Classroom Technologies – Final Post

An informed and considered approach to the use of technology in the classroom can result in a redefinition of activities and curriculum that promote higher order thinking skills in the classroom. Developments in Web 2.0 Internet technologies such as Wikis, blogs and microblogging applications offer affordances for classroom pedagogies to evolve toward the use of more constructivist learning theories because students are able to collaborate on and publish materials that have previously been inconceivable (Puentedura, 2013; Stanton, 2013; Harasim, 2009). Recent research into the success of Web 2.0 technologies has demonstrated that education policy and institutions need to place more value in teacher training so that there is less of a focus on learning the technology and instead using the technology to address curriculum (Finger, Russel, Jamieson-Proctor and Russell, 2007; Harasim, 2012). Mishra and Koehler’s (2006) TPACK framework should be used by teachers integrating these new technologies into the classroom as part of Roblyer and Doering’s (2013) TIP so that students can be involved in more meaningful activities that have been shown to help them create knowledge through collaboration (Daniels, 2002).
Inclusive Web 2.0 technologies such as the MOODLE LMS with a social constructionism pedagogy can also provide a range of activities that can be accessed by learners who may be restricted in or from the physical environment of the classroom (Dougiamas, 2006). A considered design of digital education environments using TPACK and TIP can promote interactive use of wikis, blogs and forums as tools for collaboration between a student’s teachers and peers (Beauchamp and Kennewell, 2010). Students who are actively engaged in these types of meaning making activities through collaboration are using technology rather than learning it and participating in tasks that have been redefined toward meeting higher order thinking curriculum outcomes (Puentedura, 2013; Stanton, 2013).
Bigum (2012) and Seimens (cited in Paikin, 2013) have highlighted the need for education institutions to make more strategic policy decisions in an environment of increasing technological change so that previous failed integration policies can be avoided. A move toward more learner centred approaches founded on constructivist pedagogies are more likely to prepare students for the knowledge economy of our 21st C society (Finger, Russel, Jamieson-Proctor, Russell, 2007; Harasim, 2009; Seimens, 2005). Starkey (2012) also argues that students need further innovation toward integrated pedagogies that use connectivist learning theories so that they are prepared for complex relationships that utilise the affordance of digital devices and social networking in our society.
The challenges faced by teachers in developing much needed technical knowledge about new devices, software and Web 2.0 applications are made more complex by the need for flexible constructivist pedagogies that assist with their technological affordances. While the curriculum content may remain relatively stable, there are also increasing changes in this area of teaching with ACARA and NSW syllabuses, however, Wendy Worrell (cited in Finger, Russel, Jamieson-Proctor, Russell, 2007) argues that time and resource poor teachers are challenged by these complexities in schools that are in need of more funding. Cox (2012) also argues further that increased funding toward online classroom technologies (e-learning) will result in the identification of more specific and consistent measurements for areas of teacher training and development during a period of technological revolution. Gonski (2011) has also highlighted that technology integration funding findings from the Building the Education Revolution Implementation Taskforce that show a significant disparity in public vs private schools (See figure 1). Classroom technologies can be integrated by informed teachers and their knowledge networks to create innovative student centred learning spaces if they are supported with policy decisions that value their creative input into curriculum innovation.

 

 

References:

Beauchamp, G. and Kennewell, S. (2010). Interactivity in the classroom and its impact on learning. Computers and Education, 54(3), 759-766.

Bigum, C. (2012). Schools and Computers: Tales of a Digital Romance. Transformative Approaches to New Technologies and Student Diversity in Futures Oriented Classrooms. L. Rowan and C. Bigum, Springer Netherlands: 15-28.

Chai, C. S., Lim, W. Y., So, H. J., and Cheah, H. M. (2011). Advancing collaborative learning with ICT: Conception, cases and design. Retrieved from: http://ictconnection.moe.edu.sg/ictconnection/slot/u200/mp3/monographs/advancing%20collaborative%20learning%20with%20ict.pdf

Cox, M.J. (2012), Formal to informal learning with IT: research challenges and issues for e-learning. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2729.2012.00483.x

Daniels, H. (2002). Vygotsky and pedagogy. Routledge. [Sample] Retrieved from: http://samples.sainsburysebooks.co.uk/9781134558292_sample_517630.pdf

Dougiamas, M. (2006). Pedagogy. MOODLE Documentation. Retrieved from: https://docs.moodle.org/22/en/index.php?title=Pedagogy&oldid=18242

Finger, G., Russel, G., Jamieson-Proctor, R and Russell, N. (2007). Transforming learning and teaching ; what does 21st –century learning and teaching look like. In Transforming learning with ICT : making it happen (pp. 72-107). Frenchs Forest, NSW. : Pearson Education Australia.

Gonski, D. M. (2011). Review of funding for schooling: final report. Australia. Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations. Review of Funding for Schooling, 2011. Retrieved from: https://docs.education.gov.au/system/files/doc/other/review-of-funding-for-schooling-final-report-dec-2011.pdf

Harasim, L. (2012). Introduction to learning theory and technology. In Learning theory and online technology (pp. 1-14). New York, NY : Routledge.

Howard, R. M. (2001). Collaborative pedagogy. A guide to composition pedagogies, 54-70. Retrieved from: http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/english/moser/eng%207506/Howrad%20Collaborative%20pedagogy.pdf

Mishra, P., and Koehler, M. (2006). Technological pedagogical content knowledge: A
framework for integrating technology in teacher knowledge. Teachers College Record, 108(6), 1017-1054.

Paikin, S. (2013). George Siemens: Changing Schools, Changing Knowledge, The Agenda with Steve Paikin. Retrieved from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JR_ziHA_8LY&feature=youtu.be

Puentedura, R. (2013). SAMR and TPCK: A Hands-On Approach to Classroom Practice. Retrieved from: http://www.hippasus.com/rrpweblog/archives/2014/12/11/SAMRandTPCK_HandsOnApproachClassroomPractice.pdf

Roblyer, M. and Doering, A. (2013). Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching: Pearson New International Edition. Pearson Education Limited. Kindle Edition.

Siemens, G. (2005). Connectivism: A learning theory for the digital age. International journal of instructional technology and distance learning, 2(1), 3-10.

Simmons, C., and Hawkins, C. (2009). Planning to teach an ICT lesson. In Teaching ICT (pp. 54-105). London ; Sage Publications Ltd.

Stanton, B. (2013). TPACK and SAMR. Adobe connect meeting. Retrieved from: https://connect.schools.nsw.edu.au/p7dhxvtdzgv/?launcher=false&fcsContent=true&pbMode=normal

Starkey, L. (2012). Teaching and learning in the digital age. Oxon: Routledge.

The Internet and the Classroom

The Internet can be a chaotic element to integrate in a classroom environment if structure is not provided for students. When used inappropriately the Internet can cause serious problems. Teachers need to plan and prepare lessons for students who have a fundamental right to use the Internet safely and be free from issues such as harassment, cyber bullying and inappropriate content (Roblyer and Doering, 2013). The Department of Education and Communities [NSW DEC] have developed a range of resources to address cyberbullying on their School A to Z website (NSW DEC, 2015). The technology section contains and has links for a range of resources that students and parents can access including cyberbullying prevention policies (NSW DEC, n.d).
Other government initiatives to address concerns about the Internet have resulted in a range of safe and engaging resources for digital classroom environments such as Scootle. Teachers can use Scootle to provide ‘learning paths’ for students so that they can access a set of sequenced resources in a structured approach toward the management of digital learning. Scootle learning paths can help teachers develop students’ knowledge, understanding and skills in using the internet for research. Resources available on Scootle can guide students in developing their ability to analyse websites for their quality and subsequently use the more reliable websites for their research. Teachers can also use affordances of Web 2.0 learning management system (LMS) such as MOODLE to provide a social constructionist pedagogical approach to structuring student learning on the Internet (Barbary and Macneil, 2012). Most DEC schools have access to a MOODLE LMS that is located behind proxy filters to restrict student access to inappropriate content and monitor the online use of that resource. Providing course content using MOODLE and Scootle is a sound way for teachers to address the concerns inherent in using the Internet. Teachers need to TPACK their lessons on MOODLE as well so that they can encourage higher order thinking skills in students and utilise the social constructivist features of collaborative online learning spaces like MOODLE’s forum, Wiki, calendar and chat features. The MOODLE platform is also an Open Source project that is at the forefront of community development and this has resulted in a range of social networking [SN] features being integrated into the LMS. These features are a challenge for even experienced MOODLE administrators because of security issues and the potential for SN features to disrupt the pedagogical philosophy with issues like cyberbullying. Teachers and MOODLE administrators have an exciting future though if SN can be utilised fully in education environments to promote co-constructionist pedagogical philosophies in the way Hew and Cheung (2012) have outlined with case studies about Web 2.0 tools such as twitter, blogging and wikis.

References:

Barbary, A. and Macneil, K. (2012). Module 1 – Getting Started with Moodle: Setting up and adding content. Self-Paced Guide. University of Ballarat. Retrieved from: http://federation.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0006/115575/Module1_GetStart_Self_234_web2.pdf

Hew, K.F. and Cheung, W.S. (2012). Use of Web 2.0 Technologies in K-12 and Higher Education: The Search for Evidence-based Practice, Educational Research Review (2012), doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2012.08.001

New South Wales Department of Education and Communities. (n.d.). cyberbullying. Retrieved from: https://www.det.nsw.edu.au/policies/student_serv/discipline/bullying/cyberbully.pdf

New South Wales Department of Education and Communities. (2015). cyberbullying. Retrieved from: http://www.schoolatoz.nsw.edu.au/technology/cyberbullying

Roblyer, M. and Doering, A. (2013). Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching: Pearson New International Edition. Pearson Education Limited. Kindle Edition.

Technology in Year 8 Geography

In NSW the Year 8 Geography course all of the outcomes relating to the content of the syllabus can benefit from a balanced approach toward integrating technology and pedagogy in the classroom. Further to this there are some outcomes that require students to demonstrate technical skills (e.g: 4.2 A student organises and interprets geographical information and Stage 4 requires students to collect and interpret electronic information) (Board of Studies Teaching and Educational Standards NSW [BOSTES], 2015) and technology can play a key role when integrated thoughtfully by teachers. Using the SAMR model to redefine a Geography lesson that is focused on outcome 4.2 for example may initially substitute a colour map from a textbook with an e- text CD Rom so the student can interpret the information in the key and scale with a digital device. Teachers may feel confident implementing the use of digital textbooks in the classroom, however after examining the TPACK framework (Mishra and Koehler, 2006) and analysing a lesson with these resources using the TIP model (Roblyer and Doering, 2013) questions about integration may arise because students would find it more challenging to measure distances on an electronic screen than a paper textbook and ruler. Simmons and Hawkins (2009) recommend that teachers are cognizant of such skills based difficulties when attempting to cover content and make sure that instructions about the skills needed are explicitly given to the learners. Another approach using the SAMR model could be to augment the textbook by using an interactive website of the map that utilises Web 2.0 technology with features that measure distances and display cross sectional information between two points. The SAMR model could be used further to  modify the map with links to wiki pages, images, videos and collaborative social networking Web 2.0 technologies that display feeds from expert organisations about objects on the map. A SAMR redefinition of the textbook map can be achieved by integrating the use of an application such as Google Earth into the classroom that allows students to interactively play with the data layers of features from the textbook map on an interactive 3D globe.

Utilising the Web 2.0 affordances of Google Earth and the internet, teachers and students can download data layers from a range of websites that contain detailed information about a range of geographic issues such as Climate Change to use in the classroom to demonstrate outstanding levels of knowledge and understanding of outcome 4.2 – A student organises and interprets geographical information.

In an example of a redefined geography lesson sequence that investigates the issue of Climate Change and focuses on outcome 4.2, students would use Google Earth to add data layers with future projections about temperature and precipitation changes due to high carbon emissions. The GeoThentic Climate Change module employs a balanced approach toward TPACK to achieve this by using a problem based learning pedagogy (PBL) and supplying the necessary data layer (in a .KZM file download link file ) with Google Earth placemarks (Doering, 2009). In GeoThentic, students’ understanding about the Climate Change is scaffolded so that the fundamental knowledge about the issue is presented through a range of situated videos and guidance from experts. The PBL pedagogy allows students to work both individually and with their peers to make meaning through being active and this is consistent with a constructivist epistemological approach (Doering, 2014). Students’ higher order thinking skills are also developed by using specific learning objectives, as Simmons and Hawkins (2009) recommend, because students are required to analyse and evaluate the data, then select the five most affected locations from the ten placemarks (in the .KZM file) thereby achieving Outcome 4.2 (and 4.4: uses a range of geographical tools).

Using the TPACK and TIP frameworks when integrating Google Earth technologies to help students achieve geography outcomes can assist in identifying the content needing to be covered, the required pedagogical approach and the levels of technical knowledge needed in each lesson. Students and teachers need to be actively engaged in ‘playing’ with technologies such as Google Earth so that their affordances can be utilised in structured, meaningful and inclusive classrooms.

 

References:

 

Board of Studies Teaching and Educational Standards NSW. (2015). Geography Stage 4 Mapping of Information and Communications Technologies in Revised Mandatory Stages 4 and 5 Syllabuses. Retrieved from: http://www2.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au/ict_skills_list/index.cfm?search_subject=Geography&search_stage=4&Search=Search+for+ICT+Skills+List

 

Doering, A., Scharber, C., Miller, C., & Veletsianos, G. (2009). GeoThentic: Designing and assessing with technological pedagogical content knowledge. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 9(3), 316-336.

 

Doering, A., Koseoglug, S., Scharberg, C., Henricksong, J., & Lanegrang, D. (2014). Technology Integration in K–12 Geography Education Using TPACK as a Conceptual Model. Journal of Geography, (ahead-of-print), 1-15.

 

Google (2012). Classroom Resources: Lesson Plan Library. Retrieved from: http://sitescontent.google.com/google-earth-for-educators/classroom-resources/lesson-plan-library

 

Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. (2006). Technological pedagogical content knowledge: A framework for integrating technology in teacher knowledge. Teachers College Record, 108(6), 1017-1054.

 

Roblyer, M. and Doering, A. (2013). Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching: Pearson New International Edition. Pearson Education Limited. Kindle Edition.

 

Simmons, C., & Hawkins, C. (2009). Planning to teach an ICT lesson. In Teaching ICT (pp. 54-105). London ; Sage Publications Ltd.

Learning theory and classroom technology

Teachers need to consider learning theory when integrating technologies into the classroom because behaviourist, constructivist and connectivist pedagogies can all benefit from a SAMR redefinition of activities that students complete to demonstrate achievement of curriculum outcomes using Web 2.0 tools and their affordances. Approaches to the epistemology of classroom learning theories (See Image One) have undergone increasing change recently because education institutions are seeking to utilise a more collaborative pedagogical approach that has been made available with the use of digital Web 2.0 technologies. Siemens (cited in Paikin, 2013) says that an Outcomes based curriculum focusing on student readiness for a positive participation in their society has been a significant continuity in the development of behaviourist, constructivist and more recently connectivist approaches to learning theory in the classroom. Starkey (2012) argues that as our society moves from the industrial to the digital age, learners need to be catered for with a more flexible curriculum so that they are able to understand and participate fully in the world that they live in. Starkey (2012) highlights that connectivist approaches to curriculum pedagogies are resulting in the “presentation of information […] becoming less linear (as seen in an essay) and increasingly three dimensional, with hyperlinks or navigation within and across key ideas or concepts” (See Image Two). Starkey (2014) also says that teaching and learning in the digital age with a connectivist approach is consistent with innovative pedagogical approaches suggested in the SAMR model (Puentedura, 2010) that helps to create content and use technology to engage and assess learners’ higher order thinking skills.

Innovating classroom pedagogy to keep up with students’ learning requires teachers to provide active, engaging and collaborative tasks utilising the affordances of Web 2.0 technologies toward a connectivist learning theory approach. HSIE teachers like myself need to do more than just substitute old learning resources like textbooks, overheads and word documents with new Web 2.0 applications like MOODLE courses. We need to consider the student’s needs as active meaning makers who learn through playing and experimenting with their social networks. Bigum (2012) argues that schools have instead, consistently failed to address the social needs of students by obsessing with the latest technologies as a focus for ‘practice’ rather than ‘practising’ their use. He further suggests that these short sighted approaches have resulted in a ‘merry go round’ of consumer driven curriculum and policy design that has failed to engage learners in the objectives of even the most socially aware constructivist approaches toward pedagogy.

Connectivist learning theory can help HSIE teachers implement a more democratic, user centred approach to learners’ needs by encouraging collaboration with other students in the classroom using class Wikis. Collaborative Wikis have been identified by Stanton (2013) as meeting the criteria for the redefinition of classroom pedagogy according to Puentedura’s (2010) SAMR model. After assessing my TechPACK using Roblyer and Doering’s (2013) TIP model I am not confident in expanding the boundaries of collaborative Wikis outside the classroom yet because of the child protection policies guiding internet and social media use in the school. I would also consider the use of collaborative wikis after assessing students skills with more structured and directed learning activities about finding information on the internet. Roblyer and Doering’s (2013) TIP model suggests that directed technology integration strategies such as online multiple choice quizzes are recommended when students need to acquire skills quickly and efficiently. A more holistic attitude toward a consideration of the social environment that students are participating in is a priority for the professional development of my TPACK.

 

References:

 

Bigum, C. (2012). Schools and Computers: Tales of a Digital Romance. Transformative Approaches to New Technologies and Student Diversity in Futures Oriented Classrooms. L. Rowan and C. Bigum, Springer Netherlands: 15-28.

 

Harasim, L. (2012). Introduction to learning theory and technology. In Learning theory and online technology (pp. 1 – 14). New York, NY : Routledge

 

Paikin, S. (2013). George Siemens: Changing Schools, Changing Knowledge, The Agenda with Steve Paikin. Retrieved from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JR_ziHA_8LY&feature=youtu.be

 

Puentedura, R. (2010). SAMR and TPCK: Intro to advanced practice. Retrieved February, 12, 2013. Retrieved from: http://hippasus.com/resources/sweden2010/SAMR_TPCK_IntroToAdvancedPractice.pdf

 

Roblyer, M. and Doering, A. (2013). Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching: Pearson New International Edition. Pearson Education Limited. Kindle Edition.

 

Starkey, L., (2012). Teaching and learning in the digtial age. Oxon: Routledge.

 

Stanton, B. (2013) TPACK and SAMR. Adobe connect meeting. Retrieved from: https://connect.schools.nsw.edu.au/p7dhxvtdzgv/?launcher=false&fcsContent=true&pbMode=normal

What are Classroom Technologies?

The Australian Government Department of Education and Training [AGDoEaT] (2014) have developed an Online Assessments resource to assist with the integration of classroom technologies in schools and the National Assessment Program (NAP) online. As part of the NAP the Education Services Australia’s (ESA) website, Improve, has published information about their ICT Toolkit for Teachers (ESA, 2014a) available through Scootle. The Scootle resource utilises Web 2.0 technologies to catalogue and make available for collaboration, a range of technologies to be used with Digital Education Revolution (DER) and Bring Your Own Devices (BYOD) in the classroom. In NSW where I teach the DER devices have been phased out, however, in 2009 when the program began, I developed this KHS Laptops website to help Year 9 students.

The New South Wales Department of Education and Communities [NSW DEC] has developed a range of DER resources (NSW DEC, 2011a) that have been modified from the Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority [ACARA] curriculum (ACARA, 2014) for The Board of Studies, Teaching and Educational Standards NSW [BOSTES] curriculum (BOSTES, 2014). The DEC’s annotated Year 9 History WWII Program (NSW DEC, 2011b) is a good example of what classroom technologies have done to improve access to knowledge of information and bring more equality to the classroom through implementing the (now phased out) DER Policy (NSW DEC, 2009). The DEC are now implementing a new BYOD policy (NSW DEC, 2013) to maintain the significant advantage of a 1:1 approach to the use of technology in the classroom. Stavert (2013) highlights the literature findings that demonstrate advantages of using BYOD technologies to develop and encourage a more personalised student centred approach to learning in the classroom. Roblyer and Doering (2013) also outline a range of instructional, hypermedia and Web 2.0 software technologies for classroom teachers to use when integrating technology for the classroom. Cox (2012) argues that more student centred approaches to the use of classroom technologies and the internet for e- learning will lead to more constructivist approaches toward instructional pedagogies. Teachers need to use a range of strategies when considering more constructivist approaches in the use of classroom technologies to avoid potential problems with resources like the internet (Roblyer and Doering, 2013).

Classroom technologies such as the DER and BYOD devices offer significant affordances for teachers to utilise both directed and constructivist approaches toward classroom pedagogy. Belinda Stanton (2013) suggests that BYOD technologies can assist in implementing both the TPACK and SAMR frameworks for teachers who maintain a balanced approach toward integrating technology, content and pedagogy in the classroom. Stanton (2013) suggests redefinition and real transformation can occur in classrooms that utilise technologies like DER and BYOD because teachers can not only enhance the content by substituting old resources with electronic ones, but transform resources toward more interactive and engaging applications such as mentoring videos, tutorials and simulations. The transformation of classroom activities using pedagogical frameworks like SAMR toward more learner centred approaches that use the affordances of more novel technologies such as iPods and Nintendos can increase educational outcomes in today’s young learners (Morgan, Butler and Power, 2007). Voogt, Knezek, Cox, Knezek and Brummelhuis (2011) outline a global need for educators to adopt policies that encourage teacher training in TPACK so that a balanced approach to the transformation of 21st C learning can occur.

 

References:

 

Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority. (2013). Curriculum. Retrieved from: http://www.acara.edu.au/curriculum/curriculum.html

 

Australian Government Department of Education and Training. (2014). Online Assessments: Technology in Schools. Retrieved from: http://education.gov.au/technology-schools

 

Cox, M.J. (2012), Formal to informal learning with IT: research challenges and issues for e-learning. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2729.2012.00483.x Retrieved from: onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2729.2012.00483.x/full

 

Education Services Australia. (2014a). ICT in Everyday Learning: A Toolkit for Teachers. Retrieved from: http://www.esa.edu.au/projects/ict-in-everyday-learning

 

Education Services Australia. (2014b). Assessment has never been simpler!. Retrieved from: http://www.improve.edu.au/

 

Morgan, M., Butler, M. & Power, M. (2007). Evaluating ICT in education: A comparison of the affordances of the iPod, DS and Wii. In ICT: Providing choices for learners and learning. Proceedings ascilite Singapore 2007. http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/singapore07/procs/morgan.pdf

 

New South Wales Department of Education and Communities (2009). Digital Education Revolution – NSW Policy. Retrieved from: https://www.det.nsw.edu.au/policies/technology/computers/l4l/PD20090395.shtml

 

New South Wales Department of Education and Communities (2011a). Digital Education Revolution – NSW. Retrieved from: http://www.curriculumsupport.education.nsw.gov.au/digital_rev/

 

New South Wales Department of Education and Communities (2011b). Sample Annotated Programs, Stage 5 History – Topic 4 Australia and World War II. Retrieved from: www.curriculumsupport.education.nsw.gov.au/digital_rev/hsie/activities/hsie_assets/annot_hist_prog.docx

 

New South Wales Department of Education and Communities (2013). Student Bring Your Own Device Policy (BYOD). Retrieved from: https://www.det.nsw.edu.au/policies/technology/computers/mobile-device/PD20130458.shtml

 

Roblyer, M. and Doering, A. (2013). Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching: Pearson New International Edition. Pearson Education Limited. Kindle Edition.

 

Stanton, B. (2013) TPACK and SAMR. Adobe connect meeting. Retrieved from: https://connect.schools.nsw.edu.au/p7dhxvtdzgv/?launcher=false&fcsContent=true&pbMode=normal

 

Stavert, B. (2013). BYOD in Schools Literature Review 2013. New South Wales Department of Education and Communities. Retreived from:  https://www.det.nsw.edu.au/policies/technology/computers/mobile-device/BYOD_2013_Literature_Review.pdf

 

The Board of Studies, Teaching and Educational Standards NSW (BOSTES) (2014) The Australian curriculum in New South Wales. Retrieved from: http://www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au/australian-curriculum/

 

Voogt J., Knezek G., Cox M.J., Knezek D.&ten Brummelhuis A. (2011) Under which conditions does ICT have a positive effect on teaching and learning? A call to action. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. 15 November 2011, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2729.2011.00453.x