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Dream big, start small

May, 2015

  1. BLOG TASK #3 – learning how to share online

    May 7, 2015 by meghastie

    This is probably the area that I have struggled most with – mainly because I have been chronically running behind throughout the course.  I’ve felt that by the time I’ve got onto the whole feedback and discussion cycle, either it’s all been said, or there’;s no one listening anymore!

    #firstworldproblems

    My new resolution is to pick up this aspect of my learning, and I’m now getting what it means to be part of an online community – something new for me.  I did learn a LOT hearing other more experienced people both from our course and who have completed the course talking about it.

    So here are my main contributions to other people’s posts (in no particular order)…

     Comment 1

    http://thinkspace.csu.edu.au/fromheretothere/2015/04/25/says-who/comment-page-1/#comment-21

    Same same!!

    My job this year has been to (among a number of other things), to get innovative pedagogy “happening” in my school and help staff make better use of the learning management system we have just utilised.  A few weeks ago, i was feeling a little downhearted, like I hadn’t had much traction, but now I’m starting to question a umber of assumptions in my role.  Yes, learning needs to be more engaging, and we need to be more innovative and willing to develop more “21st century” learning.  However, the other side of the job – to focus on digital technology, I’m now starting to ask a whole lot more questions, and I want to encourage the senior executive and staff too.  As you say – “who says?” tech will make learning better?  I know teaching students to collaborate more, to be critical and creative thinkers will.  teaching them to make their way gainfully through the internet and to be more able to effectively read and critique what they find there.

    But there are no longer any assumptions that doing it digitally will be better.

    Yes there are some wonderful tools out there.  Yes, we can help students engage more creatively and even collaboratively.  But I’m taking it much slower than I did, and interrogating everything.  Teaching and learning innovation is my job title – great learning is my goal – by whatever means, hifi or lofi!

     

     Comment 2

    http://thinkspace.csu.edu.au/informativeflights/2015/04/29/open-social-and-participatory-media-in-education/comment-page-1/#comment-40

     

    I was also sent this article by a fellow teacher friend through Facebook. If there’s one thing I’ve learned during this course and through my own experiences and those of fellow teachers, it’s that the teacher is more important than ever. At the heart of this article is the assumption that because the knowledge can be found online, then the teacher is useless. This is fuelled by the paradigm that a teacher’s job is about content delivery, rather than designing learning experiences.
    If this person has read any of the research they’d see that the role of the teacher and personal relationships are identified as being even more important than before. Yes there’s lots of good stuff on the Internet – mixed in with way too much other stuff. Personal engagement happens through relationships. Our role as content researcher and curator has changed – although it’s not disappeared it’s just changed. Metacognition, literacy (all types) numeracy, extension and support can’t happen outside of an experts knowledge of an individual student. Teaching collaboration, sharing…!
    Fundamental principles behind 21st century learning / Education 3.0 or look at Connected Learning – all rely on personal connections guidance and support.
    All the people serious about the future of schools emphasise the crucial role of teachers – he just can’t stand up and bore kids stupid about Dickens…! I say that as an English teacher!!
    Bit I agree with you in that teachers are not involved in this debate. Having said that, the best researchers such as Fullan, or work coming from bodies such as WISE or Cisco, all see that teacher training in good pedagogy and learning, lies at the heart of any systemic or school transformation

     

     Comment 3

    http://thinkspace.csu.edu.au/lisa/2015/04/21/inf530-scholarly-book-review-invent-to-learn/comment-page-1/#comment-51

    A very thoughtful review – thanks for that. I find makerspaces a very exciting concept, and a number of people at my school are interested in making it happen, but it’s getting the project going that’s always hard – shifting people from interest to commitment!. This book sounds like a great place to start looking at more practical strategies.
    I also appreciated your discussion in your conclusion about the importance of the balance between instruction / guidance and opportunities to create. That’s sometimes the harder thing – to help students be disciplined to move beyond just tinkering and into truly creative spaces

     

     Comment 4

    http://thinkspace.csu.edu.au/rachelthomason/2015/04/30/whats-new-about-a-new-culture-of-learning/comment-page-1/#comment-14

    I would agree with you in that not a lot of these ideas are “new”. Nevertheless, I love their idea that play is about sense-making and responding to the world. Play is valuable, and not some vague experience, but a structured imaginative process, not just a vague floating “waste of time. Teaching students to “play’ I think starts with teaching the teachers how to play – not many of us get to do that any more. not many of us are brave enough to take risks any more. Yet, like so much of teaching, it’s in the modelling and empathy that we give our students a sense of authenticity to what we are expounding.

     


  2. DIGITAL ESSAY PROPOSAL #participatorylearning

    May 7, 2015 by meghastie

    Here are my proposed ideas.

    Yes, I have two at this stage. Some may call it indecisive (eg my husband), others would call it having wide-ranging passions and an endless curiosity (eg me)…

    The readings  I’ve included come from the course outline mainly – my attempt to demonstrate where it’s all coming from in the course.

    Topic 1

    1. I am planning to look at the role of teachers and their professional development in the rapidly changing educational context.  It would focus on discussions around the intersection between pedagogy, digital literacy and digital implementation against a backdrop of the concepts around contemporary youth and futures education.

    Rationale – The reason why I would choose this topic is that a foundational element of changing learning and education is identifying and supporting teachers as the core change agents / sources of innovation in schools and learning. My real passions are pedagogy, how learning happens, educational spaces and innovation  –  I know, that’s a lot!!   The intersection with digital literacy and its implementation is new for me, particularly the focus on moving beyond the latest exciting products, and into the discussion of how technology enables learning, and the evidence for that.  In particular some of the issues surrounding concepts such as “digital natives”, and the youth culture – moving from generalisations to evidence.  I’m aware that I will need to hone this topic down, but I’m wanting to start reading broadly, chasing a few rabbits down holes before narrowing down the field.

    I’m taking one aspect where I have current knowledge and interest – pedagogy and learning – and marrying it with some of the new ideas and research coming directly out of this course. I love exploring the ideas of what education could look like – or should look like –  if we were to respond courageously and authentically to what research is telling us about learning, globalisation and our world.  I’m also keen to explore some of the research-based understandings we now have from neuroscience etc, about teenagers and the research on information-seeking behaviour.

    Where my project becomes riskier for me is that I want the form of the digital essay to mirror the ideas of future learning, even though this is not my area of familiarity.  I loved the way the Kafka essay worked – that was amazing!!

    Key research foundations –

    Work of Michael Fullan and associates,

    Work of Larry Cuban

    Brabazon, T., Dear, Z., Greene, G., & Purdy, A. (2009). Why the Google generation will not speak: The invention of digital natives. Nebula, 6. Retrieved from http://www.iiav.nl/ezines/IAV_607294/IAV_607294_2010_3/BDGP.pdf

    Philip, T. M., & Garcia, A. D. (2013). The Importance of still teaching the iGeneration: New technologies and the centrality of pedagogy. Harvard Educational Review, 83(2), 300–319,400–401. Retrieved fromhttp://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.csu.edu.au/docview/1399327199?accountid=10344

    K. Williamson, V. Bernath, S. Wright, J. Sullivan, “Research students in the electronic age:

    impacts of changing information behaviour on information literacy needs,” Communications in

    Information Literacy, Volume 1, Issue 2, Fall 2007.

    Bonk, C. J. (2009). The world is open: How web technology is revolutionizing education. John Wiley & Sons.

    S. Bennett, K. Maton and L. Kervin, “The ‘digital natives’ debate: A critical review of the

    evidence,” The British Journal of Educational Technology, Vol. 39, No. 5, pp. 775-786

    Bridget Dalton and Dana Grisham

    “Taking a position on integrating literacy and technology in the curriculum,” Reading Online,

    March 2001,

    http://www.readingonline.org/editorial/edit_index.asp?HREF=/editorial/march2002/index.html

    Sharpe, Rhona; Beetham, Helen; de Freitas, Sara (2010). Rethinking learning for a digital age : How learners are shaping their own experiences. eBook available from CSU Library.

    PEW Internet and American Life, http://www.pewinternet.org/

    32 Media Literacy Audit: Adults, Ofcom, March 2, 2006,

    http://www.ofcom.org.uk/advice/media_literacy/medlitpub/medlitpubrss/medialit_audit/

    medialit_audit.pdf and Media Literacy Audit: Report on Media Literacy amongst

    children, Ofcom, May 2, 2006,

    http://www.ofcom.org.uk/advice/media_literacy/medlitpub/medlitpubrss/children/childre

    n.pdf

    JISC, Information behaviour of the researcher of the future, CIBER briefing paper, (London:

    UCL, 2007),

    http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/programmes/reppres/gg_final_keynote_11012008.pdf

     

    Topic 2

    My other choice would be to look at creativity in the 21st century learning world, and how to teach / enhance it in the digital context.

    Rationale –  I am equally as interested in this topic.  Again, it’s about how to take such a nebulous concept as creativity, and explore why it is currently so popular, why it should be valued, the educational  / neuroscience research behind it,  and then how that fits in the context of futures learning.  Again, I love exploring the intersection between the concept of creativity and then how that is made authentic throughout the whole learning experience.  The question of how (or even whether you can teach it / enhance it – what’s the evidence for it) to teach creativity  and then how you assess creativity in education 3.0.

    Key research

    The works of Ken Robinson

    Thomas, D., & Brown, J. S. (2011). A new culture of learning: Cultivating the imagination for a world of constant change (Vol. 219). Lexington, KY: CreateSpace.

    Sefton-Green, J. (2015). How might creative youth cultures understand the nature of ‘creativity’? [Web log post]DML Central

    Shaheen, R. (2010). Creativity and education. Online Submission, 1(3), 166-169. Retrieved fromhttp://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED521875.pdf

    Floridi, L. (2012). The fourth revolution. The Philosophers’ Magazine, (57), 96-101.

    Heick, T. (2013). 30 incredible ways technology will change education by 2028. [Weblog post] Retrieved fromhttp://www.teachthought.com/trends/30-incredible-ways-technology-will-change-education-by-2028/

    Philip, T. M., & Garcia, A. D. (2013). The importance of still teaching the iGeneration: New technologies and the centrality of pedagogy. Harvard Educational Review, 83(2), 300–319,400–401.

    Sharpe, Rhona; Beetham, Helen; de Freitas, Sara (2010). Rethinking learning for a digital age : How learners are shaping their own experiences. eBook available from CSU Library.

    Craft, A. (2003). The limits to creativity in education: Dilemmas for the educator. British Journal of Educational Studies, 51(2), 113-127. Retrieved fromhttp://web.nsboro.k12.ma.us/algonquin/faculty/socialstudiesteachers/smith/documents/thelimitsofcreativityineducationarticle.pdf

    Craft, A. (2005). Creativity in schools: Tensions and dilemmas. London: Routledge.

    Creative Commons and Culture: https://creativecommons.org/culture

    Davies, D., Jindal-Snape, D., Collier, C., Digby, R., Hay, P., & Howe, A. (2013). Creative learning environments in education—A systematic literature review. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 8, 80-91.

    Langer, J. (2012). The interplay of creative and critical thinking in instruction. In Dai, D. Y. (Ed.). (2012). Design research on learning and thinking in educational settings: Enhancing intellectual growth and functioning. Routledge.

    Lassig, C. J. (2013). Approaches to creativity: How adolescents engage in the creative process. Thinking Skills and Creativity, (10)3-12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2013.05.002

    Ravenscroft, A., Wegerif, R., & Hartley, R. (2007). Reclaiming thinking: dialectic, dialogic and learning in the digital age. BJEP Monograph Series II, Number 5-Learning through Digital Technologies, 1(1), 39-57.

    Ravenscroft, A. (2011). Dialogue and connectivism: A new approach to understanding and promoting dialogue-rich networked learning. International Review of Research in Open & Distance Learning, 12(3). Retrieved fromhttp://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/934/1676

    Bonk, C. J. (2009). The world is open: How web technology is revolutionizing education. John Wiley & Sons.

     

    Proposed platform

    This is NOT my area of expertise.  I am deciding between just using my course blog space (thinkspace), and trying one of the examples we’ve seen – storify, trackk or blendspace.  I still need to investigate this. Part of the process for me will actually be experimenting with the HOW – big learning curve.  If I took the creativity option, I again, would like my form / mode to reflect the creativity aspect.  This would be a much more risky option, as I would be playing with form much more – both in the essay format as well as the digital mode.

     

    I know!!

    I am aware that they are big topics at the moment, and part of my researching would be to refine them down.  As bits “drop off”, I’d probably pop them in other blogposts, either to be used as part of the broader discussion, or just for my own sake.

    I’ve found since being online with the “old dogs” the other night and also hearing some of my more experienced cohort chat about the blogging process / online community and world, I’m having a considerable shift in terms of my own understanding regarding the whole shebang.

    FEEL FREE TO MAKE COMMENTS AND SUGGESTIONS ON YOUR PREFERRED TOPIC – I’M ALL EARS!!

     #participatorylearning

     


  3. Redesigning education – Education 3.0 – Scholarly book review

    May 3, 2015 by meghastie

    I loved the book review process – the actual reviewing of the book. Writing it all up was less pleasurable and like many of us I thought I wouldn’t make it.  This side of submission, the pain was worth it.  I particularly enjoyed the whole concept of rethinking learning, rethinking and challenging current systems and ways we teach by enfolding current alternates and new ideas.

    The big new adventure for me was to work with ebooks.  I’ve never had any before, but they made purchasing the texts so cheap and quick! I know, I know, there’s lots of issues around kindle etc.  I don’t think I’d like to read novels in electronic form.  But for the sheer ease and transportability, it was wonderful.

    So here ’tis…

    The Global Education Leaders’ Program Innovation unit (2013) Redesigning education: Shaping learning systems around the globe, Booktrope editions[Kindle Digital Version] from http://www.amazon.com.au

    Schools are doing Education 1.0; talking about doing Education 2.0; when they should be planning Education 3.0

    (Gerstein 2013) 

     

    The Global Education Leaders Program’s (GELP) publication Redesigning education: Shaping learning systems around the world is a bold attempt to direct discussions on how we not only lead reform in education, but bring about systemic, global transformation. GELP is a social enterprise comprised of key education system leaders, policy-makers and consultants collaborating to reinvent education at local, national and international levels (GELP 2015). Their concerns reflect that of international bodies such as the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the World Innovation Summit for Education (WISE), and World Economic Forum (WEF). All see education as the fundamental transformative power in the global community, especially for emerging economies. GELP’s publication primarily targets system and school leaders, policy makers, education experts and advocates as it tackles 21st century learning – or “Education 3.0”.  The book addresses the challenges raised by the seismic shifts in society – globalisation, demographic shift and the technological revolution (Davies, Fidler & Gorbis 2011, We are Social, 2015).  But despite widespread interest, education innovation has been unevenly distributed, and whole-scale educational reform has never been successful (eg Fullan 2011, Cuban 2013 & 2015, Heppell 2012, Siemens 2004). GELP claims that schooling systems are notoriously conservative, but counters this by exploding myths surrounding reform implementation, and proposes models, principles and practices to overcome these barriers.  Firstly, building vision for change, and mobilising capacity through training, and creating “nested communities” for collaboration within and across learning communities to scale up the restructuring. Finally, it emphasises engaging with the community to create a social movement that pressures relevant authorising bodies. But no matter how idealistic the aims of the book, it claims to be “rooted in practice” (GELP Intro).

    The key ideas and challenges explored through the text are

    1. The need to engage new players to challenge and enliven traditional education
    2. Using design principles to actualise powerful 21st century learning and better learning experiences
    3. Scaling and diffusing innovation within and through systems
    4. Transforming systems and creating transformational leadership (GELP 2013)

     

    This book sits at the nexus of two sub-genres of education publications regarding the future of learning.  Firstly, whilst GELP draws on their findings, it sets itself apart from “school improvement” models such as Fullan’s early works (eg 1992),  pedagogically-driven works (eg Hattie 2008; McTighe & Wiggins 2005; Claxton 2008; Thomas & Brown 2011 ), and approaches such as Harvard’s Project Zero (Ritchart, Church & Morrison 2011).  The changes these groups propose are largely pedagogical and endogenous – transformation within the current system and structures to improve learning and better equip students. GELP looks beyond what happens in classrooms, to transform education globally– and this concept is the dominant paradigm of the text. To succeed where previous reforms have failed, GELP probes much more widely than the educational field, drawing on innovation in a range of arenas and industries.  In particular, it appropriates Christensen’s disruptive innovation theory (1997, 2011), whereby it’s the outliers, those who draw in previous non-consumers, who can reinvigorate by exploiting new markets and approaches.  Redesigning education is ambitious, as it aims to not only change schools in affluent societies, but be employed by schooling systems in developing countries.

    The other style of educational work influencing the text focusses more broadly on exogenous change. The work of educators such as Heppell (2007, 2012) Leadbeater (2012), Wagner (2008, 2012) Zhao (2013) and Fullan’s more recent work (eg 2011, 2013a, 2013b), as well as futures-focussed studies by the OECD (eg 2010, 2012), WISE (Dumont et.at 2010, Brown-Martin 2015) and WEF (2009). These are more comprehensive attempts to use innovation and design principles to reinvent the structures of schooling, including the environments and the relationships between those offering learning experiences, governments and learners within their community. GELP’s work is risky here – they look to transform education globally by developing not only tools, but creating networks and communities that reach across economic and cultural barriers. But, as they acknowledge, this area is weak in terms of research basis for holistic planning and prior examples of success (chap.3). To support their case, they reference schools working in partnership with GELP, and use this anecdotal evidence to provide some confirmation for their model.

    Structurally, the book moves from a comprehensive overview of the issues, by setting out principles that both underpin 21st century learning, and follow this by outlining their 16-element “Roadmap” for transformation.  The Roadmap, however, is less prescriptive than it sounds. Although it advocates that the various elements must be all employed, it clearly states that the order and process should be contextually responsive (chap 5), and the examples of schools and systems support this.  It would have been helpful for readers to have been directed more explicitly to the project’s website (GELP 2015), which includes extra resources and research updates that further amplifies the versatility of the system.  Whilst in the eBook version the footnotes were hyperlinked, and there were some url’s included in the chapter endnotes, it could have been more seamlessly embedded.  If part of GELP’s goal is to apply Web 3.0 principles, then employing a more flexible book design would have endorsed their repudiation of entrenched 20th century structures.  A more coherent example of this is Wagner’s new eBook version of Creating innovators (2012) – it utilises embedded QR tags and url’s into the body of the text.

    The text explores the realities of how and why systemic change is problematic and complex. It reinforces the complicated relationships involved, by drawing on Moore’s work (1995) on the triangular interplay between the authorising environment, the value propositions of the change and the operational capacity to enact it (chap.7).  It repeatedly reinforces that innovation agendas are consequently fraught. GELP’s Roadmap has the potential to work because it supports plurality in innovation, and values contextual responsiveness. Firstly, 10 elements are generic to any system change – as noted, GELP has turned to a range of other industries and organisations such as health and business; secondly three elements are specifically educational– curriculum, pedagogy and assessment; finally, three innovative aspects – the non-linear process of designing and iterating that again, are not education-specific.  This is reinforced by GELP’s unique “split-screen” approach to managing transformation – bridging the gap between present realities coinciding with redesigning the future system.  They recognise the importance of having this dual approach to both keep the current system meeting needs of students, whilst at the same time working towards the new. GELP claims both evolution and revolution are needed (GELP chap.3); few books deal adequately with this tension.

     

    Reimagining the role of government is a core aspect of GELP’s future world of education. Instead of driving and mandating educational reforms, they should become the platform that provides opportunities, structures and frameworks for a growing group of organisations to build their schools and systems upon.  As Fullan (2011) and others have noted (eg Cuban 2015, Jenkins 2013), too frequently governments and systems choose the wrong drivers for change – using accountability and standardised assessment or technology roll-outs.  But these methods tend to push teachers and schools towards superficial compliance, rather than embedding new practices and coaching towards enduring transformation (Mourshed et al 2010, Fullan & Crevola 2013, Tyre 2015).  In GELP’s view governments will no longer be the primary provider. Their role is to attract new groups to take part in building systems – primarily philanthropists, for-profit organisations and entrepreneurs – to break through conventional difficulties encountered.  This directly challenges traditional approaches to education that focus on the primacy of public education, and these arguments are carefully countered.  The research work of Leadbeater (2012, also Leadbeater & Wong 2010) and Heppell (2004, 2012) are crucial, highlighting how the “extremes” can shape future constructs of education. Similarly, by exploring some of the current “alternate schooling” systems within western democracies, and how they are succeeding with disenfranchised learners, GELP presents mechanisms to make learning more engaging for all learners.  GELP’s Education 3.0 seeks to enfold their techniques, as well as endorsing them, as this is central to devolving monolithic schooling structures. Furthermore, endorsing emerging models around blended and connected learning (Siemens, 2004, Ito et al 2013), and utilising the power of technology facilitates the dismantling of the “four walls” concept of learning (Heppell 2007) to create a more responsive education paradigm.

     

    The text engages with a broader societal debate – whilst technology has the capacity to accelerate transformation, it is seen as a central aspect of infrastructure to enable learning, rather than an end in itself (Horn 2013, Tyre 2015, Cuban 2015, Candler 2015).   Technology-fuelled education can be more accessible, more equitable and more accelerated, but Education 3.0 is about a broader set of student skills such as creative thinking, problem-solving, metacognition, and collaboration that can be placed at the heart of school transformation in developed and emerging countries alike, utilising principles such as personalised learning and real-world applicability.  Making learning personal – having deep relationship between teachers and students is a core component of their learning principles.   GELP are certainly not the first to explore the contested role of technology in leveraging change (eg Cuban 2001, 2015, Sheninger 2014, Collins & Halverston 2009, Ertmer 2005, Horn 2013), however, they do denote, like many others (We are social 2015, that it has a ubiquitous role in changing the nature of our society.

     

    The text finishes by highlighting the primacy of people as change agents.  Firstly, the leaders and the values that should shape them. Current leadership ideals have been too individualistic, and that for systemic transformation there needs to be a systemic approach to developing leaders (Fullan 2013b, Hopkins 2007). GELP’s expectations of leaders’ skill-set is daunting, but is contextualised by the incipient power of collaboration for leverage.  Finally, at the core are the teachers – significant emphasis is placed on targeted training, motivation and involvement. This again, matches broader discussion around change management in education – without comprehensive retraining of teachers, significant changes will not be widespread or lasting (OECD 2011, Jensen & Reichl 2011)

    The book is brutal at times in its honesty, to the point where the average teacher may feel overwhelmed.  In the hands of leaders and those truly seeking new directions ahead, this rectitude is helpful.  The complexity of the Roadmap system similarly, is somewhat daunting.  In its scrupulous approach, it highlights both the time transformation will take, as well as it labyrinthine nature.  Certainly, other contemporary texts such offer much more simplistic processes (eg Lengel 2013, Collins & Halverston 2009).  Perhaps their vision is not quite so grand.  And herein lies the real strength of this book – its dream to transform educational systems globally, but by working contextually. Whilst the methodologies are sound, as they have been tested in other industries, the GELP team acknowledge they are unable to “prove” that they will be successful in education, simply that this is the best chance.  To that end, there is no “conclusion”; just a promise that GELP will continue to pursue an “exciting learning future for the next generation” (GELP chap.7)

     

    The book has a grand vision to transform education.  It proposes a series of principles and models based on a broad body of research, including that of partner schools and systems in their endeavour.  Its grasp of the imperative to transform education to more effectively engage learners and communities in Education 3.0, is impressive.  However, its honesty and the ambiguity inherent in its process is also what might ultimately dishearten the average teacher or leader.  If nothing else, it makes leaders realise that collaboration, one of the central underpinnings of 21st century learning, is essential for education systems and schools as well as our students. It is this focus on people – the leaders, the teacher and communities of learners – that validates its thesis.  As Fullan has said, without carefully managing the change by inspiring and equipping the key people who must implement it, it is all pointless.

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

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    Reference list

    Brown-Martin Graham (2015) Learning Reimagined, London:  Bloomsbury Academic Press,

    Candler, Matt (April 7 2015) Three Ways to Improve Technology-Assisted Learning: Innovation in education requires cheap iteration, great listening skills, and “exaptation.” <https://medium.com/bright/three-ways-to-improve-technology-assisted-learning-a5b451f6bef4>

    Christensen, Clayton M. (1997), The innovators dilemma: when new technologies cause great firms to fail,  Boston: Harvard Business School Press

    Christensen, Clayton M. (2011), Disrupting class: How disruptive ionnovation will change the way the world learns, New York, McGraw-Hill [Kindle Digital Version] from http://www.amazon.com.au

    Claxton, G. (2008). What’s the point of school? Oxford: Oneworld

    Collins, Allan & Halverston Richard (2009) Rethinking education in the age of technology: The digital revolution and schooling in America, New York, Teachers College Press

    Cuban, L. (2001). Oversold and underused: Computers in the classroom. Cambridge, MA:

    Harvard University Press.

    Cuban, Larry (2013) Inside the black box of classroom practice: Change without reform in American education, Cambridge Massachusetts: Harvard University Press,  [Kindle Digital Version] from http://www.amazon.com.au

    Cuban, Larry (April 18 2015) iPads and Teachers: A Response (Matt Candler) https://larrycuban.wordpress.com/

    Davies, A., Fidler, D., & Gorbis. M. (2011). Future work skills 2020. Institute for the Future for the University of Phoenix Research Institute: California

    Dumont, Hanna, Istance, David and Benavides, Francisco (eds.) (2010) The Nature of Learning: Using research to inspire practice, OECD Publications, http://www.oecd.org/edu/ceri/50300814.pdf

    Ertmer, Peggy A. (2005) Teacher Pedagogical Beliefs: The Final Frontier in Our Quest for Technology Integration? Educational technology research and development, Vol. 53, No. 4, 2005, pp. 25–39

    Fullan, Michael (1992) Successful School Improvement: The Implementation Perspective and Beyond, Milton Keynes: Open University Press

    Fullan, Michael (2011) Choosing the wrong drivers for whole system reform, Centre for Strategic Education Seminar Series Paper No. 204, May 2011, accessed http://edsource.org/wp-content/uploads/Fullan-Wrong-Drivers1.pdf

    Fullan, Michael (2013a) Stratosphere: Integrating technology, pedagogy and change knowledge, Toronto: Pearson,

    Fullan, Michael (2013b) The Principal: Three keys to maximising impact, San Francisco: John Wiley &Sons,

    Fullan, Michael, Hill, Peter & Crévola, Carmel (2011) Breakthrough, Moorabbin: Hawker Brownlow Education,

    Gerstein, Jackie (2013) Schools are doing Education 1.0; talking about doing Education 2.0; when they should be planning Education 3.0

    From <https://usergeneratededucation.wordpress.com/2013/03/22/schools-are-doing-education-1-0-talking-about-doing-education-2-0-when-they-should-be-planning-education-3-0/>   accessed 17th April 2015

    The Global Education Leaders’ Program Innovation unit (2013) Redesigning education:Shaping learning systems around the globe, Booktrope editions[Kindle Digital Version] from http://www.amazon.com.au

    Hannon, Valerie, Gillinson Sarah, Shanksm Leonie and Reza (2012) , Learning a Living: Radical Innovation in Education for Work , London: Bloomsbury Academic

    Hargreaves, Andy and Fullan  Michael (2012) Professional Capital, Teacher’s College Press

    Harris, Amy (2005) School Effectiveness and School Improvement: Alternate Perspectives, London: Continuum International Publishing

    Hattie, J. (2008) Visible learning: A Synthesis of Over 800 Meta-Analyses Relating to Achievement London Routledge

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