Critical Reflection on INF537

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As I reflect on this final capstone subject in this highly challenging, varied and so highly relevant degree, I have a sense of professional growth and achievement. Digital Futures Colloquium has contributed to the affirmation, integration and synthesis of ideas from the three other subjects I studied. We have covered aspects of teaching practices for the digital age, designing spaces for learning, design thinking, makerspaces, knowledge networks, digital scholarship and participatory learning.

Two years ago when I began this course I stated that my aim was to be a teacher librarian who can lead a community of learners into a digital world, enjoying opportunities to collaborate, create and help learners use new digital media. I feel confident to do this now because I am a highly networked and digitally literate educator who learns autonomously as I interact with digital media. Being able to understand how digital literacy and scholarship works allows me to design learning experiences and spaces where a school community can develop these skills too. I have the future work skills to ensure that I can add value to the technology that we use as learners and educators.

It has been easy to see how I in my role as a teacher librarian can integrate my understandings of learning in a digital age into my everyday practice. I know that the school library program plays a major role in promoting current pedagogy, adoption of technology, leveraging technology, promoting participatory learning, digital scholarship and digital citizenship.

My digital scholarship skills increased through the practice of research, sharing and refining ideas, reading and responding to blog posts, e-books and websites. Many of the professional readings have been highly appropriate to share with my colleagues and have had a major influence on the ideas that shape my practice.

IFTF_FutureWorkSkillsSummary_01                        2015-K-12-Report-Topics-Graphic-1024x794

My final assessment, a case study addressed the question “Do students become more autonomous as learners when they independently publish digital artefacts online?” and it’s major themes and findings about digital literacy, future work skills and the development of an agile approach to working in a digital age, allowed me to take the first step in leading the school community to match the trends, challenges in the adoption of technology.

This case study provided an opportunity to practice digital scholarship skills with survey design, communication and analysis. Through the use of technology tools, I examined and created many examples of digital media.  I correlated the recommendations for digital learning with my data and could see a pattern of behaviours which could inform better practice. I was pleased that I could see a real pathway for changing the way technology can be adopted in my school community.

In the future the connections in my personal learning network will remain vitally important to ongoing professional growth. Through the digital colloquiums in this subject I have widened this network and seen how others are working in an agile and sharp manner to leverage technology in schools and other learning environments. Listening to the likes of Annabel Astbury and Cathie Howie were excellent opportunities to engage with other professionals who  work together with educators to facilitate the best learning possible in a digital age. A very appropriate collection of ideas that I intend to use to inform my practice was Judy O’Connell’s recent presentation “Developing Agile Approaches in a Digital Age”. This presentation puts the school library centre stage in this approach.

judy agile approach My fellow students and lecturers have been a great source of collaboration and participatory learning. We have continued to engage in the backchannel of Twitter to support our learning and also respond and share through the subject discussion forums. This participation is vital to online learning and results in more ideas, resources, knowledge networks and global connections resulting in digital innovation for learners.

Key influential documents that are informing our discussions and practice

There are two influential report  documents have been regularly referred to in numerous university subjects, my assignments, our digital colloquiums and keynote presentations at conferences. They are these two reports:

*Horizon Report: 2015 K-12 Edition ( as well as the Library and previous editions)

*Future Work Skills 2020

Although they are both American publications they have great currency for our Australian schools and school libraries. The organisation  of the Horizon report of outlining the challenges; solvable, difficult and wicked and trends and developments in technology ; short-term, mid-term and long-term impact make the information easy to follow and prioritise. This report affirms the topics we have been studying in each subject and confirms that the time is coming to integrate the new ideas into practice. many of the ideas in recent journal articles and key note presentations like those at EDUTech are represented  in the Horizon Report too. It’s interesting that the word “Wicked” is used about very difficult challenges. “Wicked” is a term used in design thinking referring to interesting problems that really makes us think creatively and in an innovative manner  to solve them.

2015-K-12-Report-Topics-Graphic-1024x794

The Future Work Skills 2020 report is often mentioned by scholars who want the audience to rethink the curriculum we are delivering in order to meet the future work skills of our students. Unlike the Horizon report which is rewritten each year the Future Work Skills 2020 report has not been updated but still remains current. The drivers and the skills are related to those that are regularly mentioned in the Horizon Report. There is effective colour coding in the diagram below to indicate which drivers are relevant to which skills.

IFTF_FutureWorkSkillsSummary_01

Early in this degree, this reports served a need to help me understand the landscape of digital landscapes in schools. When they are referred to conferences and colloquiums I now understand the content and thinking behind them. In the final assignment now I am using them as a measure of good practice  to compare the student and teacher behaviour I have observed.

 

 

Reflection on latest guest colloquium with Cathie Howie from MacICT

Last week’s guest colloquium with Cathie Howie from MacICT was a source of affirmation, inspiration, information and interest. This was because many of the ideas they are exploring and investigating in their work are what we have been studying  in this degree about knowledge networks and digital innovation.

The combined work from Macquarie University and the NSW Department of Education is drawing its direction from reports like the Horizon Report and the Future Work Skills 2020. These documents are referred to often in our scholarly conversations. I am once again referring to them in my recent case study for this final subject.

Design mindsets, design thinking, STEM & STEAM approaches, makerspaces and a vision for learning in a digital age where all mentioned in the presentation and following conversations. These concepts and approaches are now becoming the common themes in PD and education & technology conferences and publications. These concepts are also major conversation topics on Twitter too amongst educators.

I really liked the sound of MacICT’s work in Transmedia storytelling. I think this is a very adaptable method of getting students to produce content rather than just being a consumer. Transmedia storytelling also encourages creativity and digital literacies.

I look forward to following the workings of MacICT in the future and hopefully taking part in their professional development opportunities.

Themes for the Case Study

This mindmap evolved as I did my reading and identified common themes in the related research. I am now going to choose a theme or two to work with.

inf537 casestudy mindmap

My survey questions covered these three avenues: what learners do with Web2.0 and 3.0 technologies, issues of equity in and access to these experiences and the building of theory and consequential practice.(probably not so much about equity)

My expected outcomes were ;

*Insight into what online communities the students are choosing to connect with.

*Identify different skills and information that students obtain and share when they publish digital artefacts online.

*Students will share positive and negative online experiences.

*It could become apparent that the students are learning and creating more out of school hours than during school.

*Students may be not keen to share or discuss their publications.

*Teachers will learn about the value in “flattening the classroom “and providing global education opportunities for their students.

Most of these outcomes are becoming apparent. The concept of “flattening the classroom” has not really come up, but I think that it is not a “known” concept for many teachers. It is still a concept I could refer to, I am thinking now that 21st Century skills and key drivers in the adoption of technology may be my key themes.

Knowledge Networking Artefact & Exegesis

As an assessment task I created this knowledge networking artefact which is titled:

How does a teaching team benefit from developing an online community of practice?

youtube artefact Capture

 

Exegesis:

The knowledge networking artefact titled “How can our teaching team benefit from developing an online ‘community of practice’?” is an instructional text for the teaching team at my school about why, how and what we need to do to collaboratively build an online, networked ‘community of practice’. This community of practice will enable us learn collaboratively, share what we have learnt and form a knowledge network about the teaching pedagogies that frame the school’s Delivering Excellent Learning & Teaching strategy.

This artefact is important because the teaching team has the potential to reap many rewards individually and as a group from the collective knowledge they can create. They have not engaged in online learning as a whole group like this before and will benefit from leadership in developing this online space. A recent survey (Appendix A) of teachers’ knowledge about the key teaching pedagogies and the teachers’ attitude to online and social learning revealed a wide variety of existing knowledge, experience and attitudes.

The instructional design of this artefact was guided by an attempt to maximise “the effectiveness, efficiency and appeal of instruction and other learning experiences” (Moloney, 2010). The current state and needs of the teaching community (learners), the definition of the end goal of instruction and the creation of an intervention to facilitate a transition (to a community of practice) were the three steps that were undertaken to develop the artefact.

The needs of the learners were surveyed and found to be highly varied.  The end goal of the instruction is to lead and help develop an online, networked community of practice and this artefact, followed by the facilitation of an online learning space on the school’s Moodle site will be the intervention.

As a school community we have been expected to engage in Brisbane Catholic Education’s (BCE) Delivering Excellent Learning and Teaching(DELT) Strategy (2014)which expects the teaching staff to understand the teaching pedagogies supported by Hattie(2014), Sharratt and Fullan’s (2012)work.

The inspiration to produce this artefact came from an experience in my own workplace where there is currently a need to engage in and discuss these professional readings but not to create more face- to-face meetings for teaching staff to attend. As the teacher-librarian in the school I have been encouraged to organise resources to support the DELT strategy. I thought that there was an opportunity to lead a knowledge network community to explore, create and develop a common language about the theory of action that will support the engagement in this strategy.

Although the focus audience for this video is the teaching community of my school, the plan I have for our networked community of practice may be used in other schools under Brisbane Catholic Education.

The video is divided into four sections covering the why, how, what (and what next) of developing the networked community of practice.

The content of the artefact includes aspects on communities of practice, knowledge networks, network and social literacy, participatory culture and collaborative learning tools. Combining all these aspects for a very focused task meant that I tried to keep the technical process simple. The script was condensed to drop the duration from nearly eight minutes to just over five minutes. There is a continual narration, five minutes of information is enough to describe the why, how and what of this knowledge network.

The digital tools of PowerPoint, Audacity and YouTube were combined to produce an audio-visual presentation with colourful and interesting images, a summary of main points and a comprehensive narration. Most images were collected via Pixabay because of the copyright free status of the images. Canva, the free online graphic design software was used to create the title slide to make it look different and therefore capture attention. Exciting, creative and colourful images, but I had to be careful with text colour and placement of the text due to the backgrounds I created.

The execution of the design required some new technical knowledge and skills. There are many ‘how to’ videos on YouTube; a particularly good instructional video named ‘How to Make Your 1st YouTube Video with PowerPoint’ proved to be a valuable resource.  This video gave advice on important aspects of instructional design including script writing, timing, types and amount of text, technology to use, recording tips and combining images and text. Detailed steps are given on how to add an audio file to the PowerPoint and upload the recording to YouTube as a video movie. The recording of the script using Audacity was the most difficult element of this technical exercise. This was due to the need to speak clearly, some background noise and the length of the text. Some music could have been added, but I was cautious not to complicate the video.

This artefact is set in an educational context where the teaching community ( as part of Brisbane Catholic Education) is working towards basing their practice around current proven teaching pedagogy that is being supported by the professional development programme ‘Visible Learning’ facilitated by Cognition Education. This programme is focused around John Hattie’s acclaimed research about maximising impact on learning (Hattie & Yates, 2014). It also draws upon principles of ‘Visible Learning and Visible teaching’.  The core of the ‘Visible Thinking and Learning’ concept is the importance of nurturing thinking in the everyday lives of learners (students and teachers) and make the thinking visible so a culture of thinking can be developed and strong learning communities established in organisations (Ritchhart, Church, & Morrison, 2011). Leaders in these educational organisations are being urged to take risks and encourage a willingness to reach outside the comfort zone of established practices (Ritchhart, Church, & Morrison, 2011). Lyn Sharratt and Michaels Fullan’s (2012) ideas in Putting FACES on the Data; what great leaders do! is influencing this educational context. Sharratt and Fullan (2012) emphasise the importance in developing a collective capacity which involves teachers in schools and between schools engaging in serious conversation about what good teaching looks like and how it is achieved. The networked ‘community of practice’ would help develop this collective capacity; this community can be the key to improving their performance (Wenger, 2006). This collective capacity will be dependent on networked (Richardson & Mancabelli, 2011) and peer to peer learning.

The physical context of this artefact involves a large growing secondary school college with a varied staff. The Principal and leadership are supportive and encourage innovative use of technology and sharing of ideas. Students and staff are able to be constantly connected because of the integration of digital learning using many mobile devices. Not all staff are taking advantage of the digital connections available. There is a need for them to become more effective connected educators. The need for a sense of community was important for our adult learners (Snyder, 2009).

A growth in digital learning spaces is also being observed in the educational context of our schools. We live in a world embedded in digital learning spaces. Our current digital context is increasingly a social context where social media plays a large role. There is a strong need for the development of social-media and network literacy in all learners; as described by Rheingold (2010) and Pegrum (2010).

The current digital context allows all people to be creative and share the information they have created. To be a connected and participative member of a community of practice is it desirable that members share their ideas and create new resources. There is potential in the social networking tools of this knowledge network to harness the power of participation (Rheingold, Participation Power, 2012).

In the future there are many opportunities for the teaching team to become more connected educators and expand their Personal Learning Networks.

The artefact was created to help cultivate a networked community of practice. The main points to communicate to the audience was why there was a need to do this; that is directly relate this to the focus audience and provide a motivation for them to engage. The second part was on how; that is to become a connected learner,  develop social and network literacy and engage in peer to peer learning, engage in a participatory culture. The section about what we plan to do gave a practical plan of implementation and the active manner that the teaching team will participate. The final note was an invitation for the participants to branch out publically and make connections out of our school teaching community.

The instructional design was guided by Karen Moloney’s (2010) tips to survey the learners, define the goal and create an intervention. As Moloney describes there is no excuse for bad instructional design with technology making things faster and cheaper. A survey was done via a simple email; the video was made with simple and mostly free technology and Moodle (a fantastic LMS) will be used to facilitate the knowledge network. Moloney also recommended taking into consideration learning styles with a blended learning design and using e-learning as a solution. The instructional-design also needed to support a sense of community. To do this these Design theory goals were incorporated; cultivating a learner-centred environment, leveraging of community synergy, respect individuality, diversity and experience, focus on a real-life problem and promote self-directed learning (Snyder, 2009).

The aim is to create a networked community of practice where all teaching team members feel included and participate. To cultivate this community it needs to be designed for evolution or to grow into the future, it should allow openings for dialogue, allow for all levels of participation, focus on value, mix familiarity with excitement and the unknown and create a rhythm or pattern of behaviour for the community (Wenger, Seven principles for cultivating communitites of practice, 2002).

The most important element of this community to be developed is the networked element of it and the shared goals and interests (to implement the BCE’s DELT strategy). Networking is a key element in professional careers to support individual’s growth and learning. The skills at the centre of networking include the ability to identify and understand other participant’s ideas and work in relation to one’s own. It is also important to assess the value of another person’s contribution or work. The participants’ positive attitude leading to a deliberate intention to form connections with others is also as well (Rajagopal, Joosten-ten Brinke, Van Bruggen, & B., 2012). These networking skills described in Rajagopal’s  (2012)Personal learning network model are similar to Rheingold’s (2010)interconnected 21st –Century Social Media Literacies; attention, participation, collaboration, network awareness and critical consumption. Rheingold stressed how these skills become interconnected in people with good social media skills and that it is these skills that will shape and influence the cognitive, social and cultural environments of the future. The technologies of LMS in schools are just the skeletons; the participants shape the content.

Encouraging participation and making it approachable for all of the teaching community was a priority in the design of this artefact. Guided and effective online participation can translate into real power. We can start a participatory culture with each individual act of participation building upon another to create architecture of a participatory culture (Rheingold, Participation Power, 2012). The teaching team will need to eventually start connecting with other outside educators and develop their own PLN to truly contribute to the world wide phenomenon of Knowledge Networks.

The knowledge networking artefact I created; “How can our teaching team benefit from developing an online ‘community of practice’?” was designed and constructed to begin a focused social learning environment for by teaching team to achieve the goals set by the Brisbane Catholic Educations Delivering Excellent Learning & Teaching strategy. In participating in this knowledge networking activity it is possible for the teachers to develop network and social media literacy, as well as the confidence to expand their PLN.

References

Brisbane Cathoic Education (2014). Brisbane Catholic Education Delivering Excellent Learning and Teaching 2014-2016 Strategy. Retrieved March 2015, from Brisbane Catholic Education KWeb: https://kweb.bne.catholic.edu.au/Documents/Delivering%20Excellent%20Learning%20and%20Teaching%20strategy%20book%20ONLINE%20VERSION.pdf

Hattie, J., & Yates, G. C. (2014). Visible Learning and the Science of How We Learn. Routledge.

Moloney, K. (2010). There is no excuse for bad instructional design. Training and development in Australia, 22-23.

Pegrum, M. (2010). ‘I link therefore I am’: network literacy as a core digital literacy. E-learning and digital media, 346-354.

Rajagopal, K., Joosten-ten Brinke, D., Van Bruggen, J., & B., S. P. (2012). Understanding personal learning networks: their structure, content and the networking skills needed to optimally use them. First Monday, Volume 17, Number 1-2.

Rheingold, H. (2010). Attention and 21st-century social media literacies. Educase review, 14-24.

Rheingold, H. (2012). Participation Power. In H. Rheingold, Net smart: how to thrive online (pp. 111-139). USA: MIT Press.

Richardson, W., & Mancabelli, R. (2011). The power of netwroked learning. In W. Richardson, & R. Mancabelli, Personal learning networks: using the power of conections to transform education (pp. 1-14). Moorabbin: Solution Tree Press.

Ritchhart, R., Church, M., & Morrison, K. (2011). Making thinking visible; How to promote engagement, understanding and independence fo all learners. San Francisco: Wiley.

Sharratt, L., & Fullan, M. (2012). Putting FACES on the data: what great leaders do! California: Corwin Press.

Snydner, M. M. (2009). Instructional – design theory to guide the creation of online learning communities for Adults. TechTrends, 48-56.

Thomas, D., & Brown, J. (2011). Arc-of-life learning. In D. Thomas, & J. Brown, A new culture of learning: cultivating imagination for a world of constant change (pp. 17-33). Lexington,KY: CreateSpace.

Wenger, E. (2002). Seven principles for cultivating communitites of practice. In E. Wenger, Cultivating communities of practice: a guide to managing knowledge (pp. 49-64).

Wenger, E. (2006). Communities of practice a brief introduction. Retrieved April 2015, from http://wenger-trayner.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/06-Brief-introduction-to-communities-of-practice.pdf

A Check up on my 21st-Century Social Media Literacy and Participatory Skills

question marks

Throughout the last 14 weeks my social media literacies have improved by using more tools, more regularly and in a more creative manner. Howard Rheingold (2010) has identified five interconnected social media literacies that lead to one being a critical and effective consumer of digital media.  How am I going with these five skills ? :

Attention: My radar has definitely been fine-tuned and is is focused on quality

Participation: I am sharing and interacting more with others online. I am more connected than I was a few months ago. I need to keep on working on this (see below in this post about being part of the architecture of participation)

Collaboration: Doing things together with others. I am slowly building up knowledge networks. i want to more collaboration with my work colleagues in particular.

Network Awareness: I understand more about how networks work. This includes both the social and technical aspects .

Critical Consumption: I am a better skilled critic with more experience. I ask the question ” Why , How and What should I be paying attention to this information?”

I have been operating in my zone of proximal development ( for most of this degree really) surrounding myself with knowledgeable others and technology and tools (Wheeler, 2014). As Wheeler describes in his slideshare “Digital Age Learning“; there is an architecture of participation that we can become part of as a digital learner. This architecture of participation involves networking, user generated content, curation, tagging and bookmarking, collaborating, sharing and amplifying.  I have become a more effective part of this architecture.

Rheingold, H. (2010). Attention and 21st-century social media literacies. Educase review, 14-24.

Wheeler, S. (2014, April). Digital age learning. Retrieved May 2015, from slideshare: http://www.slideshare.net/timbuckteeth/the-changing-face-of-digital-learning

image: http://www.cyberwise.org/#!cyber-civics-blog/cp08

An amplified learning idea to try out – connecting over books & reading

SLJ1301_GoodReads

I was inspired whilst looking at Shannon McKlintock Miller’s blog post describing the way she facilitates opportunities for  authors to connect with her readers to continue integrating technology into our Library program at my school workplace. Shannon has worked with illustrators and authors.

I have been planning on introducing Book Clubs for both Middle and Senior school students. I want to spend time engaging with high quality  and exciting new literature with these students. Tristan Banck’s novel “Two Wolves” is book that has been nominated for this years CBCA Book of the Year Awards. It has had excellent reviews and I think both girls and boys would enjoy it. I do know Tristan Bancks following several visits he has made to our school – I have to ask him first if he’s keen to participate in this idea. I am planning on using this book as our first Middle School Book Club book. After we read and discuss it together I thought we could meet up via Skype or Google Hangout with Tristan and discuss the book. I have a great screen in the Library that we could all sit around, connect and share knowledge. I look forward to trying this out.

I am also  really looking forward to hearing Shannon McKlintock Miller speak at EduTECH next week. Exciting times!

‘Beware of Online Filter Bubbles’: an important video to view

Watching the TED talk ‘Beware of Online Filter Bubbles’by Eli Pariser reinforced for me the important role of the teacher-librarian in schools and also network and social media literacy (Rheingold,2010).   As a connected educator I need to be aware of where I sit in the internet, how my choices (of what I am clicking) effect the information I am viewing.  I have noticed regularly on Facebook and Twitter the number of suggested or similar posts come up.

you and internet Capture

(Pariser,2013)

The information conveyed by Pariser reinforces too all the warnings we give to students about overusing Google. if they keep on clicking on “junk food ” sites they are going to get more “junk food” sites next search.  Students’s ‘crap detection’ radars are going to have to work double time.

In the last twelve months in my role of as a teacher-librarian I have been using Peartrees to curate sites for topics that are taught.  We then catalogue these collections in our Library catalogue. There has been mostly positive responses to us doing this. A few teachers have complained that the students should find the sites themselves. It is my view that if the student bothers to find the Library’s curated collection and use the sites, its a good thing. The sites can act as a beginning point and may be a lot better than those that are being blocked by their own “filter bubble”. Hopefully my curated collections meet the Pariser’s recommendations for internet sites.

filter bubble important Capture

(Pariser, 2013)

pearltree collection Capture

Pearltree curated collections

Rheingold, H. (2010). Attention and 21st-century social media literacies. Educase review, 14-24.

Reflective Blog Task 2: Connected Learning and Digital Literacy

As an educator my goal is to actively engage students (and teachers) in valuable learning at school and out in the wider world. There has been a consistent theme across the readings and information shared across module 1 and 2 of a focus on learning; not teaching, being able to critically interact with knowledge and communities.  Learning communities are at their best when connections and relationships are being created. We all need effective digital literacy skills to be effective participators in these communities.

Each of the five trends identified in the 2013 Horizon Report; education paradigms shifting towards online collaborative learning models, the effect of social media on our communication behaviours, openness of content and information sharing, mobile devices and the abundance of resources and relationships as challenges for us teachers support and emphasise the importance of connected learning and digital literacy.

The future work skills (2020) identified by The Institute for the Future also supports these trends. They saw global connectivity and new (social) media are drivers that are changing the skills we need to be productive contributors. The institute named skills for the future work force like social intelligence; new-media literacy, transdisciplinarity, cognitive load management and virtual collaboration, all closely align with the skills needed for connected learning and digital literacy.

The important point for educators like me to identify and describe for others is ‘what does an education and learning model look like that allows for the development of a connected network of life-long learners who are digitally literate?’

Downes (2012) describes a successful network of learners as one that can learn, adapt, and avoid stagnation or network ‘death’.  He explains that the network must contain four elements: autonomy, diversity, openness and connectivity (or interactivity).Downes based his work on Siemens (2004) theory of Connectivism which was an integration of the principles of (non- linear) chaos, networks, and the complexity of relationships between learners and knowledge. Although this Siemen’s theory of Connectivism is now ten years old it still rings true in this age of global connectedness.
Siemens (2013) has gone on to describe in a more recent interview, “Changing Schools, Changing Knowledge” that learners’ ability to understand relationships between aspects of knowledge not recalling facts is more important. Interacting and discourse are what help learning and connections happen. That our students’ need to practise being critical and creative to survive in today and tomorrow’s digital world.
The digital literacy concept links into this important aspect of critical literacy. Critical Literacy is part of digital literacy as the “ability of individuals to appropriately use digital tools and facilities to identify, access, manage, integrate, evaluate, analyse and synthesise digital resources, construct new knowledge , create media expressions, and communicate with others…in order to enable constructive social action and to reflect on the process.” (Martin 2006b as cited by Bawden, 2008)
As an educator I then need to break down the skills of digital literacy and plan for learning experiences and environments where students can develop the skills.
Downes (2012) stated that “The most important function of a person in a community is no longer conformity, but rather, creativity and expression.” Let us not forget though the importance of developed digital literacy skills for this person and the community they can participate and thrive in. I look forward to exploring this concept of creativity even further as I begin my scholarly review of Ken Robinson’s (2011) “Out of Our Minds – Learning to be creative”.

 

Attiributions:

Bawden, D. (2008). CHAPTER ONE: Origins and Concepts Of Digital Literacy. In Digital Literacies: Concepts, Policies & Practices (pp. 17–32). Peter Lang Publishing, Inc. Retrieved fromhttp://ezproxy.csu.edu.au/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=lih&AN=39774960&site=ehost-live

Davies, A. F. (2011). Future Work Skills 2020. Phoenix: University of Phoenix Research Institute.

Downes, S. (2012). Connectivism and Connective Knowledge. Creative Commons License.

Johnson, L. A. (2013). NMC Horizon Report: 2013 K-12 Edition. Texas: The New Media Consortium.

Robinson, K. (2011). Out of Our Minds – Learning to be creative. 2nd ed. Capstone. UK.

Siemens, G. (2004, December 12). Connectivism: A Learning Theory for the Digital Age. Retrieved March 31st, 2014, from elearnspace: http://www.elearnspace.org/Articles/connectivism.htm

Siemens, G. (2013, September 26th). George Siemens: Changing Schools, Changing Knowledge. Retrieved March 31st, 2014, from YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JR_ziHA_8LY&feature=youtu.be