What are Classroom Technologies?

The Australian Government Department of Education and Training [AGDoEaT] (2014) have developed an Online Assessments resource to assist with the integration of classroom technologies in schools and the National Assessment Program (NAP) online. As part of the NAP the Education Services Australia’s (ESA) website, Improve, has published information about their ICT Toolkit for Teachers (ESA, 2014a) available through Scootle. The Scootle resource utilises Web 2.0 technologies to catalogue and make available for collaboration, a range of technologies to be used with Digital Education Revolution (DER) and Bring Your Own Devices (BYOD) in the classroom. In NSW where I teach the DER devices have been phased out, however, in 2009 when the program began, I developed this KHS Laptops website to help Year 9 students.

The New South Wales Department of Education and Communities [NSW DEC] has developed a range of DER resources (NSW DEC, 2011a) that have been modified from the Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority [ACARA] curriculum (ACARA, 2014) for The Board of Studies, Teaching and Educational Standards NSW [BOSTES] curriculum (BOSTES, 2014). The DEC’s annotated Year 9 History WWII Program (NSW DEC, 2011b) is a good example of what classroom technologies have done to improve access to knowledge of information and bring more equality to the classroom through implementing the (now phased out) DER Policy (NSW DEC, 2009). The DEC are now implementing a new BYOD policy (NSW DEC, 2013) to maintain the significant advantage of a 1:1 approach to the use of technology in the classroom. Stavert (2013) highlights the literature findings that demonstrate advantages of using BYOD technologies to develop and encourage a more personalised student centred approach to learning in the classroom. Roblyer and Doering (2013) also outline a range of instructional, hypermedia and Web 2.0 software technologies for classroom teachers to use when integrating technology for the classroom. Cox (2012) argues that more student centred approaches to the use of classroom technologies and the internet for e- learning will lead to more constructivist approaches toward instructional pedagogies. Teachers need to use a range of strategies when considering more constructivist approaches in the use of classroom technologies to avoid potential problems with resources like the internet (Roblyer and Doering, 2013).

Classroom technologies such as the DER and BYOD devices offer significant affordances for teachers to utilise both directed and constructivist approaches toward classroom pedagogy. Belinda Stanton (2013) suggests that BYOD technologies can assist in implementing both the TPACK and SAMR frameworks for teachers who maintain a balanced approach toward integrating technology, content and pedagogy in the classroom. Stanton (2013) suggests redefinition and real transformation can occur in classrooms that utilise technologies like DER and BYOD because teachers can not only enhance the content by substituting old resources with electronic ones, but transform resources toward more interactive and engaging applications such as mentoring videos, tutorials and simulations. The transformation of classroom activities using pedagogical frameworks like SAMR toward more learner centred approaches that use the affordances of more novel technologies such as iPods and Nintendos can increase educational outcomes in today’s young learners (Morgan, Butler and Power, 2007). Voogt, Knezek, Cox, Knezek and Brummelhuis (2011) outline a global need for educators to adopt policies that encourage teacher training in TPACK so that a balanced approach to the transformation of 21st C learning can occur.




Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority. (2013). Curriculum. Retrieved from: http://www.acara.edu.au/curriculum/curriculum.html


Australian Government Department of Education and Training. (2014). Online Assessments: Technology in Schools. Retrieved from: http://education.gov.au/technology-schools


Cox, M.J. (2012), Formal to informal learning with IT: research challenges and issues for e-learning. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2729.2012.00483.x Retrieved from: onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2729.2012.00483.x/full


Education Services Australia. (2014a). ICT in Everyday Learning: A Toolkit for Teachers. Retrieved from: http://www.esa.edu.au/projects/ict-in-everyday-learning


Education Services Australia. (2014b). Assessment has never been simpler!. Retrieved from: http://www.improve.edu.au/


Morgan, M., Butler, M. & Power, M. (2007). Evaluating ICT in education: A comparison of the affordances of the iPod, DS and Wii. In ICT: Providing choices for learners and learning. Proceedings ascilite Singapore 2007. http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/singapore07/procs/morgan.pdf


New South Wales Department of Education and Communities (2009). Digital Education Revolution – NSW Policy. Retrieved from: https://www.det.nsw.edu.au/policies/technology/computers/l4l/PD20090395.shtml


New South Wales Department of Education and Communities (2011a). Digital Education Revolution – NSW. Retrieved from: http://www.curriculumsupport.education.nsw.gov.au/digital_rev/


New South Wales Department of Education and Communities (2011b). Sample Annotated Programs, Stage 5 History – Topic 4 Australia and World War II. Retrieved from: www.curriculumsupport.education.nsw.gov.au/digital_rev/hsie/activities/hsie_assets/annot_hist_prog.docx


New South Wales Department of Education and Communities (2013). Student Bring Your Own Device Policy (BYOD). Retrieved from: https://www.det.nsw.edu.au/policies/technology/computers/mobile-device/PD20130458.shtml


Roblyer, M. and Doering, A. (2013). Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching: Pearson New International Edition. Pearson Education Limited. Kindle Edition.


Stanton, B. (2013) TPACK and SAMR. Adobe connect meeting. Retrieved from: https://connect.schools.nsw.edu.au/p7dhxvtdzgv/?launcher=false&fcsContent=true&pbMode=normal


Stavert, B. (2013). BYOD in Schools Literature Review 2013. New South Wales Department of Education and Communities. Retreived from:  https://www.det.nsw.edu.au/policies/technology/computers/mobile-device/BYOD_2013_Literature_Review.pdf


The Board of Studies, Teaching and Educational Standards NSW (BOSTES) (2014) The Australian curriculum in New South Wales. Retrieved from: http://www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au/australian-curriculum/


Voogt J., Knezek G., Cox M.J., Knezek D.&ten Brummelhuis A. (2011) Under which conditions does ICT have a positive effect on teaching and learning? A call to action. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. 15 November 2011, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2729.2011.00453.x

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