Critical Reflection (10 marks) Continue reading
Entries in the schedules and tables are composed of a DDC number in the number column (the column at the left margin), a heading describing the class that the number represents, and often one or more notes. DDC numbers are listed in groups of three digits for ease of reading and copying. All entries (numbers, headings, and notes) should be read in the context of the hierarchy.
The first three digits of schedule numbers (main classes, divisions, sections) appear only once in the number column, when first used. They are repeated at the top of each page where their subdivisions continue. Subordinate numbers appear in the number column, beginning with a decimal point, with the initial three digits understood.
Table numbers are given in full in the number column of the tables, and are never used alone.
There are six numbered tables in DDC 23:
T1 Standard Subdivisions
T2 Geographic Areas, Historical Periods, Biography
T3 Subdivisions for the Arts, for Individual Literatures, for Specific Literary Forms
T3A Subdivisions for Works by or about Individual Authors
T3B Subdivisions for Works by or about More than One Author
T3C Notation to Be Added Where Instructed in Table 3B, 700.4, 791.4, 808–809
T4 Subdivisions of Individual Languages and Language Families
T5 Ethnic and National Groups
Except for notation from Table 1 (which may be added to any number unless there is an instruction in the schedules or tables to the contrary), table notation may be added only as instructed in the schedules and tables
Some numbers in the schedules and tables are enclosed in parentheses or square brackets.
Numbers and notes in parentheses provide options to standard practice. Numbers in square brackets represent topics that have been relocated or discontinued, or are unassigned. Square brackets are also used for standard subdivision concepts that are represented in another location. Bracketed numbers should never be used.
Standard subdivisions are also bracketed under a hook number, that is, a number that has no meaning in itself, but is used to introduce specific examples of a topic. Hook numbers have headings that begin with “Miscellaneous,” “Other,” or “Specific”; and do not contain add notes, including notes, or class-here notes. For example:
652.302 Specific levels of skill
[.302 01–.302 09] Standard subdivisions
Do not use; class in 652.3001–652.3009
The ten main classes are:
000 Computer science, information & general works
100 Philosophy & psychology
300 Social sciences
700 Arts & recreation
900 History & geography
Class 000 is the most general class, and is used for works not limited to any one specific discipline, e.g., encyclopedias, newspapers, general periodicals. This class is also used for certain specialized disciplines that deal with knowledge and information, e.g., computer science, library and information science, journalism. Each of the other main classes
(100–900) comprises a major discipline or group of related disciplines.
Class 100 covers philosophy, parapsychology and occultism, and psychology.
Class 200 is devoted to religion.
Class 300 covers the social sciences. Class 300 includes sociology, anthropology, statistics, political science, economics, law, public administration, social problems and services, education, commerce, communications, transportation, and customs.
Class 400 comprises language, linguistics, and specific languages. Literature, which is arranged by language, is found in 800.
Class 500 is devoted to the natural sciences and mathematics.
Class 600 is technology.
Class 700 covers the arts: art in general, fine and decorative arts, music, and the performing arts. Recreation, including sports and games, is also classed in 700.
Class 800 covers literature, and includes rhetoric, prose, poetry, drama, etc. Folk literature is classed with customs in 300.
Class 900 is devoted primarily to history and geography. A history of a specific subject is classed with the subject.
Since the parts of the DDC are arranged by discipline, not subject, a subject may appear in more than one class. For example, “clothing” has aspects that fall under several disciplines. The psychological influence of clothing belongs in 155.95 as part of the discipline of psychology; customs associated with clothing belong in 391 as part of the discipline of customs; and clothing in the sense of fashion design belongs in 746.92 as part of the discipline of the arts.
Arabic numerals are used to represent each class in the DDC. The first digit in each three-digit number represents the main class. For example, 500 represents science. The second digit in each three-digit number indicates the division. For example, 500 is used for general works on the sciences, 510 for mathematics, 520 for astronomy, 530 for physics. The third digit in each three-digit number indicates the section. Thus, 530 is used for general works on physics, 531 for classical mechanics, 532 for fluid mechanics, 533 for gas mechanics. The DDC uses the convention that no number should have fewer than three digits; zeros are used to fill out numbers.
A decimal point, or dot, follows the third digit in a class number, after which division by ten continues to the specific degree of classification needed. The dot is not a decimal point in the mathematical sense, but a psychological pause to break the monotony of numerical digits and to ease the transcription and copying of the class number. A number should never end in a 0 anywhere to the right of the decimal point.
Notational hierarchy is expressed by length of notation. Numbers at any given level are usually subordinate to a class whose notation is one digit shorter; coordinate with a class whose notation has the same number of significant digits; and superordinate to a class with numbers one or more digits longer. The underlined digits in the following example demonstrate this notational hierarchy:
600 Technology (Applied sciences)
630 Agriculture and related technologies
636 Animal husbandry
“Dogs” and “Cats” are more specific than (i.e., are subordinate to) “Animal husbandry”; they are equally specific as (i.e., are coordinate with) each other; and “Animal husbandry” is less specific than (i.e., is superordinate to) “Dogs” and “Cats.”
Classifying with DDC
The guiding principle of the DDC is that a work is classed in the discipline for which it is intended, rather than the discipline from which the work derives. This enables works that are used together to be found together. For example, a general work by a zoologist on agricultural pest control should be classed in agriculture, not zoology, along with other works on agricultural pest control.
The First-of-Two Rule
If two subjects receive equal treatment, and are not used to introduce or explain one another, class the work with the subject whose number comes first in the DDC schedules. This is called the first-of-two rule. For example, a history dealing equally with the United States and Japan, in which the United States is discussed first and is given first in the title, is classed with the history of Japan because 952 Japan precedes 973 United States.
Sometimes, specific instructions are given to use numbers that do not come first in the schedules. For example, at 598, the note “class comprehensive works on warm-blooded vertebrates in 599” tells the classifier to ignore the first-of-two rule and class a work on birds (598) and mammals (599) in 599, which is the comprehensive number for warm-blooded vertebrates.
Also disregard the first-of-two rule when the two topics are the two major subdivisions of a subject. For example, collection systems (628.142) and distribution systems (628.144) taken together constitute 628.14 Collection and distribution systems. Works covering both of these topics are classed in 628.14 (not 628.142).
Classification and School Libraries
- Systematic arrangement
- Support browsing, filtering and retrieval of bibliographic information in online systems but not often used for this
- Classification codes are a form of controlled indexing language
- Classification process similar to subject vocabulary indexing, Classifier must consider what it’s about and label the concept
- Language instead is notation -numerical/alphanumerical symbols
- Classification codes are even more unfamiliar to users than controlled languages
- Another difference is that classifiers typically try to describe the subject of an information resource using one classification
- Classification codes can express more complex subjects than most alphabetic indexing languages
- Similarity between classification schemes and pre-coordinated indexing languages (eg. subject headings lists)
- Detailed subject description useful in matching user need
- Classification codes though for the library specialist!
Classification as a Locating Device
- For locating purposes of specific works and to group like together
- Purpose of collection affecting method of classification
- Predominantly grouped by subjects
- Different types of arrangement are frequently used in conjunction with subject; fiction – author; genre; series; format
- Other classifications: by language; format; rarity; sensitive/offensive material; special subject collections; special collections (eg. material requested to be kept together)
- Libraries concerned with providing information hence subject arrangement helps
- If based on already known items title and author would make sense
Is Classification Helpful?
- In classifying thoroughly using dewey some items are grouped together but others moved apart
- If searching for something else, resources could be scattered everywhere over the shelves!
- Hence the catalogue is of importance in considering limits of the shelf arrangement
Choosing a Classification Scheme
- Determined by which ones are available on a bibliographic/cataloguing network (eg. SCIS)
- Dewey Decimal Classification usually but large academic libraries sometimes the Library of Congress Classification
- Advantages: kept up to date; familiar world-wide; easily accessible and workable through MARC, cataloguing services, etc.; history of working!
- Universal Decimal Classification more specific (scientific and technical subjects)
- Specialist subject libraries may used specialist classifications
- So too formats (maps and atlases Boggs and Lewis)
Dewey Decimal Classification
- Advantages: include has organisational support; is regularly revised; full and abridged editions
- Disadvantages of cultural bias; some sections crowded (eg. technology); base 10 limits concepts expressed; long notation
- Discipline (fields of study) based therefore, subject might appear in a number of classes in the scheme depending on context
- 10 classes – 10 divisions each class – 10 sections each division
- First digit in three the class, second the division, and third the section
- Never 0 in ending a number on the right of the decimal point
- Applying DDC requires determining subject, disciplinary focus, perhaps approach or form
- Author’s intent when considering subject
- Classed in discipline of intention rather than discipline from which derived
- Class – subject being acted upon
- The increasingly availability of DDC classification numbers for resources = new emphasis from creating a classification number to ensuring that the classification number assigned fits the classification needs, standards and practices of the library
- DDC tablesTable 1 Standard SubdivisionsTable 2 Geographic Areas, Historical Periods, Biography
Table 3A-C Subdivisions for Arts, for Individual
Literatures, for Specific Literary Forms
Table 4 Subdivisions of Individual Languages and
Table 5 Ethnic and National Groups
Table 6 Languages
Hints from annotated powerpoint
- Home tab top right in starting over a new search re. WebDewey
- Book icon signals reference to the manual
- puzzle piece means it is already a built number
- Be thorough with number bulding or you might miss something!
- Make sure you refer to the notes
- Can use truncation, boolean search techniques, and masking (ie. ? or # e.g. wom?n; col#r) with WebDewey Advanced Search but not with Browsing
- Browse to see if a term exists or to find alternative terms
- Browse useful in combination with the relative index
- Decisions about the use of table depending on the format, language, and subject treatment of your item
- Table 1 will examine format of your resource (standard subdivisions)
- If you cant find a built number to fit your item, you will need to build it yourself by using the search function, relative index, and then reading the notes
DDC and School Libraries
- Since the 1980s SCIS continues to adopt and apply the two current editions of Dewey Decimal Classification as its classification tools for Australian and New Zealand school libraries
- The two editions used are the full edition (DDC23/WebDewey 2.0) and the abridged edition (ADDC15/Abridged WebDewey)
- By providing classification numbers from both the full and abridged choice based on need is recognised
- Most primary/elementary school libraries use the abridged version as do many secondary school libraries ( abridged version is rarely used outside school libraries actually)
- SCIS makes adaptions and amendments to the Dewey Decimal Classification to make it more suitable to the needs of school libraries. These changes are given in SCIS standards for cataloguing and data entry, Section 3, Classification
DDC and SCIS Standards
- SCIS has chosen to make specific rulings on the use of DDC tools and certain local adaptations to them, in order to make them more appropriate to the particular needs of Australian and New Zealand school libraries
- SCIS decisions on and adaptations to both editions of DDC are documented in SCIS standards for cataloguing and data entry, Section 3, Classification
- Structured as an introduction (3:C), general principles (3:D) and specific decisions on how SCIS interprets and adapts DDC (3:E)
- Be wary. Some statements of principle, or policy, are given in 3:C while 3:D contains some specific decisions
- Classifier needs to have a good knowledge of all three parts
- SCIS records shouid include 2 numbers (except for fiction) – one from ADDC15 and one from DDC23
- “cataloguing decisions are more significant than classification for information retrieval purposes” – hmmmmmmm. Is not the primary purpose of cataloguing to aid information retrieval?
- “If access via the alphabetical catalogues can be assured, then fine subdivisions of Dewey classes or ingenious shelving devices are not especially valuable ways of linking related materials” more hmmmmmmmmmmmmm
- Call numbers in the database and SCIS products do not include prefixes or location symbols
- The policy is to class fiction, regardless of language, as ‘F’
- LOTE materials treated in the same way as materials in English
- In shelving LOTE materials in separate sequences, libraries need to supply their own prefixes or location symbols
- 3:C4 and 3:C6 bypass 3:D leading directly to 3:E – significant policies to be aware of
- Purpose of system policy is to reduce the diversity in order to promote consistent practice
- For effectiveness the appropriateness of a given number should always be checked upward through each succeeding level of the hierarchy
- SCIS Standards limit the number-building allowed by DDC23 and ADDC15
- Full edition 9 digits with 6 after the decimal point
- Cataloguers will always test the adequacy of a seven (ADDC15) – or nine-digit number before proceeding further
- When adding from Table 2 in classes other than history and geography, add only the notation from the country and not its state or regional subdivisions, for all countries except Australia and New Zealand
- Using T2 avoid adding one area notation to another following instructions such as ‘Add notation 3–9; then … add 0 and to the result add notation 3–9 …’, unless a special decision to do so is recorded in 3:E
- Using T3 ignore all instructions to add from Table 3-C. This supplementary table is used for reference purposes only
- T4 cataloguers will limit expansion by ignoring all instructions given in Table 4: Subdivisions of Individual Languages to ‘Add to [Table 4] notation 1–9 (or 2–9) from Table 6’
- T5/T6 no special limiting rules
- T1 Cataloguers will follow carefully the guidelines set out in section 8.3-8.10 of the Introduction and the interpretations and instructions given in the Manual
- Avoid using T1–09 + T2 notation where the base number is already seven digits
Assignment 2 Part B Dewey Decimal Classification Exercises
(20 Marks, 2 marks per item)
These ten items can be found in the SCIS catalogue (SCIS OPAC) and thus, school libraries around Australia and New Zealand that use these resources. The title of each item, its ISBN, and the SCIS Call Number (DDC 22 or 23) are given below. On each catalogue record, locate the full (not abridged) classification number assigned using DDC23 (or DDC22) and section 3, Classification, of SCIS Standards for Cataloguing and Data Entry. Label each level of the number. Determine how the SCIS call number was created by using WebDewey to identify the classification number that DDC would have assigned (drawing on the information given on, and with, the catalogue record, including the subject headings, to determine what the work is about) and then using the SCIS standards, section 3, Classification to see how that number was adapted (or note) by SCIS. It will also be helpful to note and/or consider what number Trove would assign to the resource so you can identify the important rules and nuances followed by SCIS to create the entire call number. Write up the process. Carefully read the marking criteria for this section as well.
(Approximately 100 words per item.)
Provide a reference list of tools used and works consulted in one list for all at the end of the assignment.
Trailblazers : The Road to Equality
SCIS Call Number: 305.42092 OSU (DDC 22)
302 – 307 – Specific topics in sociology and anthropology
305 – Groups of people
305.4 – Women
305.42 – Social role and status of women
305.4209 – Feminism–history
305.42092 – Feminists–biography
This work is made up of biographies about legendary women of Australia who were a critical influence on women’s social reform. Trove states the call number for this item as 305.42 as opposed to SCIS which has added a T1 092 – biography which confirms ‘Class here treatment of individuals‘. This is an appropriate addition as stated before, this work is compiled of four individual biographies, each as important as the other. Therefore SCIS has referred tot he standards set out in 3:E18, where a collected biography about a number of persons should be classed within the period of history in which they belong as the base number and then the subdivision 0922 should be notated from table one (Education Services Australia, 2013).
Sense, Shape, Symbol : An Investigation of Australian Poetry
SCIS Call Number: A821.009 SEN (DDC 23)
821 – 828 – Subdivisions for specific forms of English literature
821 – English poetry
821.009 – English poetry–history and criticism
This item is about the important influence in the development of Australian poetry that five poets played. Trove assigned the dewey number 808.1 – Rhetoric of poetry. This however would lead to a far broader range of resources and is therefore not specific nor suitable for this item which is Australian based. Therefore according to the SCIS standards at 3:E17, “use A820–828 for English-language literature of Australia” (Education Services Australia, 2013, p.3-33). Though in webdewey it does build the number to be 821.00994 – English & Old English literatures–poetry—Australia. However, the A used in conjunction with the SCIS standards applies this addition without having to longate the call number.
Johnny Cash : I See a Darkness
SCIS Call Number: 782.421642 KLE (DDC 22)
782 – Vocal Music
782.1 – 782.4 – Vocal forms
782.4 – Secular forms
782.42 – Songs
782.42164 – Western popular songs
782.421642 – Country and western music–songs
Trove has assigned the dewey number 782.421642092 as …092 would make reference to a biography. SCIS however has omitted this as the resource itself is not a biography in its entirety, it only makes references. At SCIS standard 3:E2, graphic fiction is considered a special format. The editor’s recommendation at 741.5 aren’t followed because the SCIS standards state that it should only be used for graphic fiction that form a narrative, which this clearly does not so therefore would be classed in its genre of music/art.
Nyoongar Dictionary : A List of Nyoongar Words of the South-West of Western Australia with Special Emphasis on the Mode of Language Commonly Used in the North-Eastern (Yued/Yuat) Area
SCIS Call Number: 499.15 ROO
499/ – Non-Austronesian languages of Oceania, Austronesian languages, miscellaneous languages
499/.1 – Awbono language, . . .
499/.15 Aboriginal Australian languages
SCIS policy at 3:E6 is to class all bilingual dictionaries where English is one of the languages, with the other language. The SCIS standards at 3:E13 states ‘499.15 p. 983. Add to the base number notation 01–08 from Table 4’ (Education Services Australia, 2013, p.3-27). Trove has allocated T1 –03 at the end of the call number to label the resource dictionaries, encyclopedias, concordances. However is accordance with the SCIS instruction at table 4, T4 – 03 Encyclopedias and concordances would be applied, thought there is obviously not much variation between the two. However the SCIS call number has omitted this subdivision. It can be assumed that they did this with reference tot he standards laid out in 3:D4, appropriateness: useful and sensible grouping. Clearly SCIS did not deem it to be appropriate to add the subdivision that Trove has. It should also be noted that, „Standard subdivisions should not be used where redundant, i.e., where the subdivision means the same as the base number” (OCLC, 2015).
Making Sense: Small-group Comprehension Lessons for English Language Learners
SCIS Call Number: 428.24071 KEN (DEC 22)
421 – 428 – Subdivisions of English
428 – Standard English usage (Prescriptive linguistics)
428.2 – English language–grammar–prescriptive approach, . . .
428.2/4 – English as a second language–applied linguistics–formal approach
428.2/4 – English & Old English languages–structural approach to expression for people whose native language is different
428.2/4071 – English & Old English languages–structural approach to expression for people whose native language is different–education
The primary subject within this resource is education and how to best teach English learners. Class comprehensive works on education and research in T1 – 071. The SCIS classification has been built in accordance with the principle of hierarchy (Education Services Australia, 2013, p.3-6).
Food Lover’s Guide to the World: Experience the Great Global Cuisines
SCIS Call Number: 641.3 FOO (DEC 23)
641 – Food and drink
641.3 – Food
Trove has allocated the dewey number 910.202 for this resource as opposed to SCIS allocation of 641.3. The dewey number 910.202 assigned by Trove is subject to world travel guides only with no reference to food, yet as SCIS has clearly noted, the contents of the resource is entirely about food from around the world, it makes reference to food lover’s guide to the world. Therefore SCIS has assigned the dewey number 641.3 appropriately in relation to the subject headings this resource has been allotted. This dewey number confirms that notational hierarchy has been considered, ‘food’ is subordinate to ‘food and drink’ as it is more specific (OCLC, 2015, 4.19).
Filipino Celebrations: A Treasury of Feasts and Festivals
SCIS Call Number: 394.269599 ROM
394 – General customs
394.2 – Special occasions
394.26 – Holidays
394.269 – History, geographic treatment, biography
394.269599 – History, geographic treatment, biography–Philippines
Both Trove and SCIS agree on this dewey number. This resource is for young children to teach them through illustrations and age appropriate information about the traditions, celebrations and customs in the Phillippines. As set out by the SCIS standards at 3:D4, T2, 599 ‘Phillipines’ has been added, as cataloguers will only add the notation from the country (Education Services Australia, 2013, p.3-7). This SCIS number is also within the appropriate number limit of 9 digits.
The World of Angry Birds: Official Guide
SCIS Call Number: 793.932 SCO (DEC 22)
793 – Indoor games and amusements
793.9 – Other indoor diversions
793.93 – Adventure games
793.93/2 – Computer adventure games
Trove has assigned the dewey number 794.8, Electronic games which broadens the search inquiry. SCIS has narrowed the call number to be more specific the dewey number allocated by SCIS is deemed more appropriate, (as seen in 3:D4 of the SCIS standards) computer adventure games, when considering the subject headings assigned.
Earth’s Hottest Place : And Other Earth Science Records
SCIS Call Number: 550 RUS (DEC 23)
550 – Earth Sciences & Geology
550 – Earth Sciences
This resource is all about the Earth, what’s in it, on it etc. SCIS has used caution when creating this call number and has done so by considering the appropriateness and table 2 number reduction at standards 3:D4 (Education Services Australia, 2013). SCIS has followed the first and second principle of useful and sensible grouping when considering the dewey number for this resource. There is no need to add an additional subdivision as the base number itself is sufficient at defining the material that aligns appropriately with the subject headings given.
Owen & Mzee : the true story of a remarkable friendship
SCIS Call Number: 599.635139 HAT (DEC 22)
592 – 599 – Specific taxonomic groups of animals
599 – *Mammalia (Mammals)
599.3 – 599.9 – Eutheria (Placental mammals)
599.6 – *Ungulates
599.63 – *Artiodactyla (Even-toed ungulates)
599.63/5 – *Hippopotamidae (Hippopotamuses)
599.63/5139 – Hippopotamidae (Hippopotamuses)–general topics of natural history of animals–age characteristics
There is no variation between SCIS and Trove in the decision for this dewey number. This resource is clearly subject to notational hierarchy (OCLC, 2015). “Artiodactyla ” and ” Hippopotamidae ” are more specific than (i.e., are subordinate to) ” Mammalia (Mammals)”; they are equally specific as (i.e., are coordinate with) each other; and ” Mammalia (Mammals)” is less specific than (i.e., is superordinate to) “Artiodactyla ” and ” Hippopotamidae ” (OCLC, 2015).
Education Services Australia, (2013). SCIS Standards for Cataloguing and Data Entry. Retrieved from https://interact2.csu.edu.au/bbcswebdav/pid-555090-dt-content-rid-1236121_1/courses/S-ETL505_201560_W_D/SCIS%2BStandards%2Bfor%2BCatloguing%2Band%2BData%2BEntry.pdf
OCLC,. (2015). Introduction to Dewey Decimal Classification. Retrieved from https://www.oclc.org/content/dam/oclc/dewey/versions/ddc22print/intro.pdf
Assignment Part A SCIS Subject Heading Exercises
(20 marks, 4 marks/item)
Using the following tools:
- SCIS Subject Headings
- SCIS Standards for Cataloguing and Data Entry, Section 4 and Appendix A
- SCIS Catalogue
- Guidelines to using SCIS Subject Headings
To assign SCIS standard subject headings for the following five topics. Write the subject headings as they would appear on bibliographic records in the SCIS Catalogue (except there is no need to underline your subject headings, to add ‘scisshl,’ at the end of the headings, or to include ‘scot’ headings). Clearly describe the decisions made and process followed in determining/deriving each of the subject headings. Why did you make these decisions? Give evidence and support for your answersCarefully read the marking criteria for this section as well.
(Approximately 200 words per item.)
Provide a reference list of tools used and works consulted in one list for all at the end of the assignment.
A history of foreign language radio broadcasts on the Wagga Wagga community radio station 2AAAFM. A significant theme in this work is the use made of the broadcasts in language classes in local schools.
2AAAFM (Radio station: Wagga Wagga, N.S.W.) – History
There are no notes at the heading ‘Radio stations’ in SCIS Subject Headings however, Part 6.1 in SCIS, 2011 indicates that proper names can be created ‘without an instruction to do so’. The proper name is 2AAAFM.
Part 22.214.171.124 in SCIS 2015 indicates that qualifiers are frequently used for many proper names. Appendix A in SCIS Standards for Cataloguing and Data Entry gives the appropriate form for the qualifier for a named radio station.
Radio in Education
The term radio broadcasts is a non-allowed term, as per SCIS, 2011, each non-allowed term or phrase has a reciprocal USE reference directing the user to the allowed heading. Non-allowed terms with USE references are not shown in bold typeface. The USE reference for radio broadcasts directs users to the allowed term Radio in Education. The scope note for this term confirms that this subject heading is allocated to works on the use of radio as a teaching method such as this.
Local – History
This resource indicates that a significant theme is its use in local schools. Therefore the scope note for this subject heading confirms that it can be used for works on the collection and storage of local history materials – being how local schools used these broadcasts.
Wagga Wagga, (N.S.W) – History
According to SEN at SCHISSH Local – History, as well as Section 5.3 (SCIS, 2015), in assigning subject headings referring to place, the most specific names of cities and towns is to be used with the subdivision History.
A book of photographs depicting Australia’s military involvement in the war in Iraq in 2003.
The main subject within this resource is the Australian military. The BT at SCISSH confirms that the subject heading ‘Australia. Army-History’ is to be used as the main subject heading, however the broader term recognised is ‘Australia – History, Military’.
The UF at SCISSH confirms that the subject heading ‘War Photography’ is used for ‘ Military Photography’.
Iraq War, 2003-2010
The IN for this subject heading as per SCISSH confirms that it may be subdivided like World War, 1939-1945. Even though the book of photography only focuses on the year 2003, as per the guidelines (SCIS, 2011) in section 6.5.4 ‘Period Subdivisions’, it states that ‘SCIS is guided by the broad period spans found in the history schedules of Dewey Decimal Classification and Relative Index’.
A collection of sayings, on the themes of love, courtship and marriage, drawn from the novels of Jane Austen. An example of one such saying is, “It is truth universally acknowledged, that a single man in possession of good fortune, must be in want of a wife.”
The UF term at SCISSH confirms that this subject heading may be used for collections containing extracts, just like this resource. The narrower terms also identifies quotations and romances, both of which are highlighted in the resource description.
Jane Austen is typically known for her romantic love stories. Therefore this genre heading is suitable to assign, particularly as this resource has themes of love, courtship and marriage. The scope note for this genre heading states that it is to be used for works of fiction including fictional films which are primarily about romantic love. Works in the genre include…Austen, Jane.
Austen, Jane – Adaptations
Section 6.6 SCIS, 2011 notes that model headings enable similar headings to have the same set of subdivisons applied where necessary. Example, Shakespeare, William has several subdivisions attached to enable an efficient search by users. Therefore the above subject heading assigned, as per section 6.6 may be devised by the cataloguer if needed. Adaptations is appropriate here as it can be used for extracts and paraphrases as well, which then can be used for quotations.
Gone missing! (title). A picture book in which the fictional story is told through a series of pictorial puzzles. The story is set in Dunedin in New Zealand where the Australian Rugby Union team has gone missing before a game against the New Zealand All Blacks. Dick Tracy, the famous fictional detective, teams up with the New Zealand police to solve the mystery and get the Australian team to the match on time. The Book won the Sports World Award for Fiction for Boys.
Dunedin, (NZ) – History
This story is set in Dunedin, a town in New Zealand. According to SEN at SCHISSH Local – History, as well as Section 5.3 (SCIS, 2015), in assigning subject headings referring to place, the most specific names of cities and towns is to be used with the subdivision History.
Rugby Union – Fiction
As per SCIS, 2015 section 5.5, ‘Themes in Fiction’ confirms that the Australian Rugby Union team is a specific theme that is entitled to be identified as a subject heading.
The scope note for this subject heading confirms that it is to be used for fiction and non-fiction where the theme or subject matter is communicated primarily by pictures.
Illustration of books
With reference to ‘pictorial puzzles’, according to this scope note, this would be classed as a technique and therefore would be assigned under ‘Illustration of books’.
Sports World Award for Fiction for Boys
Under section 5.6 ‘Literary prizes’ SCIS 2011, resources that have won a literary prize are assigned the name of that prize as a subject heading.
Wallabies (Rugby Union Team) – Fiction
Under section 6 in the SCIS guidelines, headings that may be devised by the cataloguer consist of:
- proper names, for example names of individuals, peoples, places, organisations and projects
- common names belonging to well-known categories including sport, food, animals, chemicals, plants and vehicles.
Therefore, Wallabies has been assigned as a subject heading for this resource as it aligns with this. However, it also needs a qualifier as wallabies could also be noted as the animal, which in this case it isn’t.
New Zealand All Blacks (Rugby Union Team) – Fiction
‘Headings for proper names may be devised whenever appropriate, without an instruction to do so’ (SCIS, 2011) in section 6.1. Therefore New Zealand All Blacks would be assigned as it is an association such as a club or society. The long dash indicates a subdivision, ‘Fiction’ is the pertinent standard subdivision as confirmed by the specific example note at the heading ‘Fiction’ which indicates that this term can be used as a subdivision ‘to give access to topics within works of fiction’. Again a qualifier would need to be used to specify what team it is in reference to as New Zealand has many sporting teams named All Blacks.
Whilst the overview of this resource highlights the name of the famous fictional detective, Dick Tracy, it is current SCIS policy not to assign headings for fictional characters in works of fiction as stated in section 5.2 of SCIS 2015.
A biography of Annie Gunn, the first love of John Curtin who later became prime minster of Australia. The work examines the possible long term impact on John Curtin of Annie Gunn’s untimely death.
Gunn, Annie – Biography
Annie Gunn is the primary subject of this resource and therefore this subject heading is instinctively assigned. As per SEN at SCISSH biography, the individual who is the subject of the work is assigned an additional heading with their name.
Australia – Prime Ministers
SEN at SCISSH states that the subdivision Prime ministers under names of countries.
According to SEN at SCISSH Australia – Prime ministers, see also names of individual Prime ministers.
Australian Labor Party
I have included this heading as John Curtin was the leader of this party, and because the resource examines the possible long term impact on him due to Annie Gunn’s untimely death, this would have inevitably impacted the way the Labor party and Australia was governed during this time.
SCIS. (2011). Overview and principles of SCIS Subject Headings. Education Services Australia. Retrieved from http://www2.curriculum.edu.au/verve/_resources/Overview.pdf
SCIS. (2015). Guidelines to Using SCIS Subject Headings. Education Services Australia. Retrieved from http://www2.curriculum.edu.au/verve/_resources/SCISSHguidelines.pdf
- Info seekers search info based on subject
- Controlled subject vocabs are standardised vocab that are applied to the subject value metadata so that resources on a particular subject are grouped together enabling a more efficient search/info retrieval.
- Hider 2012 – “The aim is for each concept to be represented by one, and only one, particular term, and for each term to mean only one particular concept” (p.152).
- Difficult when subject term allocation is open to interpretation and sometimes difficult to identify.
- Some resources may also have sub-topics (more than one topic). E.g. Australian History – so do you have ‘Australian History’ or have 2 separate headings, ‘Australia’ and ‘History’?
- Boolean searching – terms are combined with ‘and’, ‘or’ and ‘not’ operators meaning less precision is needed for searching but the results are likely to be less precise than if terms were pre-coordinated vocab strings.
Main Types of Controlled Vocabulary used by Information Agencies
1. Subject Headings Lists
- Had origins at time of card catalogues where patrons could look under subject headings for relevant records
- When these cards were copied and distributed, common or controlled subject vocabularies became the norm
- Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) is one of the most widely utilised in English-speaking libraries
- Now used as access points for users conducting subject searches in bibliographic databases and online catalogues
- LCSH provides for pre-ordination and the order of the subdivisions in each string is fixed
- Strings can be difficult to construct and can be problematic for computers to process so there have been attempts to break up LCSH strings (e.g. Faceted Application of Subject Terminology – FAST)
- “Some LCSH can describe form…as opposed to subject. That is, the vocabulary includes terms to represent not only what a resource is about, but what it is” (Hider, 2012, p.158) – Library of Congress Genre/Form Terms for Library and Archival Materials (LCGFT)
- Criticisms of LCSH – inconsistent, bias towards American culture and terminology etc. but it is widely used and to create a new system would be too costly
- Other subject heading lists do exist for non-English speaking countries and other agencies but do not have the coverage of LCSH (e.g. SCIS Subject Headings List –SCISSHL for controlled vocabulary suitable for the needs of school libraries in Australia/New Zealand)
2. Subject Thesauri
- Designed for automated retrieval systems so the term ‘descriptors’ is used instead of ‘headings’ (which relates to the card cataloguing system)
- It helps indexers and searchers to choose words consistently to describe things or concepts
- It helps standardise the use of terminology to improve indexing and retrieval
- “Subject thesauri are also more than just lists; they represent structures based on systematic cross-referencing” (Hider, 2012, p.159).
- Differ from subject heading lists as while these include many cross-references they, unlike subject thesauri, were not primarily designed as systems of interrelated concepts.
- Like a regular thesaurus, a subject thesaurus focuses on synonyms but is more selective in the vocabulary it covers (literary and user warrant)
- Take time to produce and maintain
- Large number available, covering all kinds of subject areas (e.g. The Schools Online Thesaurus – SCOT which is used by Australian/New Zealand schools)
3. Subject Classification Schemes
- Used for arrangement (e.g. Dewey Decimal Classification, WebDewey, Library of Congress Classification – LCC, Universal Decimal Classification – UDC) to group the actual resources, such as books, together that are about similar subjects (the grouping of digital content is also becoming a key issue for many libraries – e.g. might include a virtual bookshelf that has a similar arrangement to the physical books on a shelf)
- “The structure of a faceted thesaurus is a classification scheme, and many subject thesauri assign notation to each of their descriptors so that resources can be arranged in this structure. In this way, subject thesauri can double as classification schemes and provide two vocabularies: one for indexing and one for arrangement” (Hider, 2012, p.163).
- Some classification schemes are appropriate for particular contexts (e.g. National Library of Medicine Classification – NLM)
- Faceted classification (where notation for any facet of a subject can be combined with notation of any other facet) allows for more flexibility and is more conducive to computer processing. Many older schemes may be more faceted in the future, the key is to combine in a consistent way.
Taxonomies and Ontologies
- Library classification schemes can be used to arrange links to resources in online directories, although they are not always the most appropriate means of arranging digital collections.
- There are schemes designed specifically for online collections (e.g. Open Directory Project)
- When website and intranet pages have their links logically arranged, the resulting schemes are known as taxonomies in the field of information architecture.
- Library classification schemes use artificial notation to maintain a particular order and might be considered distinct from taxonomies as they do not need to as they are independent from the resources they represent (i.e. website does not need to be removed from its location to be used).
- “A taxonomy’s label (i.e. vocabulary) may also be used for indexing and ‘search’ purposes” (Hider, 2012, p.172).
- Can be polyhierarchical (allowing for various citation order)
- “An ontology is a knowledge structure as conceived (and labelled) by people. Such as structure may not be limited to taxonomic relationships, of the ‘x is a type of y’ type. All sorts of relationships might be specified. For example, x might produce y” (Hider, 2012, pp.172-173)
- Can be difficult to construct and use
Advantages of controlled vocabularies
- Controlled vocabularies can “eliminate or reduce ambiguity; control the use of synonyms; establish formal relationships among terms; and test and validate terms.” (Hillmann & Marker, 2008, p.17)
- “In contrast, the metadata created by librarians using standards-based metadata approaches is considered to be of relatively higher quality in light of its accuracy, completeness, and consistency” (Alemu, et. al, 2012a, p.313)
Disadvantages of controlled vocabularies
- Controlled vocabulary can be difficult to create and expensive to do so
Advantages of user-generated metadata
- “Socially constructed metadata approaches can be looked at from two dimensions: user-generated (explicit) and machine-generated (implicit) metadata. Thus far, tagging is considered the most dominant type of user-generated metadata. Tagging is the process of attaching labels to objects to make identification and retrieval easier. In the context of information systems, tagging refers to the process of characterizing (describing) an information object with user-chosen keywords…This resultant metadata from tag aggregation and analysis if often referred to as folksonomy” (Alemu, et. al, 2012a, p.320).
- It is inexpensive to generate (free)
- It might better represent the vocabulary of searchers and, hence, improve the discovery
Disadvantages of user-generated metadata
- “Socially constructed metadata approaches such as tagging, rating, reviews, and recommendations have their own limitations including their lack of structure (synonym/homonym) and authoritative control” (Alemu, et. al, 2012a, p.316)
- “User-generated metadata is considered to lack structure and reliability due to the absence of editorial quality. Major limitations of socially constructed metadata approaches include ambiguity that results from its lack of hierarchical (broader/narrower/related/homonym/synonym) relations, idiosyncratic nature of user-generated metadata” (Alemu, et. al, 2012a, p.313)
- “Socially constructed metadata (Web 2.0) approaches are criticised for being flat, one-dimensional and plagued with inconsistencies” (Alemu, et. al, 2012b, p.551)
Natural Language Approach
- Taken from the resource itself
- Advantages – Often more up-to-date than a thesaurus, without translation it requires less time and therefore less cost and might be more indicative of the vocabulary used by searchers
- Disadvantages – Lack of control might lead to less precise search results
Mechanisms for supporting natural language searching:
- Key word searching (e.g. by fields such as author, title, etc.)
- Records enhancement
- “The idea here is simple: one way to improve the recall for subject searches is to provide more terms for the user to search on; so for surrogate records in library systems we should add more terms – that is, we should increase the size of the vocabulary “ (Hider & Harvey, 2008, p.157)
- Records are created using information from other parts of the resource (e.g. contents page)
- More detailed records are more costly to produce
- Abstracts can be useful in records for providing information and enabling decision-making about the value of a resource. They need to be concise, comprehensive and unambiguous. They can be created by the author of the information so subjectivity can be an issue or by the abstractor in which case cost may be a factor
Automated indexing – uses the computer to derive information about the resource
- Limitations – can only derive words present in the resource (no interpretation)
- “In extraction indexing, terms are extracted from the information resource for inclusion in the index on me basis of how frequently they occur in the information resource. The most frequently occurring words are included in the index. Stems (for example, think, thinking) can be recognised.
- In assignment indexing, the terms in the index are not necessarily found in the text of the information resource, but can be matched against a thesaurus. Profile terms (non-preferred terms) are matched against the thesaurus terms (descriptors) and if there is a match, then the descriptor is allocated for the purposes of determining whether a term should be included in the index on the basis of word frequency.” (Hider & Harvey, 2008, p. 161)
Alemu, G., Stevens, B., Ross, P., & Chandler, J. (2012a). The social space of metadata: Perspectives of LIS academics and postgraduates on standard-based and socially constructed metadata approaches. Journal of Library Metadata, 12(4), 311-344. doi: 10.1080/19386389.2012.735523
Alemu, G., Stevens, B., Ross, P., & Chandler, J. (2012b). Linked data for libraries: Benefits of a conceptual shift from library-specific record structures to RDF-based data models. New Library World, 113(11-12), 549-570. doi: 10.1108/03074801211282920
Hider, P. (2012). Chapter 8, Vocabularies (pp.151-180). Information resource description: Creating and managing metadata. London: Facet.
Hider, P. & Harvey, R. (2008). Chapter 8, Alphabetical subject access mechanisms (pp.133-164). Organising knowledge in a global society.London: Chandler.
Hillmann, D. & Marker, R. (2008). Metadata standards and applications.The Serials Librarian, 54(1-2), 7-21. doi: 10.1080/03615260801973364
Pelkie, T. (2009). Folksonomies and tagging. Retrieved fromhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e8zajIMPVQE
Due date: 24-Aug-2015
Return date: 14-Sep-2015
Part A: Essay (1600 words, + or – 10%) (20 marks)
Undertake a discussion and analysis of key concepts and principles in information resource description, in order to show your understanding of, and ability to explain and contextualise concepts and principles of information resource description.
Drawing upon the knowledge and understanding of key concepts and principles in information resource description gained through modules one to three of your subject material (including the first seven chapters of your textbook) give considered and informed responses to the following questions.
There is a lot to consider when addressing information resource description. There are many key concepts and principles that need to be addressed so that the users of information agencies can adequately find, identify, select and obtain their desired resource. Such factors include information organisation and metadata standards, both of which play a huge role in the users overall outcome in information retrieval.
To understand what information organisation is and why we need it, first we need to understand what an information resource is. Quite simply, an information resource is a resource that contains information. It comes in many forms e.g. DVDs, websites, books, maps etc. And in school libraries it also stretches to the world of literature. Therefore information resource description is the way in which all of these resources are described in order to locate them proficiently.
Information organisation is quite simply, the way in which information (better referred to these days as resources) is organised. It is the process of ordering and describing information or information objects. Resources can be organised in various ways. The way in which it is organised will have implications to retrieval, interaction and personal information management. Information organisation involves the assignment of metadata to documents that serve specific roles, or creation of indexes and databases that serve the primary tasks of ordering and description.
Organising information, which includes the description of that information (metadata), is most effective when contextual factors are considered. To maximise access to school library collections, the “characteristics of the user, the technology, the information resources and other environmental factors” (Hider, 2012, p.8) are taken into consideration when organising information and making decisions about the four aspects of metadata: elements, values, format and transmission. Hider posits that there can be a difference between the user of the metadata itself and the users of the resources represents (2012, p.16). For example the user of the metadata might be a teacher or parent looking for a resources in the collection that might appropriate and used by a student. In any case, understanding those who are using the metadata and their purposes, can lead to creating metadata that is more effective (Hider, 2012, p.16).
It is necessary for information agencies to organise information simply to enable the information searcher to find information required within the shortest time-frame. Time is a precious resource for all and if information is not easily accessible due to poor organisation, it would be mean failure on the part of the information agency to provide good service.
Information resource description aids information organisation because it essentially provides information about different aspects of the resource, otherwise known as ‘data elements’. Data elements may relate to the nature of the information itself (content – e.g. subject, language etc.) and/or to the carrier or container of this information of this information (e.g. size, format, labelling information such as statements appearing on the title page, etc.) (Hider, 2012, p.4). Information resource description or data about data is often referred to as ‘metadata’ and is “commonly defined as ‘structured’ data (about data)” (Hider, 2012, p5).
But who writes the description in order for users to be able to locate the desired resource? Descriptions of information resources are written by a variety of people, with various agendas and reasons for doing so (e.g. a librarian might wish to improve their patron’s knowledge while publishers may be focused on sales) and this will have an impact on the nature of the description (Hider, 2012, p.3). Teacher librarians need to know more than how to download such records into a catalogue.
The teacher librarian’s input can determine if the catalogue is used and appreciated as an effective and friendly tool for locating needed resources; or if the most noticeable feature about the catalogue is the number of users who bypass it. Hider puts it simply when he states that in order for information professionals to improve access to information resources requires “first-hand knowledge of the domain in which they work” (2012, p.62).
With such a wide range of resources now available due to the digital revolution, information agencies are now dealing with more than just books; digital, pictorial and auditory resources now need to be included and considered. So therefore, the way in which information is organised has also evolved. In the traditional library realm, organisation tasks include annotation of documents directly, print or electronic resources being organised in the form of catalogue records, abstracts, and digital libraries, and the physical or virtual ordering or grouping of resources using the processes of categorisation and classification. But depending on the teacher librarian and the users of the library will determine how their resources are catalogued and ultimately organised within their library. Whilst there are no “set rules” as such on how you organise the information, there are cataloguing/metadata standards that are to be followed to ensure consistency amongst information agencies.
There are many key tools used in school libraries for organising information. Arrangements are designed to help people look for information resources and navigate resource collections. As there are numerous ways in which information resources can be arranged it is imperative for effective access to them. Labels may be utilised to identify individual items and/or group items by categories such as subject matter or by a designated section of the collection (e.g. non-fiction). Symbols such as colour may be utilised on labels to group resources. Labels that indicate the items location within the collection are very useful (e.g. details such as call number, author’s name, Dewey classification, etc. may appear on the spine label of a physical resource). In digital environments, labels are used on hyperlinks in the form of brief descriptions. Indexes are “essentially arrangements of labels connected conceptually, rather than physically, to their resources” (Hider, 2012, p.35).
Library catalogues is an obvious tool of information organisation. They are used as a way to ascertain what is in the library collection and as a retrieval tool. Online library catalogues (e.g. OPAC – online public access catalogue) have superseded the old card cataloguing system, although both are similar in their descriptions. Online catalogues can provide users with numerous records from which to make their selection. Some even allow for users to input metadata (social metadata) such as tagging, ratings and reviewing items.
Federated search systems are a tool that has enhanced the ease to which users are able to search and locate information. Creating federated search applications that allow the sharing of metadata between information retrieval systems (interoperability) can be complex as different systems may not be compatible in terms of metadata elements or not support the same functions (Hider, 2012, p.47). While standardisation is needed to address this issue, it is somewhat idealistic given the varying purposes of different databases.
Hider (2012, p21-23) stressed the importance of a common standard to be adopted for describing information resources. Only with proper input standards would there be consistent output that makes information retrieval systems effective. Once common standards are in place for various information resources, the exchange of information with various information agencies internationally can be easily achieved. Adopting common standards will enable easy sharing and import of bibliographic data resulting in cost savings and time. This will eventually bring about overall service benefits provided by information centres especially those that cannot afford the services of an expert cataloguer. Hider (2012) shared that if universal bibliographic control can be successfully achieved every unique information resource need only be catalogued once and other libraries can pay for the record if needed. This ideal state would result in time-savings and greater information retrieval efficiency. By doing so, a Teacher Librarian’s time and expertise can be better spent collaborating with teachers to design resource-based and project-based lessons where students will apply information literacy and research skills taught. This supports Herring’s (2007), notion that a school library should be a centre of learning first and a centre for resources second.
Metadata is an essential consideration when discussing information organisation. It is important as it can support effective access to information. Metadata is simply the data that describes an information resource, it is data about data. It describes the nature and content of information and forms the elements that are used to find, locate and obtain it (Tech Terms, 2014). This usually takes the form of a structured set of elements that describe the information resource and assists in the identification, location and retrieval of it by users, while facilitating content and access management. Metadata is made up of a number of elements that can be categorised into the different functions they support. A metadata standard will normally support a number of defined functions, and will specify elements that make these possible.
While metadata may be useful for providing information about a single resource, it can also be useful for providing “an overview of a collection of resources by grouping like resources together (otherwise known as collocation), allowing users to navigate it” (Hider, 2012, p.7).
The consistency of metadata records enables the metadata to be used in different information retrieval systems, which enables it to be shared by a variety of information institutions. The sharing of metadata is made possible not only through standardisation of content, format and vocabulary but also through standardisation of transmission of this information according to standard protocols (Hider, 2012, p.93).
There are a large number of metadata standards that address the needs of a particular user or users. The Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules (AACR) was the main source of standards before Resource Access Description was implemented. It is organised in two parts: description (e.g. from general rules related to all resources such as how and what to describe to rules specific to particular types of material) and headings (e.g. choice of access points, headings for persons, geographic names, etc.) The International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD) was originally developed for catalogue cards but consolidated editions are still being published (e.g. 2011). It prescribes the elements for cataloguers to include in their description of library resources and stipulates how this description is to be presented (e.g. order, punctuation etc.) The most current and used set of standards is the Resource Access Description (RDA) which focuses on content (e.g. elements and their values). It accommodates ISBD-based descriptions as well as descriptions that might be schematic in nature (e.g. RDF/XML) which makes it more useful in the online world. It is more relevant to a variety of information agencies beyond the library sector as it is not limited to the ISBD elements (more broad). In essence RDA is a process that allows for the creation of metadata which meets users’ needs for data content and also facilitates machine manipulation of that data for searching and display. It utilizes the four user tasks of the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR) to present information in multiple forms to users in ways that are meaningful (National Library of Australia (NLA), 2014). While the average Teacher Librarian may not need to create metadata following such intricate cataloguing requires it is important that they have an understanding of how the RDA process works. This is of particular importance given the changing nature of information and how users access it.
The format standard can best be explained by looking at the MARC (Machine-Readable Cataloguing) system. Library catalogue records (metadata of information resources) were originally distributed in the form of library catalogue cards. Today, computerised systems have revolutionised this system by allowing the distribution of electronic records over the Internet. These files usually have a standardised format, MARC (Machine Readable Cataloguing). “The MARC format not only allows computer systems to import copies of catalogue records from other systems, it also indicates how the data in the records should be indexed and displayed, in other words, how the record should be processed, or ‘read’, by the computer system” (Hider, 2012, p.97). MARC is commonly used in the library domain and while other formats that make bibliographical data more interoperable exist, the cost in conversion to another format may see considerable data lost.
Transmission standards are required for the sharing of catalogue files as computers need to be able to not only process records such as MARC, but be able to receive it. Some users of bibliographic records will allow their computer to search for records, which may include searching several different online catalogues. As a result, many library management systems have applications designed for this purpose, applying a client-user-protocol. These are often configured by specialists who must consider how to make retrieval effective given the different ways in which databases can be searched and ways in which records can be indexed.
Therefore, along with user consideration, the application of information resource description standards is of particular importance. Oliver (2010, p. 6) argues metadata standards ensure interoperability, resource sharing, and seamless metadata exchange highlighting how standards help provide structure to information organisation and access. Witten & Bainbridge (2010, p. 329) suggest standards such as name authority control and subject authority control improve user experiences thereby linking standards to users and emphasising the importance of metadata to library systems.
While metadata and vocabularies are currently fundamental to our library systems, consideration must be given to the impact of future and changing technologies. While content-based retrieval and social metadata have appeal, the primary role of school libraries is to support school curriculum and, as Mitchell (2013) suggests, school users have specific literacy and maturity considerations. As Hider, (2012, p.188) argues, metadata schema such as RDA and vocabularies provide structures that support collection navigation and information seeking in ways that content-based retrieval and folksonomies cannot.
In conclusion, over the years there have been many advancements in the way information resources have been composed (now more digitised), described and organised. The need for agencies to organise these information resources is quite clear. Information agencies are there to support their users in information retrieval for varying reasons. Regardless of why a user is there, it is expected that they shall be able to find, identify, select and obtain a resource with ease and success. Organising such information entails several factors to support effective access to information. This relies on the quality of metadata, the application of standards and consideration of the end user is central to information resource description and ultimately, effective information access and retrieval. It also highlighted that to maintain relevance, school libraries must consider their information context and modify the systems and tools they utilise to best serve the needs of their users in providing effective access to information.
Herring, J. (2007). Teacher Librarians and the School Library. In S. Ferguson (Ed.) Libraries in the twenty-first century: charting new directions in information (pp.27-42).
Hider, P. (2012). Information resource description: Creating and managing metadata. London: Facet
Mitchell, P. (2013) The future of the school library catalogue. In Connections (87). Retrieved 7 October 2014, from http://www2.curriculum.edu.au/scis/connections/issue_87/articles/the_future_of_the_school_library_catalogue.html
National Library of Australia, (2014). Resource Description and Access. Retrieved from
Oliver, C. (2010). Introducing RDA: A guide to the basics. Chicago: American Library Association. Retrieved Charles Sturt University website http://reader.eblib.com.ezproxy.csu.edu.au/(S(v0qmdssxqgrljvpntn1f132j))/Reader.aspx?p=675845&o=476&u=sa3s6x%2b4liO1HCmUZhGeKA%3d%3d&t=1408776351&h=5A5E92A424963CEE08267B9CC8F870B3D86CA36C&s=25775206&ut=1443&pg=21&r=img&c=-1&pat=n&cms=-1
Tech Terms (2014). Metadata Definition. Techterms.com. Retrieved from
Witten, I.H, & Bainbridge, D. (2010). How to build a digital library. Burlington, MA: Morgan Kaufmann
Use the RDA toolkit for descriptive cataloguing.
Using the RDA Toolkit create correct entries (access points and description) for three items. Use the format given in the Cataloguing Workbook in the Using RDA section of Module 3 (showing RDA Reference, RDA Element and Data Recorded). You should include all RDA elements for which information has been provided. Give the access points provided for by RDA, in their preferred form; also indicate the primary access point.
Please note that the people and organisations cited are fictional, so their names won’t appear in any authority file. You can assume the names are not shared by other people or organisations. Use only the information provided.
Item (1) Printed book
from market to home: making the most of fresh organic produce
Mary Rose Moskin
photography by Taylor Severson
drawings by Judith Maas
RYCROFT SIFTON & TRENT
LONDON NEW YORK
Verso of title page:
First published in the United Kingdom in 2012
by Rycroft Sifton & Trent
London, England WC1R 4BW
Text © Mary Rose Moskin 2012
Design and illustrations
© Rycroft Sifton & Trent 2012
ISBN 978 1 36378 724 1
Other relevant information:
- contains coloured photographs and black and white drawings
- pages numbered 6 to 160
- 5 cm high and 22.2 cm wide
- in the series Rycroft recipes
- includes index on page 160
Justification for primary access point chosen:
126.96.36.199 Works Created by One Person, Family, or Corporate Body
If one person, family, or corporate body is responsible for creating the work construct the authorized access point representing the work by combining (in this order):
- a) the authorized access point representing that person family, or corporate body as applicable
- b) the preferred title for the work
|RDA REF||RDA ELEMENT||DATA RECORDED|
|*2.3.2||Title Proper||From Market to Home|
|2.3.4||Other Title Information||Making the most of fresh organic produce|
|*2.4.2||Statement of responsibility relating to title proper||Mary Rose Moskin|
|2.4.2||Statement of responsibility relating to title proper||Design and illustrations by Rycroft Sifton and Trent|
|2.8.2||Place of Publication||United Kingdom|
|2.8.4||Publisher’s name||Rycroft Sifton and Trent|
|2.8.6||Date of publication||2012|
|2.15||Identifier for the manifestation||ISBN 978 1 36378 724 1|
|3.5||Dimensions||26.5 x 22.2cm|
|7.16||Supplementary content||Includes index on page 160|
|7.17||Colour Content||Black and white|
|19.2||Creator||Moskin, Mary Rose|
|25.1||Related work||Rycroft recipes|
|J2.4||Relationship designator||In series (work)|
Item (2) Streaming video
ROME: POWER AND CORRUPTION
EPISODE II: A CITY ON THE BRINK
Presented by Ramona Wolf
Producer Rosso Bernardi
Music composed by Gian Bruni
Series director Richard Hart
A 360TV Ltd production for the National History Channel
© 360TV Ltd 2014
A City on the Brink – Rome: Power and corruption
Description: The Romans have subjugated their nearest neighbours and are now determined to protect their powerful city state – but will Rome survive a prolonged and ferocious attack by the Gauls?
Duration (mins) 43:33
Other relevant information:
The video is in colour. It includes narration, interviews and background music. Some of the dialogue is in Italian, with English subtitles.
Justification for primary access point chosen:
188.8.131.52 Moving image works. For motion pictures, videos, video games, etc., construct the authorized access point representing the work by using the preferred title for the work (see 6.2.2).
I would argue these two would be the primary access point due to the fact that it’s the title of the series, and therefore anyone following the series would search for this primarily to find the other episodes – including this one.
|RDA REF||RDA ELEMENT||DATA RECORDED|
|*2.3.2||Title Proper||Rome: Power and Corruption|
|*2.3.4||Other Title Information||Episode II A City on the Brink|
|2.12.2||Title Proper of Series||A City on the Brink|
|2.4.2||Statement of responsibility relating to title proper||Producer Rosso Bernardi|
|2.4.2||Statement of responsibility relating to title proper||Series director Richard Hart|
|2.8.2||Place of Publication||Place of publication not identified|
|2.8.4||Publisher’s Name||A 360TV Ltd production for the National History Channel|
|2.11||Copyright Date||© 2014|
|6.2.2||Preferred Title for the Work||Episode II|
|6.9||Content Type||Two-dimensional moving image|
|7.10||Summarising the content||The Romans have subjugated their nearest neighbours and are now determined to protect their powerful city state – but will Rome survive a prolonged and ferocious attack by the Gauls?|
|7.12||Language of the content||English. Some of the dialogue is in Italian, with English subtitles.|
|7.14||Accessibility content||English subtitles|
|7.16||Supplementary Content||Includes narration, interviews and background music|
|7.23||Performer, narrator, presenter||Presented by Ramona Wolf|
|7.23||Performer, narrator, presenter||Music by Gian Bruni|
|19.3.1||Other person, family, or corporate body associated with a work||Bernardi, Rosso|
|18.5, I.2||Relationship designator||Producer|
|19.3.1||Other person, family, or corporate body associated with a work||Hart, Richard|
|18.5, I.2||Relationship designator||Director|
|18.5, I.3||Relationship designator||Presenter|
|*25.1||Related work||A City on the Brink|
|J.2.4||Relationship designator||In series (Work)|
Item (3) eBook
the story of an historic home and garden in Victoria’s goldfields
with contributions by Henry Chan, Joel Gates, Albert Muckleford and Harlow Reid
Published in Australia by Tessellated Press
62 Regent Street
Somerton Park SA 5044
Tessellated Press is an imprint of Tessellated Resources Pty Ltd
ISBN 9781734290654 (eBook edition)
Copyright Goldfields Local History Society 2013
First eBook edition 2013
Table of contents:
Part 1: The colonial era
Part 2: Challenging times
Part 3: Post war prosperity
Part 4: Back to the future
Other relevant information:
- In the series Australia’s historic homes and gardens
- Includes endnotes, select bibliography and an index
- Available in PDF and EPUB formats
- Contains black and white photographs, portraits, maps and plans
- The PDF has ten preliminary pages numbered from VII to X (the first six pages are unnumbered), followed by the main sequence of pages numbered from 1 to 350.
Justification for primary access point chosen:
184.108.40.206 Compilations of Works by Different Persons, Families, or Corporate Bodies
- If the work is a compilation of works by different persons, families, or corporate bodies, construct the authorized access point representing the work by using the preferred title for the compilation (see 2.2).
|RDA REF||RDA ELEMENT||DATA RECORDED|
|*2.3.2||Title Proper||Baringhup Park|
|2.3.4||Other Title Information||The story of an historic home and garden in Victoria’s goldfields|
|2.4.2||Statement of responsibility relating to title proper||Elizabeth Elphinstone|
|2.4.2||Statement of responsibility relating to title proper||with contributions by Henry Chan, Joel Gates, Albert Muckleford and Harlow Reid|
|2.5.2||Designation of Edition||First eBook edition 2013|
|2.8.2||Place of Publication||Australia|
|2.8.4||Publisher’s Name||Tessellated Press|
|2.8.6||Date of Publication||2013|
|2.11||Copyright Date||Copyright Goldfields Local History Society ©2013|
|2.15||Identifier for the Manifestation||ISBN 9781734290654 (eBook edition)|
|2.17||Note on Manifestation||Tessellated Press is an imprint of Tessellated Resources Pty Ltd|
|3.3||Carrier Type||Online resource|
|3.4||Extent||1 online resource, 6 unnumbered pages, VII to X, 350 pages|
|7.16||Supplementary Content||Includes endnotes, select bibliography and an index|
|7.16||Supplementary Content||Part 1: The colonial eraPart 2: Challenging timesPart 3: Post war prosperityPart 4: Back to the future|
|7.15||Illustrative Content||Photographs, portraits, maps and plans|
|7.17||Colour Content||Black and white|
|19.3||Other person, family or corporate body associated with a work||Goldfields Local History Society|
|25.1||Related work||Australia’s historic homes and gardens|
|J2.4||Relationship designator||In series (work)|