawson & Kallenberger 2015). This course taught me that best practice for teaching information literacy is when it is embedded in inquiry-based teaching units (Eisenberg 2008; Lorenzo 2007). When taught in context IL skills are not viewed by students as separate to classroom teaching and learning. As a result, students can begin to make connections about how these skills can be transferred across all learning, in school and beyond (Bundy 2004; Todd 2003).

I have also gained knowledge of various information literacy models that scaffold inquiry-based teaching, as outlined in my aforementioned eLT401 blog (Costello 2014a; Eisenberg 2008; Herring 2006; Kuhlthau 2010a). I also understood that these IL models should be collaboratively planned and taught as discussed in my latest blog The Role of the Teacher Librarian (Costello 2017a; Goodnough 2005; Todd 2008). I was keen to put into practice Kulthau’s Guided Inquiry model, as it was the most respected and oft cited in our readings (Herring 2006; FitzGerald 2011). In 2015, I was fortunate to find a willing colleague. After a couple of planning meetings, however, we realised that the Guided Inquiry model was not a good fit for our students. As we know our students and how they learn, we decided it was necessary to adapt the model (ASLA 2014).

The Research Process (Costello 2017b)

The alternative model I devised is an amalgamation of NSW DoE’s The Information Process (ISP) and Guided Inquiry (Kulthau 2010; Dawson & Kallenberger 2015). It is simply called the Research Process (Costello 2017b). The steps of the process are Initiate, Locate, Evaluate, Organise, Present and Assess. I collaboratively plan the Research Process with colleagues and it is team-taught as part of an Inquiry Based Learning unit (Goodnough 2005; Rytivaara & Kershner 2012). Information Literacy skills are made explicit at relevant steps of the process. For example, at the Initiate stage students are taught to brainstorm to determine key concepts and directed to define key words (Costello 2017d). At the Locate stage students are taught online search techniques (Costello 2017e). Furthermore, at the Select stage students are taught to use critical thinking skills to evaluate information sources (Costello 2017f).

Like Guided Inquiry, the Research Process is designed to be student- centred with teachers only intervening at critical points. I have also developed a Student Learning Impact Measure SLIM survey which is based on Kulthau’s School Library Impact Measure SLIM model (Todd, Kuhlthau & Heinström 2005). The survey serves multiple purposes. It is an evaluative tool for intervention, data collection and student reflection. It also assists teacher reflective practice so that any need adjustments can be made to the teaching and learning program (FitzGerald 2011; Todd 2008). The SLIM surveys are conducted at the Initiate, Select and Assess stages of the Research Process (Costello 2016c; Costello 2017c). Designing the Research Process and undertaking collaborative teaching demonstrates another area of my professional growth as a result of this course. It is a source of pride and gives me a great sense of accomplishment. I could not have imagined undertaking such a role when first undertaking my studies.

SLIM survey responses (Costello 2016c)

Team-teaching the Research Process has served another purpose. It has raised my professional profile in the school and has boosted my self-confidence. Approaching teachers to work collaboratively is now much easier. Additionally, I publish regular articles for the school newsletter on various Information Literacy topics such as critically evaluating information sources and information literacy (Costello 2016a; Costello 2016b). This has also helped raise my profile in the school.

Another aspect of information literacy that I collaboratively plan and teach is Digital Citizenship. Digital Citizenship is outlined in ICT General Capability of the Australian Curriculum as being an understanding of ‘social and ethical protocols and practices’ when using ICT (ACARA 2016). ASLA also outlines the expectation that excellent teacher librarians ‘teach the appropriate and relevant use of ICTs and information resources’ (2004). In 2014, when undertaking elective ETL523 Digital Citizenship in Schools, I then described digital citizenship as simply the ‘necessary skills needed to cope in the 21st century digital environment’ in an online discussion forum (Costello 2014b).

All good digital citizens school girl (Costello 2014d) Image remixed from ClipartFest 2014 &  Common Sense Media 2013.

In my ETL523 reflective blog post I conceded that before undertaking this course my knowledge of digital citizenship was limited to ‘a basic understanding of cybersafety and netiquette principals’ (Costello 2014c). At that time I had not contemplated, let alone embarked upon, teaching Digital Citizenship in the classroom.  Since that time my understanding in this area has markedly developed, as evidenced by the Digital Citizenship pages on my Virtual Library website (Costello 2017g). I have designed and team-taught Digital Citizenship units with Year 7 classes for the past two years (Chen & Orth 2013). The unit incorporates topics such as: Personal digital media habits, Cybersafety, Cyberbullying, Digital footprints and Copyright and fair use (Costello 2017g; Neilsen 2011; Topsfield 2012). I have found it necessary, however, to adjust the program each year to incorporate new technologies and social media platforms (O’Connell 2012). These units, regrettably, have been taught in isolation. As yet, I have not managed to convince school leaders to integrate Digital Citizenship into PDHPE curriculum topics (Hollandsworth, Dowdy & Donovan 2011; Ribble 2011).

After undertaking this course I view Information Literacy as my core business as Teacher Librarian. I have undergone a real personal and professional transformation as a result of my learning journey. I am now equipped with the expertise and self-belief to view myself as a school leader.

References

ACARA. (2016). Key Ideas: Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability. Australian Curriculum v8.3 .Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority. Retrieved from http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/generalcapabilities/information-and-communication-technology-capability/introduction/key-ideas

ASLA. (2004). Standards of professional excellence for teacher librarians. Australian School Library Association. Retrieved from: http://www.asla.org.au/policy/standards.aspx

ASLA. (2014). Evidence guide for teacher librarians at the proficient career stage: Australian professional standards for teachers. Australian School Library Association. Retrieved from http://www.asla.org.au/site/DefaultSite/filesystem/documents/evidence_guide_prof.pdf

Bundy, A. (ed.) (2004). Australian and New Zealand Information Literacy Framework: principles, standards and practice. 2nd ed. Adelaide: Australian and New Zealand Institute for Information Literacy (ANZIIL) and Council of Australian University Librarians (CAUL). Retrieved from: http://www.caul.edu.au/content/upload/files/info-literacy/InfoLiteracyFramework.pdf

Chen, E. & Orth, D. (2013). The strategy for digital citizenship. Retrieved from NAIS Independent School Magazine (online). Retrieved from:  http://www.nais.org/Magazines-Newsletters/ISMagazine/Pages/The-Strategy-for-Digital-Citizenship.aspx.

Costello, C. (2013). Writing a bibliography. HSIE Stage 5 Resources 2013. Retrieved from https://hsiestage5resources2013.wikispaces.com/Writing+a+Bibliography

Costello, C. (2014a). Information literacy is more than a set of skills. Reflections of a Teacher Librarian. Retrieved from http://edumacational.edublogs.org/2014/01/27/etl401-olj-blog-3/

Costello, C. (2014b). ETL523 Discussion forum. Interact2.Charles Sturt University.

Costello, C. (2014c). ETL523 Critical Reflection. Edumacational. Retrieved from http://edumacational.edublogs.org/2014/06/09/etl523-critical-reflection/

Costello, C. (2014d). All good digital citizens school girl. [Image]. Remixed from ClipartFest. (2014). Clipart girl at schoolClipartFest. Retrieved  from https://clipartfest.com/download/108b4368803dca464bd1e0183f09d788e8bd10e1.html
and Common Sense Media. (2013). Digital Citizenship Poster for Elementary ClassroomsCommon Sense Media. Retrieved from https://www.commonsensemedia.org/educators/elementary_poster

Costello, C. (2016a). Information literacy: Essential skills for the digital age. Campbelltown Performing Arts High School Newsletter, 16 September 2016. Retrieved from http://cpahs.schoolzineplus.com/newsletter/15496

Costello, C. (2016b). Evaluating information sources. Campbelltown Performing Arts High School Newsletter, 7 November 2016. Retrieved from http://cpahs.schoolzineplus.com/newsletter/23095

Costello, C. (2016c). EBP. Virtual Library. Retrieved from http://www.virtuallibrary.info/ebp/.html

Costello, C. (2017a). The role of the teacher librarian. Reflections of a Teacher Librarian. Retrieved from https://thinkspace.csu.edu.au/clctl/2017/01/24/portfolio-the-role-of-a-teacher-librarian/

Costello, C. (2017b). The research process. Virtual Library. Retrieved from http://www.virtuallibrary.info/theresearchprocess.html

Costello, C. (2017c). Select. Virtual Library. Retrieved from http://www.virtuallibrary.info/select.html

Costello, C. (2017d). Initiate. Virtual Library. Retrieved from http://www.virtuallibrary.info/initiate.html

Costello, C. (2017e). Online search techniques. Virtual Library. Retrieved from http://www.virtuallibrary.info/online-search-techniques.html

Costello, C. (2017f). Evaluating sources. Virtual Library. Retrieved from

http://www.virtuallibrary.info/evaluating-sources.html

Costello, C. (2017g) Digital citizenship. Virtual Library. Retrieved from

http://www.virtuallibrary.info/digital-citizenship.html

Dawson, M. & Kallenberger, N. (Eds.).  (2007).  Information skills in the school: Engaging learners in constructing knowledge.  NSW: Department of Education and Training.  Retrieved from http://www.curriculumsupport.education.nsw.gov.au/schoollibraries/teachingideas/isp/docs/infoskills.pdf

Eisenberg, M. B. (2008). Information literacy: Essential skills for the Information Age. Journal of Library & Information Technology, 28(2), 39-47.

FitzGerald, L. (2011). The twin purposes of Guided Inquiry: Guiding student inquiry and evidence based  practice. Scan, 30(1), 26-41.

Goodnough, K. (2005). Fostering teacher learning through collaborative inquiry. Clearing House, 79(2), 88-92.

Gordon, C. A. (2010). The culture of inquiry in school libraries. School Libraries Worldwide, 16(1), 73–88.

Herring, J. (2006). A critical investigation of students’ and teachers’ views of the use of information literacy skills in school assignments. School Library Media Research, 9.

Herring, J. (2007). Teacher librarians and the school library. In S. Ferguson (Ed.) Libraries in the twenty-first century: charting new directions in information, NSW Centre for Information Studies, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga 27- 42.

Herring, J. (2011). Improving students’ web use and Information Literacy: A guide for teachers and teacher librarians. London: Facet Publishing.

Hollandsworth, R., Dowdy, L.,  &  Donovan, J. (2011). Digital citizenship in K-12: It takes a village. TechTrends 55(4) 37-47.

Kuhlthau, C. C. (2010). Guided inquiry: School libraries in the 21st century. School Libraries Worldwide, 16(1), 1.

Kuhlthau, C. C., Maniotes, L. K., (2010). Building Guiding Inquiry Teams for 21st Century Learners. School Library Monthly 5(26).

Lorenzo, G. (2007). Catalysts for Change: Information Fluency, Web 2.0, Library 2.0, and the New Education Culture, Clarence Center, NY: Lorenzo Associates, Inc., March. http://www.edpath.com/images/IFReport2.pdf

Nielsen, L. (2011). Discover what your digital footprint says about you. The Innovative Educator. Retrieved from http://theinnovativeeducator.blogspot.com.au/2011/08/discover-what-your-digital-footprint.html.

NSW Department of Education. (2016). Library Policy – Schools. Retrieved from: https://education.nsw.gov.au/policy-library/policies/library-policy-schools

O’Connell, J., (2012) Learning without frontiers: School libraries and meta-literacy in action. ACCESS, 26 (1), pp. 4-7.  Retrieved from http://www.asla.org.au/publications/access/access-commentaries/school-libraries-and-meta-literacy.aspx

Ribble, M. (2011). Digital citizenship in schools. International Society for Technology in Education.

Rytivaara, A., & Kershner, R. (2012). Co-teaching as a context for teachers’ professional learning and joint knowledge construction. Teaching and Teacher Education, 28(7), 999-1008.

Todd, R. J. (2003). Irrefutable evidence: how to prove you boost student achievement. School Library Journal, 49(4), 52-54. Retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com.ezproxy.csu.edu.au/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CA100608794&v=2.1&u=csu_au&it=r&p=EAIM&sw=w&asid=194fea091c82b000bb3b69ca05004411

Todd, R.J., Kuhlthau, C.C. & Heinström, J.E. (2005), SLIM: a toolkit and handbook for tracking and assessing student learning outcomes of Guided Inquiry through the school library. Centre for International Scholarship in School Libraries at Rutgers University. Retrieved from: http://cissl.rutgers.edu/images/stories/docs/slimtoolkit.pdf

Todd, R. J. (2007). Evidence-based practice and school libraries. In S. Hughes-Hassell & V. H. Harada (Eds.), School reform and the school library media specialist. Westport, Conn: Libraries Unlimited, 57-78.

Todd, R. J. (2008). The dynamics of classroom teacher and teacher librarian instructional collaborations. Scan, 27(2), 19-28.

Topsfield, J. (2012). T is for teaching. The Age, National. Retrieved from http://www.theage.com.au/national/t-is-for-teaching-20121130-2amd9.html

Portfolio – The Role of a Teacher Librarian

I have become increasingly aware, as I progressed through this course, of how much the role of Teacher Librarian is continually growing and evolving. This is, largely, in response to the constant evolution of the information landscape (Lonsdale 2003; Mathison 2016; Schwarz 2016). I too, have been continually growing and evolving in terms of knowledge and skills as I have progressed through this course. The more I have learned, the more I am convinced that we, as Teacher Librarians, are well-placed to be instructional leaders of 21st centuries pedagogies (Alliance for Excellent Education 2016; ASLA 2014; Stansbury 2016). In my ETL401 Final Reflection about the role of the teacher librarian (TL), I made reference to roles such as collection development, teaching referencing and how to research using Inquiry Based Learning models (Costello 2015a). Since then, I have come to appreciate the wide and varied roles of a TL.  One only needs to examine Valenza’s manifesto and MacMeekin’s infographic to begin to fathom the depth and breadth of our roles (MacMeekin 2013; Valenza 2010). My lament as a TL is ‘so much to do, so little time’.

Teacher librarians are specialist teachers, accordingly, our title emphasises our teaching role. Collaborative teaching is a role highlighted in Teacher Librarian standards (ASLA 2004; NSW DoE 2016). The TL’s instructional role in collaborative teaching was addressed in my aforementioned blog (Costello 2015a). At that stage, I conceded that I had never even seen, let alone, embarked upon collaborative teaching. As I have progressed through this course I have been empowered with the knowledge, skills and confidence to overcome to my initial angst to accomplish this role in various forms (Gordon 2010; Todd 2008). Self-belief and confidence in my own abilities is, without a doubt, the area of greatest professional and personal growth as a result of this course. Confidence in my expertise as an information specialist has allowed me to showcase my knowledge and skills and promote myself as an instructional leader in the school (Brown 2004; Collay 2011; Costello 2015b). I showcase and promote my skills by collaborative teaching, regular emails highlighting ways I can assist their classes, school newsletter articles, posters in the library and around the school, Sentral announcements and personal conversations (Costello 2016b). This has helped smooth the way to approach previously resistant colleagues to consider collaborative teaching practices (Hartzel 2002; Hynes, Danahy, Schneider & Dowling 2012).

Excerpt from school newsletter article (Costello 2016b)

I have collaborated with teachers by examining programs to source or purchase supporting resources. I have also collaborated when team teach English wide reading classes. I have, likewise, collaborated as an instructional partner in planning and team teaching Inquiry Based Learning units (Purcell 2010). I have also been involved in collaboratively teaching a ‘Schools of the Future’ cross-curricular IBL unit which was both challenging and rewarding (Costello 2016a). These are just a small example of some of my collaborative teaching undertakings.

Collection development is another TL role in which I have grown in knowledge, skills and understanding during the course of my studies.  It is clear from my ETL401 Final Reflection blog that I had limited understanding of the full scope of this role (Costello 2015a). The selection of curriculum related and recreational resources is a traditional TL role and , traditionally, the resources were often in the physical print form. I have come to understand that a future focused school librarian needs to also provide access to electronic resources such as eBooks, audiobooks, online encyclopaedias and websites in addition to print resources (Oddone 2016 ; Latham & Poe 2008). I also understand that I need to ‘provide access to information resources through efficient, effective and professionally-managed systems’, as outlined in the Standards of professional excellence for teacher librarians (ASLA 2004). To do this I ensure that the school library collection is managed so that my users can easily locate and access resources.

One of the ways that I have achieved this is by embarking upon the reorganisation of our fiction books into genres. Genrification of the collection has been shown to increase loan statistics as they help users locate reading material more easily. This is because it acts as a short cut in the selection process (Johnson 2009 ; Rippel 2012). This process has been a huge undertaking but now nears completion. As a reflective practitioner, I plan to evaluate loan statistics as part of evidence-based practice to determine the degree of success for this strategy at our school (ASLA 2004; Hay & Foley 2009).

Snapshot of books from my library from the Fantasy Genre collection

Additionally, as a result of undertaking this course my understanding of the importance of providing access points in the library catalogue have been significantly enhanced (Coombes 2012; Hider 2012). This is another important way that I can meet the TL standards by providing ‘effective and professionally-managed systems’ (ASLA 2004). When describing collection development as one of the roles of the TL in a 2014 blog I had not, at that stage in my learning journey, even considered this important part of collection development (Costello 2014). Since completing ETL505, however, I can now confidently expand access points to library resources by tailoring additional SCIS subject terms and ScOT authority files in Oliver LMS (Coombes & Valli 2007). I now understand how to align the access points to curriculum topics and assessments (Hider 2012).  I, likewise, curate library resources into reading lists in Oliver aligned to curriculum topics. This helps teachers to direct students to professionally-selected reliable information sources on their topic (ASLA 2004).

Reading Lists as shown on school OPAC main interface.

In my collection development role, I have also carefully curated credible websites and catalogued them with applicable subject headings and authority files. School users have ubiquitous access to the school’s Oliver OPAC. These curated electronic sources can assist students to locate credible information sources faster than a Google search (Hutchinson 2017 ; Oddone 2016). I have also increased my understanding of strategies to enhance the school library eResource collection such as by uploading SCIS’s Special Order Files. These files provide quick access to batches of records for digital resources such as recently SCIS-catalogued websites, e-resources and websites reviewed in SCAN magazine and Scootle resources (Styles & Richardson 2016). As part of my collection development role, I also provide school users anywhere, anytime access to eBooks and audiobooks via Overdrive subscription.

Carousel of eBooks as shown on school OPAC main interface.

I have, likewise, complemented and augmented our school library’s resources with a Virtual Library. The Virtual Library website is a curation of educational resources that can be accessed by students, teachers, parents and the community. Additionally, the Virtual Library has been a powerful tool to showcase my professional skills and build my profile within the school community. The Virtual Library also serves the corollary function of providing evidence of my growth as a teacher librarian. It demonstrates all that I have learned while completing this course (Costello 2017).

Other important roles of the TL are in the instruction of Information Literacy and the utilisation of ICT as a learning tool . These roles will be covered in detail in the following posts.

References

Alliance for Excellent Education. (2016). Future ready librarians. Future Ready Schools. Available at: http://1gu04j2l2i9n1b0wor2zmgua.wpengine.netdna-cdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/Library_flyer_download.pdf.

ASLA. (2004). Standards of professional excellence for teacher librarians. Australian School Library Association. Retrieved from: http://www.asla.org.au/policy/standards.aspx

ASLA. (201). Future learning and school libraries, Australian School Library Association , Canberra, ACT. Retrieved from http://www.asla.org.au/site/DefaultSite/filesystem/documents/2013-ASLA-futures-paper.pdf

Brown, C. (2004). America’s most wanted: Teachers who collaborate. Teacher Librarian, (1), 13-18.

Collay, M. (2011). Teaching is leading. Everyday teacher leadership: Taking action where you are. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Combes, B. (2012). Practical opportunities and the library catalogue. Connections, 82.

Combes, B. & Valli, R. (2007). Fiction and the 21st century: A new paradigm. Cyberspace, D-world, E-learning: Giving libraries and schools the cutting edge, the 2007 IASL Conference and Research Forum, Taiwan.

Costello, C. (2014). The role of the teacher librarian in schools. Reflections of a Teacher Librarian. Retrieved from https://thinkspace.csu.edu.au/clctl/2014/12/08/the-role-of-the-teacher-librarian-in-schools/

Costello, C. (2015a). ETL401 Final Reflection. Reflections of a Teacher Librarian. Retrieved from: https://thinkspace.csu.edu.au/clctl/2015/02/02/critical-reflection/

Costello, C. (2015b). ETL504 Reflective Critical Analysis. Reflections of a Teacher Librarian. Retrieved from: https://thinkspace.csu.edu.au/clctl/2015/06/10/etl504-reflective-critical-analysis/

Costello, C. (2016a). EBP. Virtual Library. Retrieved from http://www.virtuallibrary.info/ebp/.html

Costello, C. (2016b). How can graphic novels be used in the curriculum?, Campbelltown Performing Arts High School Newsletter, 2 September 2016. Retrieved from http://cpahs.schoolzineplus.com/newsletter/15495

Costello, C. (2017). Virtual Library Home, Virtual Library. Retrieved from http://www.virtuallibrary.info/.html

Gordon, C. A. (2010). The culture of inquiry in school libraries, School Libraries Worldwide, 16(1) , 73–88.

Hartzel, G. (2002). What’s it take? Presented at the Washington White House Conference on School Libraries. Retrieved from: http://www.laurabushfoundation.com/Hartzell.pdf

Hay, L. & Foley, C. (2009). School libraries building capacity for student learning in 21C. Scan, 28(2), 17-26.

Hynes, M., Danahy, E, Schneider, L., & Dowling, D., (2012). The InterLACE Project: Examining the barriers to implementing collaborative, design-based inquiry investigations, ASEE National Conference, San Antonio, Texas, June 11. 2012. Retrieved from: http://www.ceeo.tufts.edu/documents/conferences/2012mheddd.pdf

Hider, P.  (2012). Information resource description: creating and managing metadata. London: Facet.

Hutchinson, E. (2017). The Role Of The School Librarian In Teaching And Learning. edCircuit. Available at: http://www.edcircuit.com/the-role-of-the-school-librarian-in-teaching-and-learning/

Johnson, P. (2009).  Fundamentals of Collection Development and Management. American Library Association.

Latham, B. & Poe, J. (2008). Evaluation and selection of new format materials: electronic resources in J. R. Kennedy, L. Vardaman & G. B. McCabe (Eds.), Our new public, a changing clientele : bewildering issues or new challenges for managing libraries, 257-265.

Lonsdale, M. (2003). Impact of School Libraries on Student Achievement: A Review of the Research. ACER. Retrieved from http://www.asla.org.au/site/DefaultSite/filesystem/documents/research.pdf

MacMeekin, M. (2013). 27 Things Your Teacher Librarian Does. An Ethical Island. Retrieved from https://anethicalisland.wordpress.com/2013/04/12/27-things-your-teacher-librarian-does/

Mathison, A. (2016). Why we desperately need school librarians in a digital world. The Morning Call.  Retrieved from http://www.mcall.com/opinion/yourview/mc-school-library-important-mathison-yv-1107-20161106-story.html

NSW Department of Education. (2016). Library Policy – Schools. Retrieved from: https://education.nsw.gov.au/policy-library/policies/library-policy-schools

O’Connell, J. (2012). Change has arrived at an iSchool library near you, in P.Godwin & J. Parker (Ed.) Information literacy beyond Library 2.0. London:Facet Publishing, UK.

Oddone, K. (2016). The importance of school libraries in the Google Age. SCIS. Connections. 98(2016). Retrieved from http://www2.curriculum.edu.au/scis/connections/issue_98/feature_article/importance_of_school_libraries_in_google_age.html

Purcell, M. (2010). All Librarians Do Is Check out Books, Right? A Look at the Roles of a School Library Media Specialist. Library Media Connection, 29(3), 30-33.

Rippel, C. (2012). What Libraries Can Learn from Bookstores. Webjunction.org. Retrieved from https://www.webjunction.org/documents/webjunction/What_Libraries_Can_Learn_from_Bookstores.html?redirect=true

Schwarz, D. (2016). 30 ways librarianship has changed in 30 years. LAC Group. Retrieved from https://lac-group.com/30-ways-libraries-librarians-changed-last-30-years/?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed:+lacgroupblog+(LAC+Group+Blog)

Stansbury, M. (2016). Are librarians the key to a Future Ready school?. eSchool News. Retrieved from http://www.eschoolnews.com/2016/12/16/librarians-key-future-ready-school/?ps=parulsinghmannu%40gmail.com-001a000001eFfPf-003a000002FwJ0B

Styles, J. & Richardson, N. (2016). What’s so special about Special Order Files? Connections, 97(2016). Retrieved from http://www2.curriculum.edu.au/scis/connections/issue_97/articles/whats_so_special_about_special_order_files.html

Todd, R. J. (2008). The dynamics of classroom teacher and teacher librarian instructional collaborations.Scan, 27(2), 19-28.

Valenza, J. (2010). A revised manifesto. School Library Journal. Retrieved from http://blogs.slj.com/neverendingsearch/2010/12/03/a-revised-manifesto/

 

ETL505 Describing Education Resources

When undertaking this course my previous experience with the term metadata had been in terms of the issue of telecommunications industry data retention and metadata laws. What I didn’t realise was that as Teacher Librarians we work with metadata every day. When we describe and organise the information resources in our library catalogue we create metadata (Hider 2012).

 

Examining the Functional Requirements of Bibliographic Records (FRBR) demonstrated that for our school library to be user-focused then the metadata we create for our library catalogues should centre on the FRBR user tasks of find, identify, navigate and obtain (Hider 2012 ; Oliver 2010). The FRBR hierarchy of information resources of Items, Manifestations, Expressions and Works did take a bit of time to wrap my head around. However the concrete examples in the text helped to unravel this for me (Hider 2012).

 

The RDA exercises, likewise, initially confused me and I found myself really struggling despite years of experience describing resource. Eventually, but gradually chipping away at the exercises, I found my way. In fact, I actually enjoyed doing the RDA exercises in assessment 1. I also came to appreciate the need to have the common vocabulary that RDA provides to help understand create the metadata for easy user retrieval (Hider 2012 ; Oliver 2010).

 

The exercises in assessment two based on WebDewey and SCIS also helped deepen my understanding regarding classification and subject headings. Building the classification levels in WebDewey for various resources provided a deeper insight into how information resources are organised according to the content and subject (OCLC 2016). I also quite enjoyed assigning SCIS standard subject headings for this assignment. It gave me a better understanding of how I could create subject headings to align resources to curriculum materials for our students. As a result, I will have much more confidence in doing this in future using the SCIS Web subject heading and the SCIS subject headings guidelines (SCIS 2016; SCIS 2016a ; SCIS 2015).

 

Reference list

 

Hider, P. (2012), Information resource description: Creating and managing metadata. London: Facet.

 

OCLC. (2016). WebDewey. Online Computer Library Center. Retrieved from http://dewey.org/webdewey/standardSearch.html

Oliver, C. (2010). FRBR and FRAD in RDA. In Introducing RDA: a guide to the basics (pp.13-36). ALA Editions.

 

SCIS. (2015). Guidelines to using SCIS subject headings. Schools Catalogue Information Service. Retrieved from http://www2.curriculum.edu.au/verve/_resources/SCISSHguidelines.pdf

 

SCIS. (2016). SCIS Subject Heading Search Screen. Schools Catalogue Information Service. Retrieved from http://scis.curriculum.edu.au/scisshl/

SCIS. (2016a). SCIS Catalogue (OPAC). SCISWeb.  Retrieved from http://opac.scis.curriculum.edu.au/vwebv/searchAdvanced

ETL504 Reflective Critical Analysis

When embarking on this unit ETL504 Teacher Librarian a Leader, I believed we would be learning about how we can become leaders. My aha moment came, however, when examining the Module 3 reading by Collay. The name of the chapter says it all: Teaching is leading (2011). It was like a veil had been lifted. I was a leader all along. I simply needed to see myself as a leader – almost like The Emporer’s New Clothes in reverse.

It’s the things we do daily as teachers that make us leaders. Somehow, I had missed that gem of information when training as a teacher. As teachers, we are instructional leaders in the classroom. When we share our teaching strategies, classroom management strategies and other expertise with fellow teachers we are leaders. As teacher librarians, when we critically select resources for teachers and students to support the curriculum, we are leaders. When we plan and implement team teaching with other teachers and employ Inquiry-based Learning, we are leaders (Collay 2011 ; Semadeni 2009 ; Rytivaara & Kershner 2012 ; Goodnough 2005). Understanding this was so empowering and really energised me to strut my stuff as an educational leader.

As I made my way through other unit readings I inadvertently found myself matching school leaders from past experiences with the various leadership styles I had observed in my dealings with them (I have a sneaking suspicion that other classmates would have found themselves doing the same thing). Some I labelled Situational Leaders and employed different leadership styles depending on people’s attitudes and compliance (Marzano, Waters & McNulty 2005). Others I labeled Transactional Leaders as they used rewards to coerce others (Avolio, Walumbwa & Weber 2009). Not surprisingly, due to the prevalence of this learning style in education, I was able to label quite a few as Instructional Leaders. Unfortunately, I was unable to identify any leader in my experience who ticked all the boxes for Transformational Leadership, though for some most were ticked. Similarly, I was unable to identify, any leader who truly displayed Distributive Leadership style as every school in my experience has proved quite hierarchical (Marzano, Waters & McNulty 2005 ; Collay 2011 ; Browning 2013).

Other salient points stood out for me from the readings. These were the importance of communication and transparency from leaders to build trust. The success of transformation leadership and change management is largely dependent on these important leadership traits. These traits may be even more important in educational institutions (Lewis 2011 ; Avolio, Walumbwa & Weber 2009 ; Sergiovanni 2005). These perhaps stood out for me because it was these very criticisms, lack of communication and transparency, that I had unfortunately heard being spoken about school executives when working at one unhappy school.

Advocacy was another aspect from this course that struck a chord with me. Advocacy is something we must earn as Teacher Librarians, it is not something that automatically comes with the position. This became more and more apparent when designing a strategic plan for assessment two. I began to appreciate how preparing such reports will enable me to promote myself as an educational leader in my school. But to write these reports we first need to undertake research that is strongly linked to the schools teaching and learning needs. We need to analyse the research data and then undertake strategic and action plans. The same is true for the writing of library policy documents. By doing this we demonstrate initiative and promote ourselves as educational leaders in the school (Hay and Todd 2010 ; Bonanno & Moore 2009).

This is something we can now all do as a result of this course. So go ahead, identify a teaching and learning need in your school. Do some research, analyse the findings and then undertake some strategic planning and action planning to identify workable solutions. Present your reports to the principal, executive and other teacher leaders in your school to earn their advocacy. Rinse and repeat.

.

References

 

Avolio, B., Walumbwa, F., & Weber, T. J. (2009, September 14). Leadership: Current Theories, Research, and Future Directions. DigitalCommons@University of Nebraska – Lincoln. Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/managementfacpub/37/

Bonanno, K., & Moore, R. (2009, October 2). Advocacy: Reason, responsibility and rhetoric. Australian School Library Association [ASLA]. Retrieved from http://www.asla.org.au/advocacy/School-library-advocacy.aspx

Browning, P. (2013). Creating the conditions for transformational change. Australian Educational Leader. 35(3) 14-17.

Collay, M. (2011). Teaching is leading. Everyday teacher leadership: Taking action where you are (pp. 75-108). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Goodnough, K. (2005). Fostering teacher learning through collaborative inquiry. Clearing House, 79(2), 88-92.

Hay, L., & Todd, R. (2010). School libraries 21C: The conversation begins. Scan, 29(1), 30-42.

Lewis, L. K. (2011). Communication approaches and strategies. Organizational change: Creating change through strategic communication (pp. 144-176). Chichester, West Sussex, U.K.: Wiley-Blackwell.

Marzano, R. J., Waters, T., & McNulty, B. A. (2005). Some theories and theorists on leadership. School leadership that works: From research to results. (pp. 13-27). Alexandria, Va.: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Rytivaara, A., & Kershner, R. (2012). Co-teaching as a context for teachers’ professional learning and joint knowledge construction. Teaching and Teacher Education, 28(7), 999-1008.

Semadeni, J. H. (2009). Professional development. Taking charge of professional development: A practical model for your school (pp. 28-48). Alexandria, Va.: ASCD.

Sergiovanni, T. (2005). The virtues of leadership. The Educational Forum, 69(Winter), 112-123.

ETL 504 Leadership in School Libraries

Reflective Critical Analysis

 

When first undertaking this Masters of Education degree, the concept of the teacher librarian as a school leader did not enter my consciousness. Perhaps blindsided by the stereotypical librarian, I then saw my role as providing resources to support students and teachers and promoting literacy. This stereotypical role was reinforced by my perceptions, real or misguided, of other teacher librarians from my experience as a student and as a teacher (Hartzel 2002). When first undertaking the role of teacher librarian in a school I acknowledge feeling undervalued. Now I have come to realise that it wasn’t just that I was undervalued as teacher librarian it was also that I undervalued my role, my abilities and contribution (Oberg 2006).

As a result of progressing through this and other units to date, I am growing in appreciation for how the structure and content of the units empowers us as highly qualified specialist teachers to be confident in what we have to offer (ASLA 2004). Being able to speak with authority on educational subjects with other school leaders has greatly increased confidence in my abilities and I view my contribution to the school in a much more favourably (AASL 2007).

 Consequently, I have been naturally gravitating towards leadership roles from knowledge and skills gained in prior units. As the school’s leading authority on information literacy and digital citizenship I have been called upon to demonstrate how these can be embedded in whole school learning programs. As part of my role in the school’s E-learning team, my expertise is called upon to drive innovation by mentoring others in ways to embed ICT into their teaching and learning programs in meaningful ways. Likewise, as part of our school’s Deprivatising the Classroom initiative, I am now mentoring and collaborating with others to develop and implement team teaching initiatives using Guided Inquiry Learning. Without realising, I was slowly coming to view myself as a school leader (O’Connell 2012).

While working through the readings for this current unit, I was continually reflecting on the leadership styles that I have used and others that might prove useful in the future. I was able to identify with the Transformational leadership style and the ways that I had used it with library SAO staff and with other teachers (Browning 2013 ; Marzano, Waters & McNulty 2005). I also identified leadership styles that I had seen used by other leaders across several schools. In my current school I identified other Transformational leaders together with others who used Distributed (Marzano, Waters & McNulty 2005 ;  Youngs 2009)  and others still who used the Instructional style (Townsend 2011 ; Marzano, Waters & McNulty 2005). Some, I realised, used all three of these.

I was, at first, overwhelmed by the prospect of constructing a concept map of leadership in schools for this first assessment. I discovered, however, that once I began to sketch out the organisation of the school and then add leadership styles, my concept map began to take shape. I could then begin to make connections and see how these all interrelated. I am keen to use concept maps in future to help me make study notes and to grasp concepts and ideas in my readings more quickly. The bubbl.us program was really simple, intuitive and fun to use as well and I am pleased that I now have another skill to add to my repertoire.

 

 

Leadership-Theory_47qej60l

 

 

Click on the image or on the link below for a closer view

Leadership in Schools Concept Map

 

Reference List

American Association of School Librarians (AASL). (2007). Standards for the 21st-Century Learner. Retrieved from: http://www.ala.org/aasl/sites/ala.org.aasl/files/content/guidelinesandstandards/learningstandards/AASL_LearningStandards.pdf

Australian School Library Association (ASLA). (2004). Standards of professional excellence for teacher librarians. Australian School Library Association. Retrieved from: http://www.asla.org.au/policy/standards.aspx

Browning, P. (2013). Creating the conditions for transformational change. Australian Educational Leader. 35(3) 14-17.

Hartzel, G. (2002). What’s it take? Presented at the Washington White House Conference on School Libraries. Retrieved from: http://www.laurabushfoundation.com/Hartzell.pdf

Marzano, R. J., Waters, T., & McNulty, B. A. (2005). Some theories and theorists on leadership. School leadership that works: From research to results (pp. 13-27). Alexandria, Va.: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Oberg, D. (2006). Developing the respect and support of school administrators. Teacher Librarian, 33(3), 13-18.

O’Connell, J. (2012). Learning without frontiers: School libraries and meta-literacy in action. ACCESS, March, 4-7.

Townsend, T. (2011). School leadership in the twenty-first century: Different approaches to common problems? School Leadership and Management, 31(2), 93-103.

Youngs, H. (2009). (Un)Critical times? Situating distributed leadership in the field. Journal of Educational Administration and History, 41(4), 377-389

ETL401 Final Reflection

Prior to undertaking ETL401 I was of the opinion, as would many educators I believe, that the role of the teacher librarian (TL) was primarily related to collection development in resourcing the curriculum and providing recreational reading materials.  I also believed the TL’s other primary role was in helping students with referencing and warning of the evils of plagiarism. Shortly after enrolling, in order to prepare for the unit, I examined the NSW DET Library – Policy. It sounded much more complex and I was a little bewildered about how I would fulfil the role description at Context 3.1 ‘Teacher-librarians collaborate with teachers in the planning, implementing and evaluating of teaching and learning programs, including the integration of Information Communications Technology and literacy’(DET NSW 2005). How did TLs go about this and in what context?

It soon became apparent that this was a common theme in TL role statements when Module 2 got underway and we studied the roles of the TL. These role statements reinforced the teaching role of TLs in teaching information literacy in collaboration with classroom teachers. Although I wrote about this in my initial blog, I was still unsure at that stage how exactly I could successfully implement this (ALIA/ASLA 2009 ; ASLA 2004). In addition, the role statements seemed never ending and I was unsure how one person would be able to meet all those expectations. I was able to appreciate, however, that TLs were expected to be information specialists and I was able to talk about that role in my initial blog entry. That was a role I was familiar with due to past experiences with TLs helping me both as a student at school and later as a teacher. (Purcell 2010).

It was when we began delving into Module 4 that the collaborative teaching role became clear to me: through the implementation of information literacy models (Eisenberg 2008 ; Kuhlthau, Maniotes & Caspari 2007). It explained much, but still seemed to me like a daunting task with many possible barriers.  In addition, I had never heard of, or seen one in operation. I could clearly see, however, the educational benefits of this approach. Furthermore it tied in nicely with my socio-constructivist educational philosophy and I was pleased to be able to base one of my blog topics on constructivist learning (Gordon 2010).

It was also apparent how much the teacher librarian role has changed, and will continue to develop, since the event of the information age (ALIA/ASLA 2009 ; Coombes & Valli 2007). As educators, we are tasked with preparing today’s students for living, learning and working in this rapidly changing digital landscape. The focus has now shifted to teaching students critical thinking and problem solving skills (Hay & Todd 2010 ; Kuhlthau, Maniotes & Caspari 2012) Again, I have learned, in the course of this unit, that this too can best be achieved by collaboratively teaching using information literacy models (Kuhlthau, Maniotes & Caspari 2007).

Evidence-based practice was another important aspect of the role of a teacher librarian that I had never considered before undertaking this course. As teachers we are advised to plan to include self-reflection as an important part of students learning to increase metacognition (ACARA 2013). Our readings have shown that it is equally important that we, as educators, are also reflective practitioners to help improve our teaching and learning programs and practices (Purcell 2010 ; Todd & Hay 2010). By undertaking evidence-based practice we can also make our contribution to student learning more visible and raise our profile in our schools (Todd & Hay 2010 ; Oberg 2006). Yet again, IL models come to the rescue to help with evidence-based practice. A most helpful tool has been developed by Todd, Kuhlthau & Heinström using the Student Learning Through Inquiry Measure (SLIM) toolkit which has been developed to be implemented within a Guided Inquiry design framework (2007).

While I admit I am still a little overwhelmed by the multifaceted an constantly changing role of the teacher librarian (Herring 2007), I also feel a sense of excitement  by all the possibilities and my look forward to my journey as a Teacher Librarian. In the course of this unit I have been well armed with ample information, advice, guidelines and scaffolds from this unit to help me to address many of my roles as a teacher librarian. This has empowered me and increased my confidence as I now know how I can make a vital contribution to my school and how I can prove that I do.

 

 

References

 

Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA). (2013). Reflecting on thinking and processes. Sydney. Retrieved from http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/generalcapabilities/critical-and-creative-thinking/organising-elements/reflecting-on-thinking-and-processes

 

Australian Library and Information Association (ALIA) and Australian School Library Association (ASLA). (2009). Retrieved from: http://www.asla.org.au/policy/teacher-librarian-qualifications.aspx

 

Australian School Library Association (ASLA). (2004). Standards of professional excellence for teacher librarians. Australian School Library Association. Retrieved from: http://www.asla.org.au/policy/standards.aspx

 

Combes, B. & Valli, R. (2007). Fiction and the 21st century: A new paradigm.  Cyberspace, D-world, E-learning: Giving libraries and schools the cutting edge. The 2007 IASL Conference and Research Forum, Taiwan.

 

Gordon, C A 2010, ‘The culture of inquiry in school libraries,’ School Libraries Worldwide, vol. 16, no. 1, pp.73–88.

 

Hay, L., & Todd, R. (2010). School libraries 21C: The conversation begins. Scan, 29(1), 30-42.

 

Herring, J. (2007). Teacher librarians and the school library. In S. Ferguson (Ed.) Libraries in the twenty-first century : charting new directions in information (pp.27-42). Wagga Wagga, NSW: Centre for Information Studies, Charles Sturt University.

 

NSW DEC,. (2005). Library Policy – Schools. Department of Education and Communities NSW. Retrieved from: https://www.det.nsw.edu.au/policies/curriculum/schools/libraries/PD20050221.shtml?query=Library+policy

 

Oberg, D. (2006). Developing the respect and support of school administrators. Teacher Librarian, 33(3), 13-18.

 

Purcell, M. (2010). All Librarians Do Is Check out Books, Right? A Look at the Roles of a School Library Media Specialist. Library Media Connection, 29(3), 30-33

.

Todd, R.J., Kuhlthau, C.C. & Heinström, J.E. (2005), SLIM: a toolkit and handbook for tracking and assessing student learning outcomes of Guided Inquiry through the school library. Centre for International Scholarship in School Libraries at Rutgers University. Retrieved from: http://cissl.rutgers.edu/images/stories/docs/slimtoolkit.pdf

Evidence-Based Practice

As teacher librarians, we can become frustrated and feel we are victims of occupational invisibility and that our contribution to whole-school programs and student outcomes are unseen and undervalued (Oberg 2006 ; Todd 2007 ; Todd 2003). This may be due to the nature of our work in empowering others. As a result, our contribution is often swallowed up and integrated into the successes of others. (Hartzel 2002 ; Oberg 2006). Our invisibility is also because, while we see the impact we make on a daily basis, we can usually only offer anecdotal evidence regarding our contributions (Hay & Todd 2010 ; Lamb & Johnson 2004-2007).

To remedy this we need to throw off the victim mentality and become proactive in self-promotion to make visible our contribution to our school’s teaching and learning outcomes. To this end, we need to gather hard evidence to unequivocally prove that we make a difference  (Hay & Todd 2010). According to the School Library Association (2004) excellent teacher librarians undertake evidence-based research to evaluate teaching practices, programs and services to ensure improved learning and teaching. Likewise, Hay & Foley (2009) advocate that in order to build capacity for student learning in the 21st Century, teacher librarians need to employ evidence-based practice to support a “continuous improvement cycle“. Similarly, The NSW Department of Education and Training (2010) has posited evidence-based practice as one of its foremost recommendations in creating sustainable futures for school libraries.

By undertaking evidence-based practice, we will not only be provided with hard evidence to show how and why teacher librarians make important contributions to student learning, we are also afforded an avenue for reflective practice to evaluate and constantly improve our teaching and learning programs. (Gordon 2010 ; Hay 2006 ; Todd 2003).

Undertaking evidence-based practice does not require exceptional analytical skills. We just need to begin gathering proof that we make a difference to student learning (Todd 2003). We can begin on the evidence-based practice journey by collecting documentation such as: student work samples, student reflections and surveys, observation notes, rubrics, peer reviews, lesson plans, checklists, critical feedback, circulation statistics, and test scores (Lamb & Johnson 2004-2007 ; O’Connell 2012 ; Todd 2003). One tried and true method of undertaking evidence-based practice is within a Guided Inquiry process. The Guided Inquiry framework is not only a model for promoting higher order thinking and information literacy skills, it is also provides a mechanism for conducting evidence-based practice (FitzGerald 2011 ; Todd 2003). The Student Learning Through Inquiry Measure (SLIM) was originally developed as an assessment tool for use during the Guided Inquiry process. (Gordon 2010 ;  Kuhlthau, Maniotes & Caspari 2007; Todd, Kuhlthau & Heinström 2005) The SLIM toolkit also provides the dual purpose of allowing teacher librarians to undertake effective evidence-based practice (FitzGerald 2011 ; Scheffers 2008).

If we, as teacher librarians want to be taken seriously as education professionals, we need to be proactive and self-promote our own research findings using evidence-based practice in our schools. By doing this we can prove the contribution we make to improving student learning outcomes and demonstrate continued improvement in our teaching practices. To reinforce our own research findings, we can also direct teachers and executives to the strong empirical evidence of other academics who likewise prove the difference teacher librarians make to student achievement (NSW DET 2010 ; Oberg 2002).

References

Australian School Library Association (ASLA). (2004). Standards of professional excellence for teacher librarians. Australian School Library Association. Retrieved from: http://www.asla.org.au/policy/standards.aspx

FitzGerald, L. (2011). The twin purposes of Guided Inquiry: Guiding student inquiry and evidence based  practice. Scan, 30(1), 26-41.

Gordon, C A 2010, ‘The culture of inquiry in school libraries,’ School Libraries Worldwide, 16(1), pp.73–88.

Hartzel, G. (2002). What’s it take? Presented at the Washington White House Conference on School Libraries. Retrieved from: http://www.laurabushfoundation.com/Hartzell.pdf

Hay, L. (2006). School libraries as flexible and dynamic learning laboratories? That’s what Aussie kids want. Scan, 25(2), 18-27.

Hay, L., & Todd, R. (2010). School libraries 21C: The conversation begins. Scan, 29(1), 30-42.

Kuhlthau, C. C., Maniotes, L. K., & Caspari, A. K. (2007). Assessment  in guided inquiry. In Guided inquiry: Learning in the 21st century (pp. 111-131). Westport, Conn: Libraries Unlimited

Lamb, A. & Johnson, L. (2004-2007). Library media program: Evidence-based decision-making. Retrieved from: http://eduscapes.com/sms/program/evidence.html

NSW Department of Education and Training (2010) School libraries 21c: A school library futures project.  School Libraries and Information Literacy Unit. Retrieved from: http://www.curriculumsupport.education.nsw.gov.au/schoollibraries/assets/pdf/21c_report.pdf

Oberg, D. (2006). Developing the respect and support of school administrators. Teacher Librarian, 33(3), 13-18.

Scheffers, J. (2008). Guided inquiry: A learning journey. Scan, 27(4), 34-42

Todd, R. J. (2003). Irrefutable evidence: how to prove you boost student achievement. School Library Journal, 49(4), 52 ff. Retrieved from: http://go.galegroup.com.ezproxy.csu.edu.au/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CA100608794&v=2.1&u=csu_au&it=r&p=EAIM&sw=w&asid=194fea091c82b000bb3b69ca05004411

Todd, R. J. (2007). Evidence-based practice and school libraries. In S. Hughes-Hassell & V. H. Harada (Eds.), School reform and the school library media specialist (pp. 57-78). Westport, Conn: Libraries Unlimited

Todd, R.J., Kuhlthau, C.C. & Heinström, J.E. (2005), SLIM: a toolkit and handbook for tracking and assessing student learning outcomes of Guided Inquiry through the school library. Centre for International Scholarship in School Libraries at Rutgers University. Retrieved from: http://cissl.rutgers.edu/images/stories/docs/slimtoolkit.pdf

Constructivist Learning, the Australian Curriculum and the Teacher Librarian

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The constructivist learning approach was first theorised by Piaget who postulated that individuals construct their own meanings through interaction with their environment (Cornish & Garner 2008 ; Gordon 2010). Vygotsky, however, developed a social constructivist stance and placed the social context of any environment at centre stage. He suggests that individuals construct their own meanings through a combination of their own cognitive processes and their social environment. These learning approaches have had a profound influence on pedagogy and current educational practices (Cornish & Garner 2008 ; Edutechwiki 2012).

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The social constructivist learning approach is student-centred where the teacher is no longer the ‘expert’ and transmitter of knowledge and the students passively receivers. In this approach, the students actively learn collaboratively through inquiry and the teacher’s role is that of facilitator and coach. Problem solving and metacognition or reflecting on learning processes form a large part of the inquiry process. The aim is for students to be actively involved in their own learning process and for deep and transferable learning to occur (Blurton 1999 ; Boss & Krauss 2007 ; Cornish & Garner 2008 ; Edutechwiki 2012 ; Gordon 2010 ; Herring 2007 ; O’Connell ; UNESCO 2005).

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The Australian Curriculum reflects a social constructivist approach as it supports the goals of the Melbourne Declaration on Educational Goals for Young Australians which includes collaboration and an active role in their own learning as key skills for 21 Century learners (ACARA 2013 ; MCEETYA 2008). In fact, the Australian Curriculum has been even come under criticism by some for relying too heavily on constructivist views despite being uniformly adopted by educational organisations worldwide (Sydney Morning Herald 2014 ; Cornish & Garner 2008 ; UNESCO nd). Constructivist concepts such as collaboration, teamwork, group work and inquiry abound throughout the Australian Curriculum. Indeed, collaboration and teamwork forms much of the Personal and social capability component of the Australian Curriculum’s General capabilities. Likewise, inquiry, problem-solving and reflection feature markedly in the Critical and creative thinking capability of the Australian Curriculum’s General capabilites. (ACARA 2013).

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Guided Inquiry is student-centred constructivist approach used by teacher librarians that has a strong 20 year long empirical background (Gordon 2010 ; Thomas, Crow & Franklin 2011 ; Kuhlthau nd. ; Kuhlthau 2020). Guided Inquiry is an Inquiry Based Learning model that evolved from Kuhlthau’s Information Search Process (Kuhlthau nd. ; Kuhlthau 2010). It aims to develop the same essential skills espoused by constructivist theory and endorsed by the Australian Curriculum namely problem solving, inquiry, collaboration and reflection (ACARA 2013, Carey 1998 ; Kuhlthau nd. ; Kuhlthau 2010). As uniquely qualified educators and information specialists, teacher librarians are best placed to play a leadership role in integrating Guided Inquiry into the curriculum in schools (ASLA 2004 ; ASLA 2012 ; Kuhlthau 2010).

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When teacher librarians collaboratively design and team-teach with classroom teachers using Guided Inquiry they can support authentic and transferable learning across the school (Gordon 2010 ; Haycock 2007 ; Kuhlthau & Maniotes 2010). By guiding students through logical sequential steps using the Guided Inquiry process, students can develop metacognition by becoming aware of their own learning processes (Herring 2007 ; Kuhlthau 2010). The role of teachers and the teacher librarian is to provide guidance at critical intervention points referred to as the zone of intervention. This is achieved by closely observing and asking timely questions to help students develop key thinking and learning strategies (Kuhlthau 2010). The zone of intervention is a strategy that has been closely modelled on Vygotsky’s concept of a zone of proximal development (Cornish & Garner 2008 ; Kuhlthau nd.)

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References

Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA). (2013). General Capabilities in the Australian Curriculum. Sydney. Retrieved from: http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/generalcapabilities/overview/general-capabilities-in-the-australian-curriculum

Blurton, C. (1999). New directions of ICT-Use in education, UNESCO’s World Communication and Information Report. Retrieved from: http://www.unesco.org/education/lwf/dl/edict.pdf

Boss, S. & Krauss, J. (2007). Reinventing project-based learning. Excerpt. Retrieved from: http://www.iste.org/images/excerpts/REINVT-excerpt.pdf

Carey, J.O., (1998) Library Skills, Information Skills, and Information Literacy: Implications for Teaching and Learning.School Library media Research, 1. Retrieved from: http://www.ala.org/aasl/sites/ala.org.aasl/files/content/aaslpubsandjournals/slr/vol1/SLMR_LibrarySkills_V1.pdf

Cornish, L. & Garner, J. (2008). Promoting student learning, Pearson Education, Frenchs Forest.

Edutechwiki (2010) Inquiry based learning.Retrieved from: http://edutechwiki.unige.ch/en/Inquiry-based_learning

Edutechwiki (2012). Socio-constructivism. Retrieved from: http://edutechwiki.unige.ch/en/Socio-constructivism#Socio-constructivist_learning_theory

Gordon, C. A. (2010).The culture of inquiry in school libraries,’ School Libraries Worldwide,16(1). 73–88.

Haycock, K. (2007). Collaboration: Critical success factors for student learning. School Libraries Worldwide, 13(1), 25-35

Kuhlthau, C. C. (nd). Information Search Process. Retrieved from: http://comminfo.rutgers.edu/~kuhlthau/information_search_process.htm

Kuhlthau, C.C. (2010) Guided Inquiry: School Libraries in the 21stCentury. School Libraries Worldwide, 16(1), 17-28

Kuhlthau, C. C., & Maniotes, L. K. (2010). Building guided inquiry teams for 21st-century   learners, School Library Monthly, 26(5) pp. 18-21. Retrieved from: http://www.schoollibrarymonthly.com/articles/kuhlthau&maniotes2010-v26n5p18.html

MCEETYA. (2008). Melbourne declaration on educational goals for young Australians Ministerial Council for Education, Employment, Melbourne. Retrieved from: http://www.curriculum.edu.au/verve/_resources/National_Declaration_on_the_Educational_Goals_for_Young_Australians.pdf

O’Connell, J. (2012). So you think they can learn? Scan, 31(2), 5-11.

Thomas, N. P., Crow, S. R., & Franklin, L. L. (2011). Chapter 3: The Information Search Process: Kuhlthau’s legacy. In Information literacy and information skills instruction: Applying research to practice in the 21st century school library (3rd ed., pp. 33-58). Santa Barbara: Libraries Unlimited. Retrieved from http://CSUAU.eblib.com/patron/FullRecord.aspx?p=715256

UNESCO. (2005). Information and communication technologies in schools: A handbook for teachers. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0013/001390/139028e.pdf

UNESCO (nd). Most influential theories of learning. UNESCO Education. Retrieved from: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/education/themes/strengthening-education-systems/quality-framework/technical-notes/influential-theories-of-learning/

The Role of the Teacher Librarian in Schools

The role of the teacher librarian (TL) in schools is not only multifaceted but also invaluable for excelling school learning outcomes (Education Services Australia 2011 ; Herring 2007 ; IASL 2003). TLs play a leading role in teaching and learning in schools and are uniquely skilled as research and information specialists coupled with their pedagogical and curriculum knowledge and expertise (ASLA 2012). Unfortunately their role is little understood by administrators as few have been teacher librarians themselves (O’Connell nd. ;  Moore 2002).

Teacher librarians are first and foremost teachers and the key teaching role for TLs in schools is in promoting information literacy skills (Herring 2007 ; SLASA 2008). In today’s digital world, the acquisition of highly developed information literacy skills is essential for 21st century learners for school and beyond (AASL 2007 ; IFLA 2013). In the teaching of Information Literacy, TLs come to the fore as school leaders. As Information specialists, they can work collaboratively with staff creating and team-teaching information literacy programs. (ALIA & ASLA 2009 ; Herring 2007 ; Purcell 2010).

Collection development has always played an essential part of the role of the TL. This has traditionally centred on curating physical resources. The bulk of the collection comprised non-fiction information sources and fiction books to promote reading for pleasure and ultimately literacy (AASL 2007 ; Herring 2007). Today’s TLs have had to evolve and become tech savvy so as to include digital formats and multimedia as part of the library’s virtual collection (Lamb 2011).  Virtual school libraries now also include eresources such as ebooks, audiobooks, digital video, databases, music files and electronic newspapers, journals and magazines in the library collection. The 21st Century virtual school library can now be accessed anywhere, anytime (Herring 2007 ;  Latham & Poe 2008 ; Valenza 2010).

Technology leader is another crucial role for TLs. It is essential that TLs are not only competent in the use of technology for library management systems, they must also have expertise in productivity tools, recording and reading tools, social and participatory tools and a wide range of learning tools (Lamb 2011 ; Purcell 2012).  As a technology leader, TLs will model best practice in integrating ICTs into the curriculum. Best practice will always focus on enhancing student learning when embedding technology, rather than using technology for technology’s sake (Churches 2009 ; Johnson 2010 ; Johnson 2011). As a consequence of the TLs’ role of technology leader, the role of professional developer becomes a natural progression. Due to their demonstrated expertise in this area, TLs can share their knowledge and skills by developing and presenting in-service training sessions for other teaching professionals. (Purcell 2012 ; Lamb 2011).

Teacher Librarians play an integral role in the learning outcomes of 21st Century Learners. The roles outlined above are but few in the many and varied roles that TLs can adopt in developing lifelong learners and information literate citizens (IFLA &UNESCO 2006). By assuming the outlined roles of information specialist, physical and virtual collection developer, technology leader and professional developer TLs are best placed to not only promote learning outcomes but also their own vital role in the school community (ASLA 2012 ; Education Services Australia 2011 ; IASL 2003).

 

References

American Association of School Librarians (AASL). (2007). Standards for the 21st Century Learner. Retrieved from: http://www.ala.org/aasl/sites/ala.org.aasl/files/content/guidelinesandstandards/learningstandards/AASL_LearningStandards.pdf

Australian School Library Association (ASLA). (2004). Standards of professional excellence for teacher librarians. Australian School Library Association. Retrieved from: http://www.asla.org.au/policy/standards.aspx

Australian Library and Information Association (ALIA) and Australian School Library Association (ASLA). (2009). Retrieved from: http://www.asla.org.au/policy/teacher-librarian-qualifications.aspx

Churches, A. (2009). Blooms’ digital taxonomy: It’s not about the tools, it’s using the tools to facilitate learning. Retrieved from: http://edorigami.wikispaces.com/file/view/bloom%27s+Digital+taxonomy+v3.01.pdf

Education Services Australia. (2011). Social media and ICT in schools. Connections, (78)

Herring, J. (2007). Teacher librarians and the school library. In S. Ferguson (Ed.) Libraries in the twenty-first century : charting new directions in information (pp.27-42). Wagga Wagga, NSW: Centre for Information Studies, Charles Sturt University.

Hughes-Hassell, S & Mancall, J. (2005). Collection management for youth: Responding to the needs of learners. Chicago. American Library Association.

International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA). (2013) Riding the waves or caught in the tides. Navigating the evolving information environment. Insights from the Trend Report. The Hague, Netherlands. Retrieved from: http://trends.ifla.org/files/trends/assets/insights-from-the-ifla-trend-report_v3.pdf

International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) & United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). (2006). IFLA/UNESCO School Library Manifesto. Retrieved from: http://archive.ifla.org/VII/s11/pubs/manifest.htm

International Association of School Librarianship (IASL). (2003). IASL policy statement on school libraries. Retrieved from: http://www.iasl-online.org/about/handbook/policysl.html

Johnson, D. (2010). Changed but still critical: Brick and mortar school libraries in the Digital Age. For InterED, Association for the Advancement of International Education [AAIE], Fall. Retrieved July , 2013 from http://www.doug-johnson.com/dougwri/changed-but-still-critical-bricks-and-mortar-libraries-in-th.html

Johnson, D. (2011). Stretching your technology dollar, Educational Leadership, 69(4), 30-33. Retrieved from: http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/dec11/vol69/num04/Stretching-Your-Technology-Dollar.aspx

Lamb, A. (2011). Bursting with Potential: Mixing a Media Specialist’s Palette. Techtrends: Linking Research & Practice To Improve Learning, 55(4), 27-36.

Latham, B. and Poe, J. (2008). Evaluation and selection of new format materials: electronic resources in J. R. Kennedy, L. Vardaman & G. B. McCabe (Eds.), Our new public, a changing clientele : bewildering issues or new challenges for managing libraries (pp. 257-265)

Moore, P. (2002). An analysis of information literacy education worldwide. White paper prepared for UNESCO, the U.S. National Commission on Libraries and Information Science, and the National Forum on Information Literacy, for use at the Information Literacy Meeting of Experts, Prague, The Czech Republic. Retrieved from: http://portal.unesco.org/ci/en/file_download.php/33e3dd652a107b3be6d64fd67ae898f5Information+Literacy+Education+(Moore).pdf

O’Connell. (nd). Is school librarianship in crisis and should we be talking about it? Charles Sturt University. Retrieved from: http://conferences.alia.org.au/alia2012/Papers/32_Judy.OConnell.pdf

Purcell, M. (2010). All Librarians Do Is Check out Books, Right? A Look at the Roles of a School Library Media Specialist. Library Media Connection, 29(3), 30-33.

Purcell, K. (2012). Libraries 2020: Imagining the library of the (not too distant) future Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project. Retrieved from: http://www.slideshare.net/PewInternet/suny-libraries-talk

School Library Association of South Australia (SLASA). (2008). SLASA Teacher Librarian Role Statement. Retrieved from: http://www.slasa.asn.au/Advocacy/rolestatement.html

Valenza, J. (2010). Manifesto for 21st Century Teacher Librarians. Teacher Librarian. The Journal for School Library Professionals. Retrieved from: http://www.teacherlibrarian.com/2011/05/01/manifesto-for-21st-century-teacher-librarians/