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EER 500 Assignment 1b: Construction and Analysis of Research Questions

The implementation and affect that technology integration in schools has had on the education system is the general focus of both draft research questions discussed in this paper, each stemming from practitioners currently working within this unique context.

Both original questions have been revised through an initial analysis of their structure and origins, under the heading “Evaluating the Research Questions”, followed by, under the heading “Evaluating the literature connections and practical importance”, further revisions based on evaluations of the individual statements made by each author in regard to the draft question’s connections to referenced literature. The potential for how each question could be of practical importance is referred to throughout these evaluations, and summarised in the paper’s conclusion.

Evaluating the Research Questions

There are four research questions being examined (due to the indecisive approach I have taken in Assignment 1a; which I hope to resolve by the end of this assignment) are “1. The twenty-first century’s technological advancements are revolutionising the way that society negotiates everyday life; education included. How has the integration of ICT changed the way we educate the students of today, and what is the education system doing to ensure that the advancements are parallel to the ongoing changes in society?” “2. There are a number of current issues and concerns relating to the integration of ICT into classrooms that have a high percentage of Indigenous students, as well as in classrooms belonging to schools of low socio-economic areas. What are some of the most pressing issues and how will it affect the students involved?” “3. Education has forever been an evolving entity, always seeking improvement and existing parallel to the norms of society. As such, teachers should be expected to evolve with the education system within which they teach, and thus be included in government budgets and expenditure for the purpose of updated training. What is being done to support the retraining of teachers, and even if teachers are being retrained, how equitable is ICT access within the school environment for its effective integration within the classroom?” (Waldron-Lamotte, November 28, 2014). Finally, the research question from my fellow colleague “How has the implementation of technology helped foster critical thinking within the classroom and preparedness for the future?” (Maclure, December 1, 2014).

From Marx’s list of the sources of research questions (as cited in Bryman, 2008, p. 70), all questions share a strong basis. They stem from essentially the same ideologies about how 21st century learners are accessing and enhancing their curriculum through the digital resources available to them. All questions share a second point (as required by EER500 Assignment1a guidelines), in being sourced from recent reports of personal interest (Moriarty, 2014, p. 4), using these to give focus to the research question.

Maclure’s question puts the focus specifically on fostering critical thinking through the implementation of technology, as suggested by the recent article (Simpson, A. 2009, p119-131). Maclure’s question recognises and responds to the concept that the 21st century learning environment is about readers that access multiple literacies. It involves students who create and share information and multimedia projects. Engagement is enhanced through online services and digital literacies where students connect with others. No longer is the teacher teaching students how to find information; but they are teaching their students how to evaluate and use the information they have personally sourced. However, the application of Bryman’s criteria for evaluating research questions, (2008, p.74), along with wider reading in this area, highlights possibilities for improvement of each research question.

McMillan and Wergin’s definition of educational research, encapsulating the idea that it should be about “the analysis of information (data), to answer a question or contribute to knowledge” (2010, p. 1), pin-points an area for improvement in Maclure’s question, which is its lack of clarity in providing clues as to the specific data to be collected to answer his question (Bryman, 2008, p. 74, McMillan & Wergin, 2010, p. 9). Without change, the question implies research of every existing classroom in not only Australia but also other countries.  Whichever sampling methodology was employed, non-random selection, inadequate sampling frame or non-response (Bryman, 2008, p. 169) would surely be only a few of the many problems encountered. To avoid the wording of the question as it stands bordering on the limits of abstraction which Bryman refers to (2008, p. 74), one simple change is to substitute the word “has” for the word “can”: “How can the implementation of technology help foster critical thinking…”. With this wording, the research could focus on one or more of those specific areas of technology implementation and its affect, which Maclure’s references would imply he suspects, or would like to discover, will indeed prove supportive. To further change the wording to specify this exact research area would of course be better yet: “How can the implementations of technology help foster critical thinking within current Australian classrooms….”

The issue of clarity arises again with Maclure’s question. Rather than giving a clear direction for research on processes which successfully allow students to be “prepared for the future”. It stipulates the question, what is meant by this statement? Maybe I am being over critical of the question being asked, but how measureable is “future preparedness”? It questions what Maclure’s idea of this concept means, as every view is certainly different. What I believe a student should be prepared for may be completely different to that of another reader. Therefore, Maclure needs to state exactly what he expects students to achieve in order to be prepared for their future. Perhaps the questions should state “How can the implementations of technology help foster critical thinking within current Australian classrooms in order to be successful citizens in our increasingly changing society?” While this is still broad, it is up to the author to stipulate what data he would like to evaluate and measure further.

The imperative recognition of how technology can be utilised effectively to enhance student’s learning outcomes has occupied this author’s thoughts for quite some time. Through further readings and exploring new perspectives, a modified question has emerged from the thinking around this paper. Based in an open-ended theoretical concern, as suggested by Matthews (as cited in Bryman, 2008, p. 74), also providing a broad framework which could be reformulated as data was collected (McMillan & Wergin, 2010, p. 10), has all resulted in the revised question for Waldron-Lamotte being: The integration of ICT has changed the way we educate the students of today. So what is the Australian education system’s responsibility, especially with the retraining of teachers, to ensure that educational advancements are parallel to the ongoing changes in society, and how equitable is ICT access within the school environment?”

 

Evaluating the literature connections and the practical importance

This author’s choice of Budde, P. (2011) paper has made clear links to the question and provides evidence to support the research.  For many years now, the in-school use of technology has been growing exponentially with many classes forgoing the use of chalkboards for interactive whiteboards and many more, if not most, making use of desktop computers for conducting in-class research, learning vital computer competencies for the twenty-first century, and to enhance student knowledge and understanding across a range of topics. There are also implications that accompany its implementation; such factors include accessibility, the age-old conflict of teaching old teachers new tricks, and the advancement of ICT in the future and where it may be heading in an educational context. All of these factors can affect the impact of ICT on students for better or for worse and therefore the retraining of teachers in the area of ICT is vital for effective teaching and learning in the 21st century classrooms. As Budde, P. (2011) suggests in his paper is that each student can, within the context of the education system, gain individualised education. The pace and the subjects studied will be set by the students, once again all within the context of the education system. It will be project-based and both students and teachers will greatly benefit from the new interactive, personalised educational material. Students can tap into knowledge and expertise from all over the world. We only have to look at developments such as Google and Wikipedia to see what this might lead to in an educational framework (pg.3). This supports the following section of my draft question: The integration of ICT has changed the way we educate the students of today. So what is the Australian education system’s responsibility, especially with the retraining of teachers, to ensure that educational advancements are parallel to the ongoing changes in society….” By exploring this notion of technology and individualised, digital education, it is moving away from the norms of teaching. Teachers now need to retrain in order to support this new aged style of teaching. What used to be blackboards and blackline masters is now a world of digital communication and information in today’s society.

This author’s choice of Peeraer, J. and Van Petegem, P. (2011) paper proves relevance to the the following section of the draft question, “…the retraining of teachers….” Peeraer and Van Petegem have identified steps being taken to effectively integrate ICT into the everyday operation of today’s classrooms. This paper highlights the many barriers that teachers are confronted with and need to overcome in order to successfully and effectively integrate ICT into the classroom. This analysis illuminates teacher educators’ access to ICT, their intensity of use, their related skills, and their confidence in using ICT, as well as their conceptions of learning (p.976). However, Peeraer and Van Petegem fail to support any other part of the research question.

Wallace, R. (2008) was utilised in order to address, and how equitable is ICT access within the school environment?”  This paper addresses a number of issues that will impact the education system as well as teaching and learning. It particularly focuses on Indigenous education and how it will be affected by the growth of technology in the classroom. Whilst my research question does not identify Indigenous Australians, it does make reference to equitable ICT access. For this to be a possibility in the education system, we need to address Australia as a whole. It is well-known that remote areas of Australia have limited resources due to their location. However, now with the implementation of ICT into the curriculum, Indigenous students can access a wide variety of resources and teachers can source new and engaging information and tools to help engage and promote education in these remote areas. Therefore this paper proves how equitable ICT access within the school environment really is. Wallace, R. (2008) further states that, “high quality ICT learning experiences require learners to be creative in using technology to develop and share their ideas. ICT is best used to connect to and to produce a range of knowledge and solve real life problems” (pg.4) which supports the question, the integration of ICT has changed the way we educate the students of today. So what is the Australian education system’s responsibility, especially with the retraining of teachers, to ensure that educational advancements are parallel to the ongoing changes in society….” Where this statement fails to make connections is exploring “how and what” the education system is doing and their responsibility in ensuring educational advancements.

Maclure’s statement (December 1, 2014) in regard to Simpson’s (2009) paper does make some clear connections, Simpson’s research analyses the affects of technology in critical literacy rather than critical thinking alone. The revised question therefore refrains from McMillan and Wergin’s suggested use of explicit “language that suggests the collection and analyses of data” (2010, p. 3), like “An investigation of the implementation of technology that fosters critical thinking skills in literacy…………”

Maclure’s statement in relation to Simpson’s 2009 paper is to be commended as it does make relevant links to identifying how effectively integrating ICT into everyday operations of today’s classrooms has been in the area of literacy development. Simpson can be said to have adequately and reliably investigated the case by analysing and conducting an experiment that produced relevant data to support Simpson’s research question. The paper therefore gives rise to and “validates”, to use Bryman’s terminology (2008, p. 32), the presumption inherent in both versions of this author’s research question, that technology integration merit is a given, and perhaps even an “independent variable” which does not need further verification (p. 32).

What is not clear from Maclure’s statement is the lack of connection between Simpson’s 2008 paper and the revised research question, “How can the implementations of technology help foster critical thinking within current Australian classrooms in order to be successful citizens in our increasingly changing society?” Not once does Simpson address how this report analyses the affects and growth that students formulate in order to prepare themselves for the future. Therefore Maclure has no evidence based research from this article to support his research question. Further readings will be needed in order for him to address this section of his research.

Maclure’s statement in relation to Budde, P. (2011) makes clear connections on how technology in the classroom will take shape as a learning tool. It also addresses how technology will meet the needs to the 21st century learner and as a result, how it will help them to prepare for the future and become successful citizens in our increasingly changing society (p.2). Budde, P. (2011) also suggests that as with any revolutionary development, one of the most critical issues will be to ensure that the education system is actually capable of leading this change. This will necessitate very significant professional development. Often a great deal of attention and money goes into the technology but very small resources, if any, are available to ensure that those who will have to make it work are equipped to implement and guide that process. Teachers and other educational staff will need significant support – without this, despite the enormous investment the government is making, the project could still fail (pg.2). This proves relevant to Maclure’s research as it engages with “How can the implementations of technology help foster critical thinking….” Without the necessary tools to support teachers, teachers cannot effectively promote and enhance critical thinking in student’s education through the use of technology. We first need to address how teachers will be supported and then focus on how students will gain further educational outcomes and become critical thinkers. It may be that Maclure assumes that within his research, teachers are already equipped with these tools.

Furthermore, by allowing the research question to stay broad, it allows further research and inquiry rather than narrowing the research. It might assist the research and give greater depth if the training and how teachers will be supported was addressed.

An evaluation of Maclure’s statement (December 1, 2014) in relation to all references would have to conclude he has opted for currency (2009) over relevancy to the topic. His draft research question specifies an interest in how the implementation of technology helps foster critical thinking within the classroom and prepares students for the future, and yet the limited research only targets one portion of the question. It is only when research is broadened (i.e. utilising the Budde, P. 2011 paper that I have sourced) does this research begin to take shape and address the whole question.

 

Conclusion

Throughout this process I have been critical (maybe too critical and over analytical) but I have also learnt a great deal about the way in which research questions are formulated. I have made the comparison often to my experiences as a primary classroom teacher when teaching my students how to write a procedure. I often preach to them throughout the process, ‘If it is not written, it is not known or explained’. Therefore when analysing and critiquing my colleagues work, I was quick to judge because I have only seen the start of his research and can only assume what will be written based on what his has shown so far.

In sum, educational research is a “systematic investigation, involving the analysis of information (data), to answer a question or contribute to our knowledge about an educational theory or practice. As systematic, disciplined inquiry, educational research relies on methods and principles that will produce credible and verifiable results” (McMillan, J. H., & Wergin, J. F. 2010, p. 1). This statement will help guide my research further as it will help shape and keep my research on track.

 

REFERENCES

Bryman, A. (2012). Social research methods (4th ed.). Oxford, UK: OUP.

Budde, P. (2011). Australia – Digital Economy – E-Education and E-Government. Bucketty: 1-13.

Maclure, I. (2014, December 1). Ian Maclure, December 1st 2014, Master of International Education (School Leadership)[Online wiki post]. Retrieved from http://interact.csu.edu.au/portal/site/EER500_201490_D_D/page/32b13bf2-4960-471d-0088-f9d7ab27273c

McMillan, J. H., & Wergin, J. F. (2010). Understanding and evaluating educational research (4th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Education.

Moriarty, B. (2014). EER500 – Introduction to Educational Research [EER500 201230 Subject Outline]. Retrieved from Charles Sturt University website: http://interact.csu.edu.au/portal/site/EER500_201490_D_D/page/ca5b4a32-050e-472e-001f-478a4cb93f8c

Peeraer, J. & Van Petegem, P. (2011). “ICT in teacher education in an emerging developing country: Vietnam’s baseline situation at the start of ‘The Year of ICT’.” Computers and Education 56(4): 974-982.

Simpson, A. (2009). Integrating technology with literacy: using teacher-guided collaborative online learning to encourage critical thinking. Research in Learning Technology , 18(2), 119-131.

Waldron-Lamotte, M. (2014, November 28). Melissa Waldron-Lamotte Masters of Education (Teacher Librarianship) 28/11/2014 [Online wiki post]. Retrieved from http://interact.csu.edu.au/portal/site/EER500_201490_D_D/page/32b13bf2-4960-471d-0088-f9d7ab27273c

Wallace, R. (2008). Engaging Remote and Very Remote Indigenous Students with Education using Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). Darwin, Charles Darwin University: 1-22. Retrieved from http://www.deewr.gov.au/Schooling/DigitalEducationRevolution/Documents/FinalICTReport.pdf

 

APPENDICES

APPENDIX 1 – Wiki Post

Melissa Waldron-Lamotte Masters of Education (Teacher Librarianship) 28/11/2014

Research Topic or Problem

The focus of my research is Information and Communications Technology (ICT), which has originated from my recent experience and exposure to ICT within schools over the course of my teaching career. To be more specific, my inquisitive proposal is parallel to the implementation of ICT into the classroom and school environment and the implications that accompany it. For many years now, the in-school use of technology has been growing exponentially with many classes forgoing the use of chalkboards for interactive whiteboards and many more, if not most, making use of desktop computers for conducting in-class research, learning vital computer competencies for the twenty-first century, and to enhance student knowledge and understanding across a range of topics. Within this subject, I have also decided to touch base with the many implications that accompany its implementation; such factors include its possible applications, accessibility, the barriers of socioeconomic status, cultural considerations for indigenous students, the age-old conflict of teaching old teachers new tricks, and the advancement of ICT in the future and where it may be heading in an educational context. All of these factors can affect the impact of ICT on students for better or for worse and I aim to bring these considerations into perspective through my research.

Draft Research Question

I have three possible questions that I would like to research:

  1. The twenty-first century’s technological advancements are revolutionising the way that society negotiates everyday life; education included. How has the integration of ICT changed the way we educate the students of today, and what is the education system doing to ensure that the advancements are parallel to the ongoing changes in society?
  2. There are a number of current issues and concerns relating to the integration of ICT into classrooms that have a high percentage of Indigenous students, as well as in classrooms belonging to schools of low socio-economic areas. What are some of the most pressing issues and how will it affect the students involved?
  3. Education has forever been an evolving entity, always seeking improvement and existing parallel to the norms of society. As such, teachers should be expected to evolve with the education system within which they teach, and thus be included in government budgets and expenditure for the purpose of updated training. What is being done to support the retraining of teachers, and even if teachers are being retrained, how equitable is ICT access within the school environment for its effective integration within the classroom?

From Literature to Research Question and Practical Importance

Budde, P. (2011). Australia – Digital Economy – E-Education and E-Government. Bucketty: 1-13.

Based on the analysis and critical reflection on this paper, The National Broadband Network’s (NBN) aims and objectives are to provide extensive resources and avenues in the area of ICT in the education sector. As such, the technological advancements that are promoted due to this scheme are greatly enhanced and reiterate that ICT is an inevitable transformation that we as educators will be exposed to. This paper clearly outlines how ICT in the classroom will take shape as a learning tool. As a tool, ICT is inevitably enhancing teaching and learning as it is addressing the demand of evolution in the 21st century and to meet the needs of the students who are being educated in it.

Peeraer, J. & Van Petegem, P. (2011). “ICT in teacher education in an emerging developing country: Vietnam’s baseline situation at the start of ‘The Year of ICT’.” Computers and Education 56(4): 974-982.

The critical analysis of this paper has enabled the investigation of the emerging development of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in education. With supporting evidence through thorough research, Peeraer and Van Petegem have identified steps being taken to effectively integrate ICT into everyday operations of today’s classrooms. This paper will be utilised to address two of my queries. It highlights the many barriers in which teachers are confronted with and need to overcome in order to successfully and effectively integrate ICT into the classroom. This analysis illuminates teacher educators’ access to ICT, their intensity of use, their related skills, and their confidence in using ICT, as well as their conceptions of learning. Peeraer and Van Petegem also question whether or not ICT improves classroom teaching and confronts the pedagogical issues that have evolved as a result of ICT. Finally this paper justly defines and addresses two of my key questions of concern and that is: What is being done to support the retraining of teachers? How has the integration of ICT changed the way we educate the students of today?

Wallace, R. (2008). Engaging Remote and Very Remote Indigenous Students with Education using Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). Darwin, Charles Darwin University: 1-22.

This paper addresses a number of issues that will impact the education system as well as teaching and learning. It particularly focuses on Indigenous education and how it will be affected by the growth of technology in the classroom. Wallace explicitly explores and investigates the current issues that exist around the use of ICT for students of low socio-economic living standards as well as remote areas. Through case studies and a series of action research projects the research team of Charles Darwin University has answered our questions and have further deepened my own understanding in relation to the concerns of integrating ICT into classrooms that have a high percentage of Indigenous students and low socio-economic areas. The team also identifies effective strategies and practices to use ICT and innovative online learning materials to engage remote and very remote Indigenous students with learning to support improved educational outcomes. This report is enriched with information and evidence that will enable my own research to be extensive and supported.

References

Budde, P. (2011). Australia – Digital Economy – E-Education and E-Government. Bucketty: 1-13.

Peeraer, J. & Van Petegem, P. (2011). “ICT in teacher education in an emerging developing country: Vietnam’s baseline situation at the start of ‘The Year of ICT’.” Computers and Education 56(4): 974-982.

Wallace, R. (2008). Engaging Remote and Very Remote Indigenous Students with Education using Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). Darwin, Charles Darwin University: 1-22. http://www.deewr.gov.au/Schooling/DigitalEducationRevolution/Documents/FinalICTReport.pdf

 

APPENDIX 2 – Wiki Post

Ian Maclure, December 1st 2014, Master of International Education (School Leadership)

Research Topic or Problem: ​The world has become very digitally advanced and we are currently in the midst of technological growth and innovation. As educators, we must ensure that we are providing our future generation with appropriate critical thinking skills, integrated with technology, in order for them to become competitive in the global market.

Draft Research Question: How has the implementation of technology helped foster critical thinking within the classroom and preparedness for the future? From Literature to Research Question and Practical Importance: A Vision for Learning & Teaching in a Digital Age, Ontario Public School Boards’ Association, Leading Education’s Advocates.

This paper provides information on learning and teaching in a digital age. This paper discusses both student, and teacher use of technology within the classroom. The information provided in the paper pertains to my draft research question, as it discusses the usage of technology and its relative importance for students. Since my draft research question begs the notion as to how technology has helped foster critical thinking within the classroom, this paper discusses that notion in detail and provides evidence of technology on authentic and meaningful student engagement.

The integration of critical thinking, with the implementation of technology examines ways in which the teacher will provide varied learning opportunities which will help the students to become more “reflective and collaborative learners.” This is where the critical thinking component comes into play. The paper discusses the various ways in which technology helps students to think critically. The paper also provides information on skills required for a digital age. The paper makes direct reference to critical thinking, communication and collaboration, all factors that are necessary when implementing technology.

This paper will be of practical importance since it is written by the Ontario Public School Board Association, therefore, when assessing the implementation of technology within the classroom, this source is important to consider due to its relevance. There has been a recent shift in many District School Boards to employ the use of technology within the classroom with a critical thinking focus.

Integrating technology with literacy: using teacher-guided collaborative online learning to encourage critical thinking.

This research article fits directly with the draft research question as it provides information on how literacy can be improved with the implementation of technology. This article examines in detail, a study undertaken in an Australian primary school. The author of the article has stated that the premise of the article is entwined with “research and good practice.” In regards to the integration of technology and critical thinking, this article provides details based on how students have become critically aware due to ICT (information and communication technology). This article provides information on COLC’s (Collaborative Online Learning Communities). COLC’s, according to the article provide appropriate and meaningful integration of technology, with literacy. This paper provides small scale research that fits into the draft research question. It examines how effective students are when they participated in COLC’s when learning. In order to evaluate how technology has improved critical thinking, this paper delves deeper by explaining the data which was collected over a six week period. The writer wanted to assess how students’ critical responses had improved due to journals, completed rap sheets and emails. The article helps to answer the draft research question in detail by providing the reader with authentic data assessment.

This article is essential for teachers when researching the draft research question in finding the direct correlation between the use of technology with critical thinking. It provides teachers with different approaches to implement within their classroom in order to build a COLC. This is of vital importance as the draft research question asks educators how they will prepare students with the appropriate skills for the future.

References: Ontario Public School Boards’ Association (no date provided). A Vision for Learning & Teaching in a Digital Age. Ontario Public School Boards’ Association, Ontario, Canada. http://www.opsba.org/files/OPSBA_AVisionForLearning.pdf

Simpson, A. (2009). Integrating technology with literacy: using teacher-guided collaborative online learning to encourage critical thinking. Research in Learning Technology , 18(2), 119-131.

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EER 500 Assignment 1a

Research Topic or Problem

The focus of my research is Information and Communications Technology (ICT), which has originated from my recent experience and exposure to ICT within schools over the course of my teaching career. To be more specific, my inquisitive proposal is parallel to the implementation of ICT into the classroom and school environment and the implications that accompany it. For many years now, the in-school use of technology has been growing exponentially with many classes

Image retrieved from: http://img.scoop.it/asPL1FxhbUddcmOvPgOR9Tl72eJkfbmt4t8yenImKBVvK0kTmF0xjctABnaLJIm9

forgoing the use of chalkboards for interactive whiteboards and many more, if not most, making use of desktop computers for conducting in-class research, learning vital computer competencies for the twenty-first century, and to enhance student knowledge and understanding across a range of topics. Within this subject, I have also decided to touch base with the many implications that accompany its implementation; such factors include its possible applications, accessibility, the barriers of socioeconomic status, cultural considerations for indigenous students, the age-old conflict of teaching old teachers new tricks, and the advancement of ICT in the future and where it may be heading in an educational context. All of these factors can affect the impact of ICT on students for better or for worse and I aim to bring these considerations into perspective through my research.

Draft Research Question

I have three possible questions that I would like to research:

  1. The twenty-first century’s technological advancements are revolutionising the way that society negotiates everyday life; education included. How has the integration of ICT changed the way we educate the students of today, and what is the education system doing to ensure that the advancements are parallel to the ongoing changes in society?
  2. There are a number of current issues and concerns relating to the integration of ICT into classrooms that have a high percentage of Indigenous students, as well as in classrooms belonging to schools of low socio-economic areas. What are some of the most pressing issues and how will it affect the students involved?
  3. Education has forever been an evolving entity, always seeking improvement and existing parallel to the norms of society. As such, teachers should be expected to evolve with the education system within which they teach, and thus be included in government budgets and expenditure for the purpose of updated training. What is being done to support the retraining of teachers, and even if teachers are being retrained, how equitable is ICT access within the school environment for its effective integration within the classroom?

From Literature to Research Question and Practical Importance

Budde, P. (2011). Australia – Digital Economy – E-Education and E-Government. Bucketty: 1-13.

Based on the analysis and critical reflection on this paper, The National Broadband Network’s (NBN) aims and objectives are to provide extensive resources and avenues in the area of ICT in the education sector. As such, the technological advancements that are promoted due to this scheme are greatly enhanced and reiterate that ICT is an inevitable transformation that we as educators will be exposed to. This paper clearly outlines how ICT in the classroom will take shape as a learning tool. As a tool, ICT is inevitably enhancing teaching and learning as it is addressing the demand of evolution in the 21st century and to meet the needs of the students who are being educated in it.

Peeraer, J. & Van Petegem, P. (2011). “ICT in teacher education in an emerging developing country: Vietnam’s baseline situation at the start of ‘The Year of ICT’.” Computers and Education 56(4): 974-982.

The critical analysis of this paper has enabled the investigation of the emerging development of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in education. With supporting evidence through thorough research, Peeraer and Van Petegem have identified steps being taken to effectively integrate ICT into everyday operations of today’s classrooms. This paper will be utilised to address two of my queries. It highlights the many barriers in which teachers are confronted with and need to overcome in order to successfully and effectively integrate ICT into the classroom. This analysis illuminates teacher educators’ access to ICT, their intensity of use, their related skills, and their confidence in using ICT, as well as their conceptions of learning. Peeraer and Van Petegem also question whether or not ICT improves classroom teaching and confronts the pedagogical issues that have evolved as a result of ICT. Finally this paper justly defines and addresses two of my key questions of concern and that is: What is being done to support the retraining of teachers? How has the integration of ICT changed the way we educate the students of today?

Wallace, R. (2008). Engaging Remote and Very Remote Indigenous Students with Education using Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). Darwin, Charles Darwin University: 1-22.

This paper addresses a number of issues that will impact the education system as well as teaching and learning. It particularly focuses on Indigenous education and how it will be affected by the growth of technology in the classroom. Wallace explicitly explores and investigates the current issues that exist around the use of ICT for students of low socio-economic living standards as well as remote areas. Through case studies and a series of action research projects the research team of Charles Darwin University has answered our questions and have further deepened my own understanding in relation to the concerns of integrating ICT into classrooms that have a high percentage of Indigenous students and low socio-economic areas. The team also identifies effective strategies and practices to use ICT and innovative online learning materials to engage remote and very remote Indigenous students with learning to support improved educational outcomes. This report is enriched with information and evidence that will enable my own research to be extensive and supported.

References

Budde, P. (2011). Australia – Digital Economy – E-Education and E-Government. Bucketty: 1-13.

Peeraer, J. & Van Petegem, P. (2011). “ICT in teacher education in an emerging developing country: Vietnam’s baseline situation at the start of ‘The Year of ICT’.” Computers and Education 56(4): 974-982.

Wallace, R. (2008). Engaging Remote and Very Remote Indigenous Students with Education using Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). Darwin, Charles Darwin University: 1-22.