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ETL 505 Assignment 1 Part A

Value: 50%

Due date: 24-Aug-2015

Return date: 14-Sep-2015

Part A: Essay (1600 words, + or – 10%) (20 marks)

Undertake a discussion and analysis of key concepts and principles in information resource description, in order to show your understanding of, and ability to explain and contextualise concepts and principles of information resource description.

Drawing upon the knowledge and understanding of key concepts and principles in information resource description gained through modules one to three of your subject material (including the first seven chapters of your textbook) give considered and informed responses to the following questions.

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There is a lot to consider when addressing information resource description. There are many key concepts and principles that need to be addressed so that the users of information agencies can adequately find, identify, select and obtain their desired resource. Such factors include information organisation and metadata standards, both of which play a huge role in the users overall outcome in information retrieval.

To understand what information organisation is and why we need it, first we need to understand what an information resource is. Quite simply, an information resource is a resource that contains information. It comes in many forms e.g. DVDs, websites, books, maps etc. And in school libraries it also stretches to the world of literature. Therefore information resource description is the way in which all of these resources are described in order to locate them proficiently.

Information organisation is quite simply, the way in which information (better referred to these days as resources) is organised. It is the process of ordering and describing information or information objects. Resources can be organised in various ways. The way in which it is organised will have implications to retrieval, interaction and personal information management. Information organisation involves the assignment of metadata to documents that serve specific roles, or creation of indexes and databases that serve the primary tasks of ordering and description.

Organising information, which includes the description of that information (metadata), is most effective when contextual factors are considered. To maximise access to school library collections, the “characteristics of the user, the technology, the information resources and other environmental factors” (Hider, 2012, p.8) are taken into consideration when organising information and making decisions about the four aspects of metadata: elements, values, format and transmission. Hider posits that there can be a difference between the user of the metadata itself and the users of the resources represents (2012, p.16). For example the user of the metadata might be a teacher or parent looking for a resources in the collection that might appropriate and used by a student. In any case, understanding those who are using the metadata and their purposes, can lead to creating metadata that is more effective (Hider, 2012, p.16).

It is necessary for information agencies to organise information simply to enable the information searcher to find information required within the shortest time-frame. Time is a precious resource for all and if information is not easily accessible due to poor organisation, it would be mean failure on the part of the information agency to provide good service.

Information resource description aids information organisation because it essentially provides information about different aspects of the resource, otherwise known as ‘data elements’. Data elements may relate to the nature of the information itself (content – e.g. subject, language etc.) and/or to the carrier or container of this information of this information (e.g. size, format, labelling information such as statements appearing on the title page, etc.) (Hider, 2012, p.4). Information resource description or data about data is often referred to as ‘metadata’ and is “commonly defined as ‘structured’ data (about data)” (Hider, 2012, p5).

But who writes the description in order for users to be able to locate the desired resource? Descriptions of information resources are written by a variety of people, with various agendas and reasons for doing so (e.g. a librarian might wish to improve their patron’s knowledge while publishers may be focused on sales) and this will have an impact on the nature of the description (Hider, 2012, p.3). Teacher librarians need to know more than how to download such records into a catalogue.

The teacher librarian’s input can determine if the catalogue is used and appreciated as an effective and friendly tool for locating needed resources; or if the most noticeable feature about the catalogue is the number of users who bypass it. Hider puts it simply when he states that in order for information professionals to improve access to information resources requires “first-hand knowledge of the domain in which they work” (2012, p.62).

With such a wide range of resources now available due to the digital revolution, information agencies are now dealing with more than just books; digital, pictorial and auditory resources now need to be included and considered. So therefore, the way in which information is organised has also evolved. In the traditional library realm, organisation tasks include annotation of documents directly, print or electronic resources being organised in the form of catalogue records, abstracts, and digital libraries, and the physical or virtual ordering or grouping of resources using the processes of categorisation and classification. But depending on the teacher librarian and the users of the library will determine how their resources are catalogued and ultimately organised within their library. Whilst there are no “set rules” as such on how you organise the information, there are cataloguing/metadata standards that are to be followed to ensure consistency amongst information agencies.

There are many key tools used in school libraries for organising information. Arrangements are designed to help people look for information resources and navigate resource collections. As there are numerous ways in which information resources can be arranged it is imperative for effective access to them. Labels may be utilised to identify individual items and/or group items by categories such as subject matter or by a designated section of the collection (e.g. non-fiction). Symbols such as colour may be utilised on labels to group resources. Labels that indicate the items location within the collection are very useful (e.g. details such as call number, author’s name, Dewey classification, etc. may appear on the spine label of a physical resource). In digital environments, labels are used on hyperlinks in the form of brief descriptions. Indexes are “essentially arrangements of labels connected conceptually, rather than physically, to their resources” (Hider, 2012, p.35).

Library catalogues is an obvious tool of information organisation. They are used as a way to ascertain what is in the library collection and as a retrieval tool. Online library catalogues (e.g. OPAC – online public access catalogue) have superseded the old card cataloguing system, although both are similar in their descriptions. Online catalogues can provide users with numerous records from which to make their selection. Some even allow for users to input metadata (social metadata) such as tagging, ratings and reviewing items.

Federated search systems are a tool that has enhanced the ease to which users are able to search and locate information. Creating federated search applications that allow the sharing of metadata between information retrieval systems (interoperability) can be complex as different systems may not be compatible in terms of metadata elements or not support the same functions (Hider, 2012, p.47). While standardisation is needed to address this issue, it is somewhat idealistic given the varying purposes of different databases.

Hider (2012, p21-23) stressed the importance of a common standard to be adopted for describing information resources. Only with proper input standards would there be consistent output that makes information retrieval systems effective. Once common standards are in place for various information resources, the exchange of information with various information agencies internationally can be easily achieved. Adopting common standards will enable easy sharing and import of bibliographic data resulting in cost savings and time. This will eventually bring about overall service benefits provided by information centres especially those that cannot afford the services of an expert cataloguer. Hider (2012) shared that if universal bibliographic control can be successfully achieved every unique information resource need only be catalogued once and other libraries can pay for the record if needed. This ideal state would result in time-savings and greater information retrieval efficiency. By doing so, a Teacher Librarian’s time and expertise can be better spent collaborating with teachers to design resource-based and project-based lessons where students will apply information literacy and research skills taught. This supports Herring’s (2007), notion that a school library should be a centre of learning first and a centre for resources second.

Metadata is an essential consideration when discussing information organisation. It is important as it can support effective access to information. Metadata is simply the data that describes an information resource, it is data about data. It describes the nature and content of information and forms the elements that are used to find, locate and obtain it (Tech Terms, 2014). This usually takes the form of a structured set of elements that describe the information resource and assists in the identification, location and retrieval of it by users, while facilitating content and access management. Metadata is made up of a number of elements that can be categorised into the different functions they support. A metadata standard will normally support a number of defined functions, and will specify elements that make these possible.

While metadata may be useful for providing information about a single resource, it can also be useful for providing “an overview of a collection of resources by grouping like resources together (otherwise known as collocation), allowing users to navigate it” (Hider, 2012, p.7).

The consistency of metadata records enables the metadata to be used in different information retrieval systems, which enables it to be shared by a variety of information institutions. The sharing of metadata is made possible not only through standardisation of content, format and vocabulary but also through standardisation of transmission of this information according to standard protocols (Hider, 2012, p.93).

There are a large number of metadata standards that address the needs of a particular user or users. The Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules (AACR) was the main source of standards before Resource Access Description was implemented. It is organised in two parts: description (e.g. from general rules related to all resources such as how and what to describe to rules specific to particular types of material) and headings (e.g. choice of access points, headings for persons, geographic names, etc.) The International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD) was originally developed for catalogue cards but consolidated editions are still being published (e.g. 2011). It prescribes the elements for cataloguers to include in their description of library resources and stipulates how this description is to be presented (e.g. order, punctuation etc.) The most current and used set of standards is the Resource Access Description (RDA) which focuses on content (e.g. elements and their values). It accommodates ISBD-based descriptions as well as descriptions that might be schematic in nature (e.g. RDF/XML) which makes it more useful in the online world. It is more relevant to a variety of information agencies beyond the library sector as it is not limited to the ISBD elements (more broad). In essence RDA is a process that allows for the creation of metadata which meets users’ needs for data content and also facilitates machine manipulation of that data for searching and display. It utilizes the four user tasks of the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR) to present information in multiple forms to users in ways that are meaningful (National Library of Australia (NLA), 2014). While the average Teacher Librarian may not need to create metadata following such intricate cataloguing requires it is important that they have an understanding of how the RDA process works. This is of particular importance given the changing nature of information and how users access it.

The format standard can best be explained by looking at the MARC (Machine-Readable Cataloguing) system. Library catalogue records (metadata of information resources) were originally distributed in the form of library catalogue cards. Today, computerised systems have revolutionised this system by allowing the distribution of electronic records over the Internet. These files usually have a standardised format, MARC (Machine Readable Cataloguing). “The MARC format not only allows computer systems to import copies of catalogue records from other systems, it also indicates how the data in the records should be indexed and displayed, in other words, how the record should be processed, or ‘read’, by the computer system” (Hider, 2012, p.97). MARC is commonly used in the library domain and while other formats that make bibliographical data more interoperable exist, the cost in conversion to another format may see considerable data lost.

Transmission standards are required for the sharing of catalogue files as computers need to be able to not only process records such as MARC, but be able to receive it. Some users of bibliographic records will allow their computer to search for records, which may include searching several different online catalogues. As a result, many library management systems have applications designed for this purpose, applying a client-user-protocol. These are often configured by specialists who must consider how to make retrieval effective given the different ways in which databases can be searched and ways in which records can be indexed.

Therefore, along with user consideration, the application of information resource description standards is of particular importance. Oliver (2010, p. 6) argues metadata standards ensure interoperability, resource sharing, and seamless metadata exchange highlighting how standards help provide structure to information organisation and access. Witten & Bainbridge (2010, p. 329) suggest standards such as name authority control and subject authority control improve user experiences thereby linking standards to users and emphasising the importance of metadata to library systems.

While metadata and vocabularies are currently fundamental to our library systems, consideration must be given to the impact of future and changing technologies. While content-based retrieval and social metadata have appeal, the primary role of school libraries is to support school curriculum and, as Mitchell (2013) suggests, school users have specific literacy and maturity considerations. As Hider, (2012, p.188) argues, metadata schema such as RDA and vocabularies provide structures that support collection navigation and information seeking in ways that content-based retrieval and folksonomies cannot.

In conclusion, over the years there have been many advancements in the way information resources have been composed (now more digitised), described and organised. The need for agencies to organise these information resources is quite clear. Information agencies are there to support their users in information retrieval for varying reasons. Regardless of why a user is there, it is expected that they shall be able to find, identify, select and obtain a resource with ease and success. Organising such information entails several factors to support effective access to information. This relies on the quality of metadata, the application of standards and consideration of the end user is central to information resource description and ultimately, effective information access and retrieval. It also highlighted that to maintain relevance, school libraries must consider their information context and modify the systems and tools they utilise to best serve the needs of their users in providing effective access to information.

References

Herring, J. (2007). Teacher Librarians and the School Library. In S. Ferguson (Ed.) Libraries in the twenty-first century: charting new directions in information (pp.27-42).

Hider, P. (2012). Information resource description: Creating and managing metadata. London: Facet

Mitchell, P. (2013) The future of the school library catalogue. In Connections (87). Retrieved 7 October 2014, from http://www2.curriculum.edu.au/scis/connections/issue_87/articles/the_future_of_the_school_library_catalogue.html

National Library of Australia, (2014). Resource Description and Access. Retrieved from

http://www.nla.gov.au/acoc/resource-description-and-access-rda-in-australia

Oliver, C. (2010). Introducing RDA: A guide to the basics. Chicago: American Library Association. Retrieved Charles Sturt University website http://reader.eblib.com.ezproxy.csu.edu.au/(S(v0qmdssxqgrljvpntn1f132j))/Reader.aspx?p=675845&o=476&u=sa3s6x%2b4liO1HCmUZhGeKA%3d%3d&t=1408776351&h=5A5E92A424963CEE08267B9CC8F870B3D86CA36C&s=25775206&ut=1443&pg=21&r=img&c=-1&pat=n&cms=-1

Tech Terms (2014). Metadata Definition. Techterms.com. Retrieved from

http://www.techterms.com/definition/metadata

Witten, I.H, & Bainbridge, D. (2010). How to build a digital library. Burlington, MA: Morgan Kaufmann

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ETL 505 Assignment 1 Part B – RDA Toolkit

Instructions:

Use the RDA toolkit for descriptive cataloguing.

Using the RDA Toolkit create correct entries (access points and description) for three items. Use the format given in the Cataloguing Workbook in the Using RDA section of Module 3 (showing RDA Reference, RDA Element and Data Recorded). You should include all RDA elements for which information has been provided. Give the access points provided for by RDA, in their preferred form; also indicate the primary access point.

Please note that the people and organisations cited are fictional, so their names won’t appear in any authority file. You can assume the names are not shared by other people or organisations. Use only the information provided.

Item (1) Printed book

Title page:

from market to home: making the most of fresh organic produce

Mary Rose Moskin

photography by Taylor Severson

drawings by Judith Maas

RYCROFT SIFTON & TRENT

LONDON      NEW YORK

Verso of title page:

First published in the United Kingdom in 2012

by Rycroft Sifton & Trent

18–19 Smallway

London, England WC1R 4BW

Text © Mary Rose Moskin 2012

Design and illustrations

© Rycroft Sifton & Trent 2012

ISBN 978 1 36378 724 1

Other relevant information:

  • contains coloured photographs and black and white drawings
  • pages numbered 6 to 160
  • 5 cm high and 22.2 cm wide
  • in the series Rycroft recipes
  • includes index on page 160

Justification for primary access point chosen: 

6.27.1.2 Works Created by One Person, Family, or Corporate Body

If one person, family, or corporate body is responsible for creating the work construct the authorized access point representing the work by combining (in this order):

  1. a) the authorized access point representing that person family, or corporate body as applicable
  2. b) the preferred title for the work
Taken from discussion forum – Leonie Bourke FULL STAFF ACCESS MANAGER
RE: primary access pointsvs authorised access points – I think the primary access point is explained in your learning module. The main purpose is to facilitate shelf arrangement, so that for example the works of a particular author will shelve together.
RDA REF RDA ELEMENT DATA RECORDED
*2.3.2 Title Proper From Market to Home
2.3.4 Other Title Information Making the most of fresh organic produce
*2.4.2 Statement of responsibility relating to title proper Mary Rose Moskin
2.4.2 Statement of responsibility relating to title proper Design and illustrations by Rycroft Sifton and Trent
2.8.2 Place of Publication United Kingdom
2.8.4 Publisher’s name Rycroft Sifton and Trent
2.8.6 Date of publication 2012
2.11 Copyright date ©2012
2.15 Identifier for the manifestation ISBN 978 1 36378 724 1
6.9 Content type Text
3.4 Extent 160 pages
3.5 Dimensions 26.5 x 22.2cm
7.16 Supplementary content Includes index on page 160
7.15 Illustrative Content Photographs
7.17 Colour Content Colour
7.15 Illustrative Content Drawings
7.17 Colour Content Black and white
19.2 Creator Moskin, Mary Rose
18.5 Relationship designator Author
*20.2 Contributor Severson, Taylor
18.5 Relationship designator Photographer
*20.2 Contributor Maas, Judith
18.5 Relationship designator Illustrator
25.1 Related work Rycroft recipes
J2.4 Relationship designator In series (work)

Item (2) Streaming video

Title frame:

ROME: POWER AND CORRUPTION

EPISODE II: A CITY ON THE BRINK

Credits:

Presented by Ramona Wolf

Producer Rosso Bernardi

Music composed by Gian Bruni

Series director Richard Hart

A 360TV Ltd production for the National History Channel

© 360TV Ltd 2014

Supplier’s description:

A City on the Brink – Rome: Power and corruption

Description: The Romans have subjugated their nearest neighbours and are now determined to protect their powerful city state – but will Rome survive a prolonged and ferocious attack by the Gauls?

Rating PG

Duration (mins) 43:33

Other relevant information:

The video is in colour. It includes narration, interviews and background music. Some of the dialogue is in Italian, with English subtitles.

Justification for primary access point chosen: 

6.27.1.3 Moving image works. For motion pictures, videos, video games, etc., construct the authorized access point representing the work by using the preferred title for the work (see 6.2.2).

I would argue these two would be the primary access point due to the fact that it’s the title of the series, and therefore anyone following the series would search for this primarily to find the other episodes – including this one.

RDA REF RDA ELEMENT DATA RECORDED
*2.3.2 Title Proper Rome: Power and Corruption
*2.3.4 Other Title Information Episode II A City on the Brink
2.12.2 Title Proper of Series A City on the Brink
2.4.2 Statement of responsibility relating to title proper Producer Rosso Bernardi
2.4.2 Statement of responsibility relating to title proper Series director Richard Hart
2.8.2 Place of Publication Place of publication not identified
2.8.4 Publisher’s Name A 360TV Ltd production for the National History Channel
2.11 Copyright Date © 2014
3.2 Media Type Computer
6.2.2 Preferred Title for the Work Episode II
6.9 Content Type Two-dimensional moving image
7.7 Intended Audience PG
7.10 Summarising the content The Romans have subjugated their nearest neighbours and are now determined to protect their powerful city state – but will Rome survive a prolonged and ferocious attack by the Gauls?
7.12 Language of the content English. Some of the dialogue is in Italian, with English subtitles.
7.14 Accessibility content English subtitles
7.16 Supplementary Content Includes narration, interviews and background music
7.17 Colour Content Colour
7.18 Sound Content Sound
7.22.1.3 Duration 43:33 minutes
7.23 Performer, narrator, presenter Presented by Ramona Wolf
7.23 Performer, narrator, presenter Music by Gian Bruni
19.3.1 Other person, family, or corporate body associated with a work Bernardi, Rosso
18.5, I.2 Relationship designator Producer
19.3.1 Other person, family, or corporate body associated with a work Hart, Richard
18.5, I.2 Relationship designator Director
20.2 Contributor Wolf, Ramona
18.5, I.3 Relationship designator Presenter
*25.1 Related work A City on the Brink
J.2.4 Relationship designator In series (Work)

 

Item (3) eBook

Title page:

BARINGHUP PARK

the story of an historic home and garden in Victoria’s goldfields

ELIZABETH ELPHINSTONE

with contributions by Henry Chan, Joel Gates, Albert Muckleford and Harlow Reid

TESSELLATED PRESS

Copyright page:

Published in Australia by Tessellated Press

62 Regent Street

Somerton Park SA 5044

Australia

Tessellated Press is an imprint of Tessellated Resources Pty Ltd

ISBN 9781734290654 (eBook edition)

Copyright Goldfields Local History Society 2013

First eBook edition 2013

Table of contents:

Part 1: The colonial era

Part 2: Challenging times

Part 3: Post war prosperity

Part 4: Back to the future

Other relevant information:

  • In the series Australia’s historic homes and gardens
  • Includes endnotes, select bibliography and an index
  • Available in PDF and EPUB formats
  • Contains black and white photographs, portraits, maps and plans
  • The PDF has ten preliminary pages numbered from VII to X (the first six pages are unnumbered), followed by the main sequence of pages numbered from 1 to 350.

Justification for primary access point chosen: 

6.27.1.4 Compilations of Works by Different Persons, Families, or Corporate Bodies

  • If the work is a compilation of works by different persons, families, or corporate bodies, construct the authorized access point representing the work by using the preferred title for the compilation (see 2.2).
RDA REF RDA ELEMENT DATA RECORDED
*2.3.2 Title Proper Baringhup Park
2.3.4 Other Title Information The story of an historic home and garden in Victoria’s goldfields
2.4.2 Statement of responsibility relating to title proper Elizabeth Elphinstone
2.4.2 Statement of responsibility relating to title proper with contributions by Henry Chan, Joel Gates, Albert Muckleford and Harlow Reid
2.5.2 Designation of Edition First eBook edition 2013
2.8.2 Place of Publication Australia
2.8.4 Publisher’s Name Tessellated Press
2.8.6 Date of Publication 2013
2.11 Copyright Date Copyright Goldfields Local History Society ©2013
2.15 Identifier for the Manifestation ISBN 9781734290654 (eBook edition)
2.17 Note on Manifestation Tessellated Press is an imprint of Tessellated Resources Pty Ltd
3.2 Media Type Computer
3.3 Carrier Type Online resource
3.4 Extent 1 online resource, 6 unnumbered pages, VII to X, 350 pages
6.9 Content Type Text
7.16 Supplementary Content Includes endnotes, select bibliography and an index
7.16 Supplementary Content Part 1: The colonial eraPart 2: Challenging timesPart 3: Post war prosperityPart 4: Back to the future
7.15 Illustrative Content Photographs, portraits, maps and plans
7.17 Colour Content Black and white
19.2 Creator Elphinstone, Elizabeth
18.5 Relationship designator Author
20.2 Contributor Chan, Henry
18.5 Relationship designator Author
20.2 Contributor Gates, Joel
18.5 Relationship designator Author
20.2 Contributor Muckleford, Albert
18.5 Relationship designator Author
20.2 Contributor Reid, Harlow
18.5 Relationship designator Author
19.3 Other person, family or corporate body associated with a work Goldfields Local History Society
25.1 Related work Australia’s historic homes and gardens
J2.4 Relationship designator In series (work)