The use of digital games in education has been a topic of scholarly research, discussion and debate since Prensky’s works on Digital Natives (2001) and Digital Game- Based Learning (2003). Despite Prensky’s convincing arguments in 2001 about the need for educators to embrace the potential of video games, most have had only recent, if any, experience in implementing such tools in the classroom. Despite this lack of integration and associated lack of research into the use of digital games in the classroom, it is not clear that these tools have been completely ‘overlooked’. Recent developments in web 2.0 technologies and the adoption of open source platforms have arguably resulted in an explosion of gaming applications for various pedagogical environments.
The associated academic research into digital game applications for education has focused on their pedagogical integration into the classroom (Hainey, Connolly, Boyle, Azadegan, Wilson, Razak and Gray, 2014; Big Think, 2011; Extra Credits, 2014). The gamification of online learning resources like MOODLE Learning Management System courses can increase student motivation and provide a vehicle for learners to develop their knowledge and skills in an engaging way (iTeachWithMoodle, 2013; Nevers, 2013). More subject specific content can be focused on with courses utilising ‘Serious Games’ to help motivate students in the development of course knowledge and skills (Apperley and Beavis, 2011) and literacy/ digital (Beavis, 1998).
Jennings (2014) highlights the relevant nature of digital games not only for students but also for teachers who are challenged with integrating technologies into the classroom. Modern digital games such as Minecraft (or the free Minetest equivalent) have a range of affordances that relate closely to the NSW Quality Teaching model (NSW Department of Education and Training [NSW DET], 2006) because they can promote higher order thinking and increased significance for digital natives (Turkay, Hoffman, Kinzer, Chantes and Vicari, 2014; de Freitas and Maharg, 2011; Miller, 2012).
Ifenthaler (2010) and Miller (2012) suggest that games are part of a new global culture that teenagers are participating in through collaborative critical thinking. Developments in the ubiquitous nature of collaborative gaming design are evident in the active co- creation of culturally meaningful and significant video games such as Never Alone (Williams, 2014; Matheson, 2015). Gee (2003) and Williamson (2009, 2013) argue that games have a significant role to play in the development of education curriculum and that gaming technologies can sustainably facilitate the co- creation of curriculum by learners and policy makers for a sustainable future.
It is in this globalised context of gaming development that teachers in NSW need to utilise the motivational opportunities of video games in the classroom and their affordances to address the Quality Teaching model (NSW DET, 2006) by making learning more relevant and significant in students’ education. In Music lessons that focus on outcomes related to duration the video game Guitar Hero has provided a valuable context for students master their individual skills as well as collaborate and help each other with the game’s challenges. Knowledge about note lengths and rhythm that can take much longer to present and explain with traditional instruments and activities has been fun and enjoyable with the Guitar Hero video game. Challenging uncertainties will need to be faced when utilising the affordances of such video games that are marketed in our globalised corporate world toward children. Children ‘look up’ to their heros and these cultural factors will need to be balanced carefully when explaining and justifying the pedagogical usefulness of Guitar Hero.
Apperley, T. and Beavis, C. (2011). Literacy into action: Digital games as action and text in the English and literacy classroom. Pedagogies: An International Journal, 6(2), 130-143.
Beavis, C. (1998). Computer games, culture and curriculum. Page to screen: Taking literacy into the electronic era, 234-255. retrieved from: http://books.google.com.au/books?hl=en&lr=&id=n6pAhi2W6y4C&oi=fnd&pg=PA234&dq=beavis+serious+games&ots=XIN71_618f&sig=uHo-HrRl3u-B0KUCkJfcuNrm33U#v=onepage&q&f=false
Big Think. (2011). Playing Games in the Classroom. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bA7KuOyH3PQ
de Freitas, S., & Maharg, P. (2011). Constructions of games, teachers and young people in formal learning, pp. 176-199 in de Freitas, S. and Maharg, P. Digital Games and Learning.
Extra Credits. (May 14, 2014). Extra Credits – How Games Prepare You for Life – Education: 21st Century Skills. Retrieved from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0hoeAmqwvyY
Gee, J. (2003). What video games have to teach us about learning and literacy. Computers in Entertainment (CIE), 1(1), 20-20. Retreived from: https://lorishyba.pbworks.com/f/Gee.pdf
Hainey, T., Connolly, T., Boyle, E., Azadegan, A., Wilson, A., Razak, A., & Gray, G. (2014, November). A Systematic Literature Review to Identify Empirical Evidence on the use of Games‐Based Learning in Primary Education for Knowledge Acquisition and Content Understanding. In 8th European Conference on Games Based Learning: ECGBL2014 (p. 167). Retreived from: http://books.google.com.au/books?hl=en&lr=&id=IedEBQAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA167&dq=digital+games+education&ots=bEWj6X2m2_&sig=xgbW8GaUyoIKDoofHHjF9nx4GnU#v=onepage&q=digital%20games%20education&f=false
Ifenthaler, D. (2010). Learning and instruction in the digital age (pp. 3-10). Springer US.
iTeachWithMoodle. (2013). Gamify your Moodle courses in under 20 minutes. Retrieved from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E3794YBja6Q
Jennings, J. (2014). Teachers re-evaluate value of video games. Retrieved from: http://www.smh.com.au/national/education/teachers-reevaluate-value-of-video-games-20141130-11jw0i.html
Matheson, J. (2015). The Rise of Indigenous Storytelling in Games. Retreived from: http://au.ign.com/articles/2015/01/16/the-rise-of-indigenous-storytelling-in-games
Miller, A. (2012). Game-Based Learning to Teach and Assess 21st-Century Skills. retreived from: http://www.edutopia.org/blog/game-learning-21st-century-skills-andrew-miller
Nevers, F., (2013). Gamifying a Moodle course. What difference does it make? Week 11. Retrieved from: http://www.iteachwithmoodle.com/2013/06/06/gamifying-a-moodle-course-what-difference-does-it-make-week-11/
NSW Department of Education and Training (2006). Quality Teaching. Professional Learning and Leadership Development. Retreived from: https://www.det.nsw.edu.au/proflearn/areas/qt/index.htm
Prensky, M. (2001). Digital natives, digital immigrants part 1. On the horizon, 9(5), 1-6. Retreived from: http://www.nnstoy.org/download/technology/Digital%20Natives%20-%20Digital%20Immigrants.pdf
Prensky, M. (2003). Digital game-based learning. Computers in Entertainment (CIE), 1(1), 21-21. Retreived from: http://www.cblt.soton.ac.uk/multimedia/PDFsMM09/Digital%20Game-based%20Learning%20Prensky.pdf
Prensky, M. (2005). Computer games and learning: Digital game-based learning. Handbook of computer game studies, 18, 97-122. Retreived from: http://www.itu.dk/people/jrbe/DMOK/Artikler/Computer%20games%20and%20learning%202006.pdf
Smithsonian American Art Museum. (2012). The Art of Video Games: Interview with Henry Jenkins. Retreived from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cBOhtr1vTk0
Turkay, S., Hoffman, D., Kinzer, C. K., Chantes, P., & Vicari, C. (2014). Toward understanding the potential of games for learning: learning theory, game design characteristics, and situating video games in classrooms. Computers in the Schools, 31(1-2), 2-22.
Williams, K. (2014), Never Alone Release Date Revealed. Retreived from: au.ign.com/articles/2014/11/14/never-alone-release-date-revealed?watch
Williamson, B. (2009). Computer games, schools, and young people: A report for educators on using games for learning. Bristol: Futurelab.
Williamson, B. (2013). The Future of the Curriculum: School knowledge in the digital age. MIT Press. Retreived from: http://dspace.stir.ac.uk/bitstream/1893/15690/1/Williamson_Future%20of%20the%20Curriculum_2013.pdf