#INF533 Critical Reflection

In my first blog post (Bailie, 2016, July 25) and my reflection on Digital Literature experiences (Bailie, 2016, August 28) I was struggling with whether or not you are really reading literature if the literature is presented as a video. Back then I decided that reading literature had to incorporate the decoding of at least some text. I have come to see that the broader term “experiencing literature” is more useful and this doesn’t have to mean decoding only words. Digital storytelling to me has a more fluid, less rigid meaning. Stories can be told verbally, through pictures and sounds, by reading words or even through maps as I discovered in creating my Digital Storytelling Project. Are these stories literature? Well, not necessarily (Walsh, 2013), but their value for learners to both experience (Matthews, 2014) and create (Sukovic, 2014; Tolisano, 2015) cannot be denied.

Even though I am a social media enthusiast and can no longer imagine my life without Twitter, I have not previously combined it with my fiction reading. However, I have readily engaged with writers who I read in a professional or academic capacity, including for other subjects in this course. As a connected learner it is second nature for me to share my learning so the reviews for Experiencing digital literature were no exception. I shared my review of Upgrade Soul with its creators via Twitter and their Facebook page and had quick and positive responses.

Facebook post

I thoroughly enjoyed the digital storytelling project, I think mostly because, for the first time in this course, I was able to immerse myself in something which I have a deeply personal connection with, not just a professional one. Much of the research for A stranger in the town (ASITT) was completed when I did a local history project for my HSC in 1981. I believe I have transformed the content into something that could not have been imagined back then. In particular:

  • Technology now allows images to be scanned, enlarged and enhanced making them not only look better than the original but able to be shared. Previously only one original copy was held somewhere (hopefully) safe and poor quality photocopies had to suffice.
  • The use of interactive maps as a storytelling tool. This is explained further in the Context for digital storytelling project.
  • The ability for the story to shared widely. I remember showing my grandparents my original project but that was as far as it went. My father has already emailed the ASITT link to many Yandell and Bailie relatives. I used the facility in Atavist to set up Facebook and Twitter sharing, editing the text for post to both platforms.

Here is the original handwritten project:

I consider myself fairly savvy with digital tools and find most things easy to use and navigate. The simplicity and elegance of the design of Atavist digital magazines appealed to me and I believed using the finished product to be self-explanatory. However, I shared the story with my family to proofread and from their feedback discovered that some of the features of the platform are not necessarily intuitive for the new user. The simple symbol where audio is embedded wasn’t obviously clickable, likewise the slideshow navigation arrows don’t stand out so only the first image was viewed. I’ve since added in specific direction about viewing the slideshows and listening to the audio. This was a lesson in not assuming anything about users’ facility with technology.

Like a previous student of INF533 I hope my story might inspire others to digitise their family photographs and record their memories so they can be shared more widely (Clark, 2015). For my original HSC project I spoke with my grandparents and Aunty Margaret but I didn’t record anything (even if I had it’s unlikely the media would have survived, cassette player, anyone?) and they have all since passed away. How wonderful it would be to hear their voices in this project too. My dad is nearly 80, I’m so happy to have had this opportunity to record some of his memories and I hope these will survive.

Completing the project, which was very broad, made me see value in smaller stories. If I was starting again I might instead turn the story of my grandfather setting out to be a travelling salesperson at the age of 4 into an interactive book like The Artifacts or use the story of Robert and Lilly’s first meeting and wedding as the basis for creating a story told through Twitter, Facebook or Instagram.

INF533 has really opened my eyes to the possibilities of digital storytelling and I hope to be an active creator both personally and professionally. Likewise, there is enormous potential for students to use narrative technology (Hall, T. 2012) to be active creators of content, instead of passive consumers (Morra, S., 2013) and I will help my school move forward by become a digital storytelling evangelist among my colleagues.

References

Bailie, H. (2016, July 25). #INF533 Blog task [Web log post]. Retrieved http://thinkspace.csu.edu.au/hbailie/2016/07/25/blog-task/ 

Bailie, H. (2016, August 28). Critical Reflection of Digital Literature Experiences [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://thinkspace.csu.edu.au/hbailie/2016/08/28/digital-literature-experiences/

Clark, G. (2015). The Backstory To My Backstory On The Late Antonio Giordano (1907-1984). Retrieved from http://thinkspace.csu.edu.au/cloudingaround/2015/10/12/my-social-history-backstory-on-the-late-antonio-giordano-1907-1984/

Hall, T. (2012). Digital Renaissance: The Creative Potential of Narrative Technology in Education. Creative Education, 3, 96-100. doi: 10.4236/ce.2012.31016.

Matthews, J. (2014). Voices from the heart: The use of digital storytelling in education. Community Practitioner, 87(1), 28-30. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1474889132?accountid=10344

Morra, S. (2013) Eight steps to great storytelling. [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://www.edudemic.com/8-steps-to-great-digital-storytelling/

Sukovic, S. (2014). iTell: Transliteracy and digital storytelling. Australian Academic & Research Libraries, 45(3), 205–229. Retrieved from http://doi.org/10.1080/00048623.2014.951114

Walsh, M. (2013). Literature in a digital environment (Ch. 13). In L. McDonald (Ed.), A literature companion for teachers. Marrickville, NSW: Primary English Teaching Association Australia (PETAA). Retrieved from https://www.csu.edu.au/division/library/ereserve/pdf/walsh-m3.pdf

Context for Digital Storytelling Project

image-for-blog

The non-fiction digital storytelling project A stranger in the town (ASITT) is designed as both a resource for teachers to use with students and as a “hook” for professional learning workshops for teachers. It also has a personal context as a means of sharing memories and precious family photographs with extended family.

ASITT has been produced in a digital magazine format using Atavist, exploiting the affordances of technology (Rettberg, 2012) with elements unimaginable in printed text (Jabr, 2013). The platform was selected for the ease of using a range of multimodal elements, simple formatting and elegant design.

My institution, The King David School, is an independent, Jewish K-12 school in Melbourne. In year 6, students undertake a Dorot (generations) project which is an exploration of their family history and Jewish heritage. The unit extends over a whole term, covering aspects of the history and Jewish studies curriculum, and culminates in presentations to family at a celebration breakfast. Although it is a technologically literate school with students bringing their own devices, the presentation of Dorot projects is largely analog.

ASITT is an example of some of the elements of the Dorot project presented as a digital story, taking advantage of technology to use multimodal elements to present information in a different way (Reid, 2013). Reid cites strong evidence that students who create ebooks are more engaged in learning (p. 38), particularly for the potential for their work to be viewed by more than just their teacher.

In the Dorot project students research the migration story of a family member and present it in the form of diary entries, in ASITT the story of A.C. Yandell’s journey from Adelaide to Castlemaine and early days at the diggings is presented as a diary. Students also prepare a world map showing this relative’s home town, eventual destination in Australia, and places stopped along the way – in ASITT the Google application Google My Maps has been used. Google My Maps provide an interactive way to view and engage with information in a geographical context. Being able to zoom into the village where Yandell was born and then zoom out to see the length of his journey to Australia puts the magnitude of the journey into context in a far more relatable way than a static map.

Google My Maps could in itself be used as a digital storytelling platform such is its capacity for adding multimodal layers of information including lines to connect locations, images, video, datasets and more. In the Dorot project the class could collaborate on one My Map document, each adding their own layer, possibly identifying connections between their families, adding to the potential for meaning-making.

Included is explanation about how some of the information was discovered, and links to historical sources to support the students in their research. Explanations have been provided for some unfamiliar terms but not others, leaving open the opportunity for discovery through guidance from the teacher.

In using ASITT with students, teachers could refer to the iPed model (Mills & Levido, 2011): link, challenge, cocreate, share. Using selected aspects and sections as appropriate to the stage of the unit the teacher would support students to find links with their own family stories, challenge them to think about how their story could be portrayed, support them in the co-creation process to use the chosen tools, and then share completed projects with family. Stories provoke us to make connections with our own lives (Lambert, 2010, p.10).

In conjunction with the Dorot project the year 6 teacher could use ASITT as a catalyst for cross-curricular activities also fulfilling Australian Curriculum ICT Capabilities for creating and communicating with ICT. For example, in Literacy it could be used as a springboard for writing for different purposes:

Informative text

  • Rewrite the information from the newspaper report about the wedding in contemporary language and post to a blog.

Creative text

  • Reimagine the story of Dave setting off to be a travelling salesman at the age of four, or use some of David’s memories to create a fictional narrative for younger children. Create illustrations and turn this into a digital picture book.
  • Imagine what it would be like growing up in a household of eleven sisters and one brother, either in the 1880’s, the present day or another time period. Present the information as a diary/series of social media posts.

Persuasive text

  • Use digital tools to create an advertisement for A.C.Yandell’s business.

In Numeracy students could use the linked resource Measuring Worth to explore relative values and the mathematics behind their calculation, while Google My Maps has many applications for the teaching of measurement.

These activities may also be applicable at other year levels.

As a hook for teacher professional learning, the digital story would be shared with teachers prior to them signing up for workshops where the mechanics and potential of tools like Atavist and Google My Maps would be explored.

References

Jabr, F. (2013). The reading brain in the digital age: The science of paper versus screens. Scientific American. Retrieved from http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/reading-paper-screens/

Lambert, J. (2010). Digital Storytelling Cookbook. Berkley, CA: Center for Digital Storytelling

Mills, K. & Levido, A. (2011). iPed: pedagogy for digital text production. The Reading Teacher, 65(1), 80-91, DOI: 10.1598/RT.65.1.11

Reid, K. (2013). Creating e-books in the classroom. In J. Bales (Ed.), E-books in learning – a beginner’s guide (pp. 37-43). Australia: Australian School Library Association.

Rettberg, J. W. (2012). Electronic literature seen from a distance: the beginnings of a field. Retrieved from http://www.dichtung-digital.org/2012/41/walker-rettberg.htm

 

Digital Storytelling Topic Proposal

Diggings in the Mount Alexander district of Victoria in 1852, watercolour on paper, 24.5 x 35 cm by ST Gill (http://nla.gov.au/nla.pic-vn3112373) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Proposed topic:

An early Castlemaine family

My great, great grandfather, A.C. Yandell, arrived at the Mount Alexander goldfields (later named Castlemaine) in 1852 and his descendants have lived in Castlemaine ever since.

This digital story will highlight selected aspects of A.C. Yandell’s life, as well stories about some of his children and grandchildren. Interwoven in the story will be information about how I researched the information to inspire and enable the reader to research their own family.

Proposed digital tools and spaces to be used

The main digital tool/space to be used is Atavist. If required, additional media will be uploaded to Youtube or Soundcloud for embedding in Atavist.

Rationale for topic focus for the digital storytelling project

I work at an independent Jewish K-12 school. In year 6, students undertake a Dorot project (dorot is Hebrew for generations) which is an exploration of their family history and Jewish heritage. Some of the elements of this project are:

  • Constructing a family tree
  • Researching the biography of a family member
  • Researching the migration story of a family member
  • Selecting and reflecting on an artefact that connects to their Jewish heritage

While I am not Jewish, my story about my family heritage could be used as an example of how this information can be presented. The inclusion of explanations about how information was discovered and links to historical sources would also support the students in their research. The opportunity to compare their stories to one from a different heritage and time period would be an interesting extension activity.

The story has scope for inclusion in teaching about “using historical sources as evidence” and “exploring historical perspectives, concepts and skills” as required in the Victorian Curriculum – History (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, n.d.). The content of this story directly links with Victorian Curriculum Historical Knowledge Level 5 and 6 topics The Australian Colonies and Australia as a Nation, in particular “The causes and the reasons why people migrated to Australia from Europe and Asia, and the perspectives, experiences and contributions of a particular migrant group within a colony”, and “The nature of … colonial presence … and aspects of the daily life of the inhabitants”.

Reference

Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority (n.d.). History. Retrieved September 08, 2016, from http://victoriancurriculum.vcaa.vic.edu.au/the-humanities/history/curriculum/f-10#level=5-6

Critical Reflection of Digital Literature Experiences

One of the questions I have struggled with in this unit so far is what actually counts as literature in the digital environment. Do we read a digital text or can we merely watch it? Web series such as The Green Gables Fables and The Lizzie Bennet diaries have been presented as literature in a digital environment but to me simply watching some videos and reading Facebook posts is no more reading literature than watching a movie is. I have reached the conclusion that a digital text must require the user to actually decode and comprehend text, that is, the written word, in order to be literature. Enhancements such as having a narrator read the same text as is visible on the screen are fine, especially when they support the learning process (Lamb, 2011; James & De Kock,2013; Yokota & Teale, 2014). But at the heart of the text must be the words.

In essence, a good digital text is no different to a good non-digital text – the features of good literature must be present (Walsh, 2013) – but multimedia features must also stand up to scrutiny, serving to enhance the text, and not distract or detract from it (Lamb, 2011; James & De Kock,2013). Navigating and using the multimodal features should be intuitive or simply explained and easily achieved. The very best digitally originated texts are unimaginable in the print environment. The enhancements afforded by the environment to The Artifacts (see review) put it in this category as, while the pages could be printed, the levels of meaning to be gathered from the interactive features, sound effects and the way additional text appears, could not.

In good digital literature both the narrative experience and the multimedia experience are designed (Meyers, Zaminpaima & Frederico, 2014).

Meyers et al discuss the challenge of sourcing quality storybook apps for young readers. Using published reviews can be problematic they say, as different review publications have different purposes and perspectives. A reviewer seeking quality literature using traditional criteria of characterisation, themes, style, vocabulary (Walsh, 2013) might see some multimodal features as superfluous whereas others will prize these same features more highly than the quality of the text and its appropriateness to its intended audience. For educators, the bottom-line should be: do the features both align with and maintain the integrity of the story (Yokota & Teale, 2014).

A good digital text might actually do a better job of engaging reluctant readers or supporting learning through enhancements such as narration of the text or multimodal elements which provide additional access points for comprehension (Yokota & Teale, 2014).

Almost everything I read these days, be it for work, pleasure or study, is digital, falling into the categories of reconstructed literary text or digitally originated text (Unsworth, 2008). I rarely read print these days, except for flipping through the newspaper when on a break, usually while eating. Somehow it is ok to use sticky fingers on a newspaper but not on a device. I love my digital texts on my Kindle and iPad, mostly for the convenience factor (Jabr, 2013). In a device no heavier than a small novel I have access to more than I could possibly read in my lifetime (Sadokierski, 2013). I can carry it without any inconvenience while walking and read while travelling by train to work. I can take it on holiday and have no concern with luggage limits. I can highlight points of interest, make notes, and easily search the the text to locate a relevant section. In short, I’m a total convert.

For the digital literature review I read Upgrade Soul (see review) which is completely outside my usual field of interest, both in form and content. I have never been a fan of graphic novels, either in print or online, although as a teacher-librarian I recognise their attraction to adolescents (Moorefield-Lang & Gavigan, 2012) and I fully support their inclusion in our collection. When I’ve looked at graphic novels in the past I’ve been irritated or underwhelmed. I tend to read quickly, skipping over illustrations and find having to decide whether to read across then down or vice versa annoying. I haven’t taken in the full experience that the artwork gives. Upgrade Soul, however, might have created a convert. The atmospheric soundtrack and the fact that each frame appears in the order it should be read slowed me down and made me appreciate what I was reading. It became an engaging experience and I now eagerly await the publication of the next chapter.

Upgrade Soul was probably the digital text I enjoyed the most but it didn’t scream with classroom possibilities, particularly for the upper primary students with whom I work.

The Artifacts, however, would make an ideal text study for English for year four or five students. At my school these classes share a set of iPads so a copy for each iPad could be purchased through Apple’s Volume Purchasing Program for $56. (Managed distribution is an option for student-owned devices). Each page has possibilities for discussion questions or different types of writing activities. For example, page 6, where a caterpillar and Asaf are alternately shown collected in a jar, students could discuss the ethics of collecting living creatures or write a creative piece imagining that they have been collected – what would they do, how would they feel, how could they escape? There are also many opportunities for vocabulary activities: finding out the meaning of, and using in a sentence, the additional atmospheric words that appear on several of the pages.

References

Jabr, F. (2013) The reading brain in the digital age: The science of paper versus screens. Scientific American, April 11. Retrieved from: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/reading-paper-screens/

James, R. & De Kock, L. (2013). The digital David and the Gutenberg Goliath: the rise of the ‘enhanced’e-book. English Academy Review, 30(1), pp. 107-123. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10131752.2013.783394

Lamb, A. (2011). Reading redefined for a transmedia universe. Learning and leading with technology, 39(3), 12-17. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.csu.edu.au/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ehh&AN=67371172&site=ehost-live

Meyers, E.M., Zaminpaima, E., & Frederico, A. (2014). The Future of Children’s Texts: Evaluating Book Apps as Multimodal Reading Experiences. In iConference 2014 Proceedings (pp. 916-920) doi:10.9776/14312 Retrieved fromhttps://www.ideals.illinois.edu/bitstream/handle/2142/47386/312_ready.pdf?sequence=2

Moorefield-Lang, H., & Gavigan, K. (2012). These aren’t your father’s funny papers: the new world of digital graphic novels. Knowledge Quest, 40(3), 30-35. Retrieved from http://www.ala.org/aasl/sites/ala.org.aasl/files/content/aaslpubsandjournals/knowledgequest/docs/ FREEArticle_TheseAren%27t_30-35.pdf

Sadokierski, Z. (2013, November 12). What is a book in the digital age? [Web log post]. Retrived from http://theconversation.com/what-is-a-book-in-the-digital-age-19071 What is a book in the digital age?

Unsworth, L. (2008). Multiliteracies, E-literature and English Teaching. Language & Education: An International Journal, 22(1), 62-75. doi:10.2167/le726.0

Walsh, M. (2013). Literature in a digital environment (Ch. 13). In L. McDonald (Ed.), A literature companion for teachers. Marrickville, NSW: Primary English Teaching Association Australia (PETAA). https://www.csu.edu.au/division/library/ereserve/pdf/walsh-m3.pdf

Yokota, J. & Teale, W. H. (2014). Picture books and the digital world: educators making informed choices. The Reading Teacher, 34(6). Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/3886534/Picture_Books_and_the_Digital_World_Educators_Making_Informed_Choices

 

Digital Literature Review: The Artifacts

The Artifacts start page

The Artifacts by Lynley Stace and Dan Hare is an interactive storybook (Lamb, 2011) available from the iTunes store as a universal app for iPad, iPhone and iPod touch at a cost of A$4.49. Produced in Australia and first released in 2012, this digitally originated text (Unsworth, 2008) is targeted at middle primary to early secondary-aged children, an under-catered for market (Grabarek, 2012).

Asaf is a collector of collections, things that other people throw away. His parents view his collections as rubbish and do not want them in the house. When Asaf is 13 they take the opportunity of a move to a new house to throw them out, instructing him not to have any more collections. Asaf retreats into his imagination. He discovers it is possible to collect things that others can’t see – ideas, information, fantasy worlds, and develops an excellent memory. When he grows up he leaves home taking only “two small suitcases and one very large mind”.

Asaf's cluttered room

The Artifacts is a cleverly constructed story with multimodal features (Walsh, 2013. P. 181). From the opening page where narration and sound effects can be turned on or off by flicking old-fashioned light switches, and random symbols appear from a cardboard box, to the caterpillars noisily eating leaves added by a touch, to the positive and negative concepts streaming from the hot and cold taps in the bathroom, this story is greatly enhanced by clever interactive features. The app does not come with instructions so the interactivity is not explained and must be discovered. For this reason, it will reward re-reading as new features are revealed. On first read, I didn’t realise that tilting the screen had an effect and missed a number of the interactive features. The app is presented for linear reading but it’s possible to navigate to different pages via the menu.

The illustrations are in a simple, realistic style and the colour palette changes with the mood through the story. Simple animation – static objects moving on the screen – and appropriate sound effects are used to good effect, enhancing the overall experience.

Asaf's new room

While it is refreshing to hear an Australian accent in a market dominated by American products, the narrator’s voice lacks animation and is not entirely appropriate to the story’s tone (Yokota and Teale, 2014, p.580). Pronunciation mistakes are jarring – pen-chant instead of pon-shon – is one example. The narrator is not credited, presumably it was not a professional voice artist or actor which is a pity as this is the only glaring negative feature of an otherwise engaging story app.

Throughout the story the use of language is creative and evocative: “Asaf sat inside the desolate room and hated everything about it” (p. 9) where tapping the screen summons an alphabetical stream of unhappy and negative phrases “the absence” “the betrayal” “the cheerlessness” “the dearth” “the ill-feeling” “the joylessness” “the minimalism” and so on. Later, Asaf is in the bathroom cleaning his teeth and “collecting his thoughts” (p. 18). Tapping the cold tap reveals negative words in blue: disappointment, rage, guilt, anxiety; while the hot tap reveals red, positive terms: excitement, delight, amusement, hope. In the library, he reads books with outrageous and amusing titles “Practical onomatopoeia” “Frowsiness illustrated” “Treatise on giggling and chuckling”. As Asaf moves from his desolation at the loss of his physical things to the realisation that he can amass vast collections in his mind, the reader must interpret and comprehend more than just the text, the interactive features contribute to the meaning (Leu et al, 2011, p. 6), they maintain the integrity of the story (Yokota and Teale, 2014, p. 581) and enhance the reader’s imaginative projection (James and de Kock, 2013. P. 114).

Asaf collects his thoughts

The Artifacts lends itself easily to classroom use. Extensive teaching notes are provided giving page by page reading notes, pointing out some of the interactive features that could be missed, and lesson ideas for oral language, advertising, the natural world, creative writing, geography, and writing a compare and contrast essay. There are links to further information, resources and templates. (Slap Happy Larry, 2016).

Links to the Slap Happy Larry Youtube channel, Facebook page and teaching notes are found from the “i” icon. Each of these is protected by asking the user to “Press 1. Slate Gray 2. Raspberry simultaneously to continue” from a choice of four colour patches. This is unlikely to stop any child capable of reading this text.

Produced in Australia, the setting could be any one of a number of places, and is modern but not time-stamped. It could be taking place anytime from the present back 10, 20 or 30 years which will help the story remain relevant for at least as long as it continues to function properly as iOS is updated. The app was last updated in July 2015.

References

Grabarek, D. (2012, January 16). Review: ‘The Artifacts’ for iOS. Retrieved from http://blogs.slj.com/touchandgo/2012/01/16/review-the-artifacts-for-ios/

James, R. & De Kock, L. (2013). The digital David and the Gutenberg Goliath: the rise of the ‘enhanced’ e-book. English Academy Review, 30(1), pp. 107-123. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10131752.2013.783394

Lamb, A. (2011). Reading redefined for a transmedia universe. Learning and leading with technology, 39(3), 12-17. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.csu.edu.au/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ehh&AN=67371172&site=ehost-live

Leu, D.J. et al (2011). The new literacies of online reading comprehension: Expanding the literacy and learning curriculum. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy,55(1)5-14. Doi: 10.1598/JAAL.55.1.1

Slap Happy Larry. (2016). The Artifacts [website] Retrieved from http://www.slaphappylarry.com/story-apps/about-the-artifacts/

Stace, L. & Hare, D. (2015). The Artifacts [Mobile Application Software] Retrieved from https://itunes.apple.com/au/app/the-artifacts/id467935343?mt=8

Unsworth, L. (2008). Multiliteracies, E-literature and English Teaching. Language & Education: An International Journal, 22(1), 62-75. doi:10.2167/le726.0

Walsh, M. (2013). Literature in a digital environment (Ch. 13). In L. McDonald (Ed.), A literature companion for teachers. Marrickville, NSW: Primary English Teaching Association Australia (PETAA). https://www.csu.edu.au/division/library/ereserve/pdf/walsh-m3.pdf

Yokota, J. & Teale, W. H. (2014). Picture books and the digital world: educators making informed choices. The Reading Teacher, 34(6). Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/3886534/Picture_Books_and_the_Digital_World_Educators_Making_Informed_Choices

Digital Literature Review: Upgrade Soul

Upgrade Soul (Daniels & Loyer, 2014) is both a digital graphic novel (Moorefield-Lang & Gavigan, 2012) and an enhanced eBook (Lamb. 2011) available as an app for iPad, iPhone and iPod Touch. It is free for chapters 1 and 7 with subsequent chapters available as in-app purchases for A$1.49 each. First released in 2012, the story will eventually have 18 chapters, currently up to chapter 9 is available.

Upgrade Soul is a collaborative creation of writer and illustrator Ezra Claytan Daniels, interactive media artist Eric Loyer and composer Alexis Gideon, created using the Panoply platform (previously known as Opertoonity). The creators first built on the Unity game engine to develop this new platform for creating interactive digital graphic novels. Creator, Eric Loyer, says they were motivated by the desire to “explore the intersection of comics, games, music and touch” (Daniels & Loyer, 2014).

While not animated as such, images are enhanced as the platform uses the accelerometer feature of iOS devices to produce 3D effects when tilting the screen. The 3D effects can be turned off if preferred.

Navigation is not explained but intuitive and simple – swipe left or up to move forward, right or down to move back. Tapping the top of the screen gives the option to go back to the navigation panel, open the options menu or share on social media. The main menu includes extras such as information about the story’s creators and development.

The display is identical on iPhone and iPad, forcing a landscape view. There is no capacity to “pinch and zoom” which this reader found to be a disadvantage on the iPhone where the text is quite small, but of no consequence on the iPad.

The story centres on Molly and Hank Nonnar, a mature couple who have invested in a company researching age-defying technology, on the proviso that they are the treatment’s first subjects. Navigation is linear (although you are able to dip in and out of chapters) but the story is revealed in a non-linear fashion. The first chapter introduces Molly and Hank before they leave for the research facility, and concludes with a disturbing revelation of the initial outcome of the treatment. Subsequent chapters reveal how the Nonnar’s learned about the research, how they reached the decision to participate, and the backstory of the researchers, and moves forwards and back in the days and weeks before and after the treatment. Throughout the story the soundtrack is an integral part, adding to the developing suspense and tension. Music is fully integrated, for example, beeps are heard in time with speech bubbles announcing an alarm by repeatedly appearing and disappearing.

Unlike traditional graphic novels or comics presented online, the panels are not revealed as complete pages all at once. Instead, just a fragment might appear, followed by a bit more, before opening out to the full scene. Panels and sections appear from different directions and this movement becomes part of the storytelling. In conjunction with the score this feature enhances the suspense. Close-ups are cleverly used – the section in chapter one where bandages on Molly’s eyes are gradually removed, slowly revealing the room from her perspective puts the reader in her position, and heightens the suspense and sense of impending doom.

Upgrade soul 1

Upgrade soul 2

Upgrade soul 3

Once immersed in reading there is little to distract from the experience (Lamb 2011). Tapping on the screen is only for navigation, while tilting the device triggers the 3D effects which enhance rather than distract. Upgrade Soul is a compelling read – this reader found the immersive experience at odds with Liu’s view that screen reading reduces sustained interaction (2005).

Upgrade Soul is a sophisticated science fiction story suitable for readers of secondary school age and older. The non-linear storytelling can be a little confusing and the reader must be able to infer meaning from the illustrations and sound effects to fully comprehend the story. The themes are thought-provoking and would provide an interesting prompt for a discussion of scientific ethics, or the challenges of ageing in the science, health, philosophy or English classroom.

Only half the planned 18 chapters have been released so far. The complexity of the story and the non-linear narrative will reward re-reading as I imagine fans will do as subsequent chapters are released. While it is possible to imagine Upgrade Soul being formatted into a print graphic novel, it would lose much in the translation, particularly in the way gradual reveal of scenes is used. As Jabr says “new technologies [can] evolve screen-based reading into something else entirely” (2013). As an app Upgrade Soul becomes an experience, not just a story to read. It is a pity it is only available to holders of iOS devices as this intriguing, clever, disturbing experience deserves a wide audience.

References

Daniels, E. C. & Loyer, E. (2014). Upgrade soul [Mobile application software]. Retrieved from https://itunes.apple.com/au/app/upgrade-soul/id549051057?mt=8

Jabr, F. (2013). The reading brain in the digital age: The science of paper versus screens. Scientific American, April 11. Retrieved from: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/reading-paper-screens/

Lamb, A. (2011). Reading redefined for a transmedia universe. Learning and leading with technology, 39(3), 12-17. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.csu.edu.au/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ehh&AN=67371172&site=ehost-live

Liu, Z. (2005). Reading behavior in the digital environment: Changes in reading behavior over the past ten years. Journal of Documentation, 61(6), 700-712. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/00220410510632040

Moorefield-Lang, H., & Gavigan, K. (2012). These aren’t your father’s funny papers: the new world of digital graphic novels. Knowledge Quest, 40(3), 30-35. Retrieved from http://www.ala.org/aasl/sites/ala.org.aasl/files/content/aaslpubsandjournals/knowledgequest/docs/FREEArticle_TheseAren%27t_30-35.pdf

Digital Literature Review: Seven Digital Deadly Sins

Seven Digital Deadly Sins (SDDS) is a website produced through a collaboration between The Guardian UK and the Canadian National Film Board. As such it is free and freely available on any computer or device with a web browser although there are significant differences between the computer and mobile device versions, which will be explained where relevant. For the purposes of this review it was viewed it on a Windows PC and an iPad.  Categorisable as transmedia storytelling (Lamb, 2011) it is “an interactive documentary about our collective digital behaviours” (Seven Digital Deadly Sins, n.d.) – an immersive journalism project and sociological study of new habits, behaviours and activities inspired and promoted by digital technology.

The website begins with a teaser video, a mash-up of sections of all the videos, missing in the mobile version. The classic seven deadly sins – Greed, Gluttony, Sloth, Envy, Wrath, Pride and Lust – are used as a framework for the various behaviours examined. On a computer you are offered a choice of a list view of the topics and sections, and a floating interactive grid for navigation. The iPad forces a portrait view and only offers navigation from a dropdown list under each section, losing some of the visual appeal of the PC version where icons move and reveal their topic and related sin when hovered over. Fortunately it is possible to rotate to landscape view for the videos but it was difficult to navigate back to the menu from a video until it had played in full.

SDDS home - web version

Web version home

iPad view home

iPad view

Envy web view

Web view

Envy iPad view

iPad view

Each section (or sin) features a video of a public figure (comedians, writers, musicians, actors) expounding on something that they or others do in the digital environment. Musician Billy Bragg may not be the renowned songwriter he is today had the internet been around in his formative years as he now spends hours watching “fail” videos on Youtube. In the past he would have been playing his guitar and writing songs. For each sin there are several first person text narratives about a behaviour – “Instagramming food”, “I spy on my kids”, “I click to get angry” – to read, and some interactive polls – a behaviour that may be considered a sin is identified and the viewer chooses to condemn or absolve the sin and to admit whether or not they do this. The cumulative results are then displayed. 

Poll 1

Poll 2

Poll 3

The subject matter of some of the narratives – “Extramarital sex” and “Fetish porn” spring to mind – mean that this site, were it a movie, would garner an ‘M’ rating, so as a whole is unsuitable for under 15 or 16’s. That said, it is easy to see a multitude of uses for the stories and videos as discussion starters for English, health, wellbeing and philosophy classes for older students and selective use for younger secondary students, possibly using Mills and Levido’s iPed framework: link “text to self, text to culture, text to world” (2011). There is potential for increased student engagement by connecting instruction to popular culture through transmedia storytelling (Slota, Young, O’Byrne & Ballestrini, date) – SDDS could be very successful in the teaching of English as an Additional Language or as a hook for cybersafety issues for older students.

Each narrative is illustrated with a quirky line drawing, enhancing the content. In addition to the narrative, each of these sections also provides some salient facts in the sidebar (missing in the iPad view); some of these have a British or Canadian focus but are likely relatable to the Australian context also. For example, along with a story on illegal downloading of music and tv shows is the snippet “In the UK 7M people a month visit a site with illegally hosted content”. Others such as “42% of Facebook status updates are travel stories” and “Online piracy accounts for 24% of all bandwidth” are more generally applicable. 

Facebook article

Web view

Facebook - iPad view

iPad view

Options to share on social media are available for the videos, narratives and poll results as well as for the website as a whole. A word of warning: a twitter search of the supplied hashtag #digitalsins revealed some tweets that can only be classified as pornography.

The reader/viewer can dip in and out of each sin, electing just to view videos or vote in polls or read narratives, or read/view each section systematically or any combination. An atmospheric soundtrack,  missing on the mobile version, loops through a number of different tracks continuously as you view the various elements, pausing when a video is selected and resuming when it is finished.

Published in 2014 there is no doubt the content of SDDS will date but there is no obvious loss of relevance at this stage. Anyone interested in the impact of social media and the evolution of technology will appreciate this engaging, interactive site. It is somewhat ironic that viewers using today’s most ubiquitous technology – the mobile device – are denied the full immersive experience of the computer version but that is the price paid by the creators in making the experience device agnostic.

References

Lamb, A. (2011). Reading redefined for a transmedia universe. Learning and leading with technology, 39(3), 12-17. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.csu.edu.au/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ehh&AN=67371172&site=ehost-live

Mills, K.A., & Levido, A. (2011). iPed: pedagogy for digital text production. The Reading Teacher, 65(1), 80-91, DOI: 10.1598/RT.65.1.11

Seven Digital Deadly Sins. (n.d.). Retrieved August 27, 2016, from http://digital-deadly-sins.theguardian.com/

Slota, S. T., Young, M. F., O’Byrne, W. I., & Ballestrini, K. (2016). A New Hope: Negotiating the Integration of Transmedia Storytelling and Literacy Instruction. Journal of adolescent & adult literacy59(6), 642-646.

A hall of mirrors, or, another reflection on #ETL523 assignment 1

As part of my researching and preparing for ETL523 assignment two I read Doug Belshaw’s The essential elements of digital literacies (2014). I was inspired to construct another reflection on assignment one using the eight essential elements as a framework. Here goes:

The cultural element refers to our ability to move from one digital environment to another, understanding the issues, norms and habits of mind each requires. The collaborative wiki saw the team use Google hangouts, Google docs, Wikispaces, Pearltrees, Canva, ProProfs, Tackk, Powtoon, Twitter, email, Skype (when Hangouts wouldn’t play nicely one evening we switched, barely drawing breath in the process), and we even had a very fruitful meeting IRL. I’d say we’ve got that one covered!

The cognitive element refers the value of being able to use multiple tools “If you only have a (conceptual) hammer then all you see are (metaphorical) nails.”(p.46-7). The one who dies with the most toys wins perhaps! My list in the cultural element is applicable here too – we did good!

The constructive element is all about how constructing something in a digital environment is substantially different to that in an analogue one. Understanding how you can ethically reuse another’s work to construct something new is a vital part of this element. Given our learning module was about Ethical participation in the digital environment with sections on Creative Commons and Remix I’d say we nailed this one. Additionally, it allowed four disparate individuals to work together to create a valuable resource that I hope to share with staff at my school and further afield. We could never have achieved what we did in an analogue environment.

Communicative – understanding the norms and protocols of communication using multiple different digital technologies. Again, that list of tools and social networks we used shows we nailed this.

Confident – being able to solve problems and manage your own learning in digital environments. Sometimes solving problems is all about knowing who to ask; sometimes simply articulating the question leads you to find your own answer. The discussion feature on Wikispaces was almost overwhelming at times as each of us asked questions, expressed concerns, sought advice, answered, consoled and supported each other. We all showed ourselves to be confident learners.

Creative. Perhaps surprisingly, this element does not require originality. Instead, it can be about expressing something that already exists in a way that adds value, and feeling empowered to take risks. My digital artefact for the wiki used the affordances of digital technology to present an introduction in a visually appealing manner. Every frame included something created by someone else but I added value to it and made it part of my narrative.

Critical. We had to consider our audience (teachers) and we had to carefully evaluate the material we wished to share with them. Including Pearltrees collections for each section evidenced our curations skills.

Civic. Amongst other things, the civic element is about using digital environments to self-organise. A collaborative wiki project? – got it in spades!

Belshaw’s Ted talk will give you more background to his thinking and work. I highly recommend reading the book as well.

References

Belshaw, D. (2014) The Essential Elements of Digital Literacies. Retrieved from http://digitalliteraci.es

INF532 Evaluative Report

a) An evaluative statement using the networked learning experiences documented on your Thinkspace blog as evidence of meeting the learning objectives of this subject

Accessing and using information has provided challenges for humans for as long as it has been recorded. Where once information was a scarce and precious commodity, since the 1990’s the issue has been filtering and selecting from the mass of information available (Bawden & Robinson, 2009). Today a simple web search comes up with so many hits it could take years to view them all, even if only fleetingly (O’Connell, 2015). Filtering, selecting and managing the overwhelming flow is difficult, leading to the identification of various information pathologies such as Information Anxiety, Infobesity and Satisficing (Bawden & Robinson, p.185). This and other challenges were explored in the post Challenges regarding the nature of information (Bailie, 2015 May 28). Strategic use of tools has become an essential habit of anyone working in a knowledge environment. These encompass tools for bookmarking and tagging (Diigo), storing, organising and note taking (Evernote), keeping up with blog posts (Feedly), saving to read later (Pocket) and curating and sharing (Pearltrees), and each have their place and (sometimes overlapping) purpose. Curation is an important strategy of teacher librarians who add context before sharing with students and other teachers (Bailie, 2015 May 7b). The complaint by some teachers that students should locate their own online resources, instead of the teacher librarian curated and catalogued Pearltree collections (McQueen, 2015 May 22) seems extraordinary as curating resources for learners has long been the role of the teacher librarian, except that previously it was done via the careful selection of physical items to include in the collection. Curation should be integrated into information literacy programs in teacher librarian supported student learning experiences (O’Connell, 2011).

“A connected educator is one who uses technology and social media to personalize learning for both personal and professional growth” (Whitby, 2013). They deliberately develop their positive online reputation, take advantage of just in time professional learning opportunities such as webinars and tweetchats, and blog to share and reflect (Gerstein, 2013). Connected educators understand network literacy (Bailie, 2015 March 30) and appreciate the importance of teaching students to cultivate networks for learning (Richardson & Mancabelli, 2011) by teaching both about, and through networks (Pegrum, 2010). They know this is vital so as to not merely replace the digital divide (largely overcome through almost ubiquitous online access afforded by mobile devices (Richardson & Mancabelli, 2011, Meeker 2015)) with a new divide characterised by those who do, and those who do not, connect through learning networks. The power of networks cannot be underestimated and was directly experienced in the development and construction of a digital artefact (Bailie, 2015 May 7a).

“Learning to collaborate with others and connect through technology are essential skills in a knowledge-based economy” (O’Connell, Lindsay & Wall, 2015). Educators must themselves be self-directed, socially connected learners who cultivate a Personal Learning Network (PLN) as part of their Personal Learning Environment (PLE) (Wheeler, 2010). Patnoudes (2012) describes the PLN as itself a system for learning. Today teachers need to be multi-literate, embracing the new literacies of the 21st century (Nussbaum-Beach & Hall, 2012) and willing digital participants in the creation of knowledge (Rheingold, 2012,  p.115). They need to be open to new ideas, cultivate a growth mindset (Dweck, 2010), and collaborate with peers, colleagues and students regardless of whether they are in the same building or on the other side of the world (Nussbaum-Beach & Hall, 2012, Bailie, 2015 March 12). Sharing is perhaps the most important thing as the act of sharing benefits the teacher, her direct connections and the education community as a whole. Sharing is a responsibility, not an optional extra (Gerstein, 2015). When looking for information, connected learners can consciously and deliberately turn to social networks instead of search engines – success depends on the breadth, depth and size of the network (Pegrum, 2010). “The key to becoming a successful ‘connected educator-learner’ involves spending the time needed to learn how to learn and share in an open, connected environment.” (Rheingold et al, 2015, p.14).

“Blended learning is about good teaching and making the most of our online and face to face environments” (Jonson, 2014). It requires deliberate and careful instructional planning. Classroom interactions shift from teacher-student to student-student and technology becomes a space for learning (Jonson, 2014). Maffei (2015) has concerns that online and flipped learning removes the teacher’s ability to make formative assessments through personal observation and fears that these recent trends are leading us down the path of replacing teachers (who enable learning) with instructors (who provide training). The teachers’ direct, face to face involvement with the students in the Skype and Twitter stories (Bailie 2015, May 14) was crucial to their success. Do middle and junior level children have the intrinsic motivation necessary for success in online learning without a teacher in a physical classroom? (Bailie, 2015 May 28).

Galan (2014) reminds us that face to face interactions are equally important for teachers. Often these face to face meetings are made possible by the prior online connection.

Instructional design supports the process of learning rather than the process of teaching (Morrison, 2013). Merrill (2002) has identified five first principles which underpin instructional design models. Both school-based and online classroom engagement and learning are strengthened through intentional instructional design. 21st-century skills like critical thinking, problem-solving, decision making, communication and collaboration are carefully scaffolded and the digital and physical work together for formal and informal learning activities (Bailie 2015 May 14). A flexible approach opens the way for personalised learning; digital tools facilitate its realisation.

Wheeler (2015) identifies Learner 2.0 – young people who have been immersed in technology their entire lives. Millenials increasingly prefer visual over text media (Meeker 2015). In designing learning experiences we must meet our students where they are. Merrill’s number one first principle is that learning is promoted when learners are engaged in solving real-world problems (2002). This can be extended to include using their real-world online tools and the socially connected medium where they live. Van Eck confirms this saying “Learning that occurs in meaningful and relevant contexts is more effective than learning that occurs outside of those contexts (2006, p.18).

b) A reflective statement on your development as a connected educator as a result of studying INF532, and the implications for your role as a ‘connected leader’ within your school community, and/or at district/state/national level

In March 2014 when I was embarking on INF530, the keystone subject of this course, I wrote:

What do I hope to get from this course? A way of formalising/legitimising the reading, connecting, curating, commenting, learning I already do. Skills in interrogating and articulating my thoughts about the mass of information I come in contact with each day. More and better connection with outstanding educators (Bailie, 2014 March 5).

INF530 was a whirlwind tour and a terrific beginning but INF532 has given me new insight and appreciation for the potential implications of my own habits in knowledge networking for the students and teachers I work with.

I didn’t think I knew much, if anything about instructional design before this subject. Under the guise of Education Informatics I had discovered that Gagne’s nine events correlated well with my previous school’s Instructional Model (Bailie, 2014 April 23). But instructional design? Like other things, curating springs to mind, sometimes it turns out that you are already doing it, even if you didn’t know it had a name. As always, it is fabulous when you get confirmation that not only what you are doing is right, it has a body of academic research behind it too. Unconsciously, workshops that I present for teachers follow the five first principles outlined by Merrill, I will make conscious effort to use good instructional design in the learning experiences I plan in the future.

As described in the post The future – digital learning tools and strategies (Bailie, 2015 May 25) I see Blended Learning as the approach to online learning with the most chance of making a real difference to the students and teachers I work with. Excellent, professional teachers will not be replaced by online instructors anytime soon. While adults, myself included, may thrive in an online environment (particularly if they are well-connected and supported by social networks), the nuanced assessments teachers make through first-hand observation is unimaginable to me in a purely online learning environment, particularly for early and middle-years children. I will endeavour to provide leadership for a blended approach by:

  • continuing to support teachers using Google Classroom as their online classroom presence
  • promote the use of curation tools as a learning strategy – for example a Diigo group can be used for students to collaboratively research using the commenting feature to critique and discuss each others finds
  • discouraging the use of technology as a reward. The games on our iPads should be intrinsically linked to the curriculum, not a bonus for children who complete their real work early
  • creating, and supporting others to create, online resources for learning that have lasting value

Creating the digital artefact forced me to quickly develop new skills with a range of tools. This has given me confidence in my abilities to create resources for teachers and students, perhaps to support teachers who wish to introduce flipped learning or use such resources in a blended approach. Creating the artefact was very time consuming but I now feel confident in using Audacity, Powtoon, Moviemaker, and to demonstrate their use to others. My video was made up of multiple short clips, several made in Powtoon. Each one came together more quickly than the previous one. Going back and re-editing after some initial feedback was relatively painless, certainly in terms of the technological process, although selecting which content stayed and which went was more challenging. As an exercise in knowledge networking I thought it very successful – I was overwhelm by the number and generosity of responses to the survey which I shared through my networks. I was particularly pleased with Deborah Welsh’s critique when she said “Heather has practised what she preaches, in seeking, sensing and sharing ideas from her PLN. The medium becomes the message – together we know so much more.” (Welsh, 2015).

I have continued to display the habits of connected educators through this subject – I’ve been active on Twitter using the INF532 hashtag, shared resources to the Diigo group and posted to the forum. Sharing has become automatic. However, I’ve let myself and others down in one area. Like most students or workers I ensure I do everything that is explicitly required. At work I choose to go the extra mile when I can although with study there is always more to read and do than I have time for. Previous subjects, INF530 and INF536, both included compulsory, non-assessed, blog tasks which I dutifully completed. While I have completed most such “recommended” tasks for INF532, except in a couple of instances I have not “gone the extra mile” to comment on others’ blogs (another compulsory, non-assessed task in INF536) and I’m disappointed in myself that I haven’t. Commenting is time-consuming to do well, but balancing work, study and family means that unless required, it doesn’t get prioritised. This is something worth remembering when I despair of the lack of apparent interest of my colleagues in becoming connected. It is time-consuming, it can be scary to begin with, it isn’t easy and we are all busy.

Bibliography

Bailie, H. (2014, March 5). Why am I here? [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://thinkspace.csu.edu.au/hbailie/2014/03/05/why-am-i-here/

Bailie, H. (2014, April 23). Module 2.7 Education Informatics [Blog post]. Retrieved from  http://thinkspace.csu.edu.au/hbailie/2014/04/23/module-2-7-education-informatics/

Bailie, H. (2014, May 8). Digital essay proposal [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://thinkspace.csu.edu.au/hbailie/2014/05/08/digital-essay-proposal/

Bailie, H. (2015, March 12). Defining the connected educator [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://thinkspace.csu.edu.au/hbailie/2015/03/12/defining-the-connected-educator/

Bailie, H. (2015, March 30). Network literacy [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://thinkspace.csu.edu.au/hbailie/2015/03/30/network-literacy/

Bailie, H. (2015 May 7a).  Get connected with Google+ – a digital artefact [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://thinkspace.csu.edu.au/hbailie/2015/05/07/get-connected/

Bailie, H. (2015 May 7b). Information curation (and new tool no. 2) [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://thinkspace.csu.edu.au/hbailie/2015/05/07/information-curation-and-new-tool-no-2/

Bailie, H. (2015 May 14). Supporting connected learners [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://thinkspace.csu.edu.au/hbailie/2015/05/14/supporting-connected-learners/

Bailie, H. (2015 May 25). The future – digital learning tools and strategies [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://thinkspace.csu.edu.au/hbailie/2015/05/25/the-future-digital-learning-tools-and-strategies/

Bailie, H. (2015 May 28). Challenges regarding the nature of information [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://thinkspace.csu.edu.au/hbailie/2015/05/28/challenges-regarding-the-nature-of-information/

Bawden, D., & Robinson, L. (2009). The dark side of information: overload, anxiety and other paradoxes and pathologies.Journal of Information Science, 35(2), 180–191.

Dweck, C. (2010). What is Mindset. Retrieved May 29, 2015, from http://mindsetonline.com/whatisit/about/index.html

Galan, C. (2014, October 2). Being a Connected Educator: Face to Face. Retrieved from http://blog.remind.com/being-a-connected-educator-face-to-face/

Gerstein, J. (2013). Educator as a social networked learner. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UKY3scPIMd8&feature=youtube_gdata_player

Gerstein, J. (2015, March 29). Sharing: A Responsibility of the Modern Educator. Retrieved from https://usergeneratededucation.wordpress.com/2015/03/29/sharing-a-responsibility-of-the-modern-educator/

Jonson, Jen. (2014). Blended learning and technology integration. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KD8AUfGsCKg

McQueen, M. (2015, May 22).  ‘Beware of Online Filter Bubbles’: an important video to view [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://thinkspace.csu.edu.au/monique/2015/05/22/beware-of-online-filter-bubbles-an-important-video-to-view/

Maffai, T. (2015, May 21). Mapping the 21st Century Classroom — Bright. Retrieved from https://medium.com/bright/mapping-the-21st-century-classroom-d07b2166d44e

Meeker, M. (2015). 2015 Internet Trends Report. Retrieved from http://www.kpcb.com/internet-trends

Merrill, M. D. (2002). First principles Of instruction. Educational Technology Research and Development, 50 (3), 43-59.

Morrison, D. (2013). Why online courses [really] need an instructional design strategy. [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://onlinelearninginsights.wordpress.com/2013/05/07/why-online-courses-really-need-an-instructional-design-strategy/

Nussbaum-Beach, S., & Hall, L. R. (2012). Defining the connected educator. In The connected educator: Learning and leading in a digital age (pp. 3-24). Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree Press.

O’Connell, J. (2011). Teacher librarians are important [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://judyoconnell.com/2011/10/27/teacher-librarians-are-important/

O’Connell, J. (2015) Our connections and the flow of knowledge [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://judyoconnell.com/2015/03/14/our-connections-and-the-flow-of-knowledge/

O’Connell, J., Lindsay, J. and Wall, J. (2015) A new paradigm [INF532 Module 1.3] Retrieved May 30, 2015 from Charles Sturt University website: https://interact2.csu.edu.au/bbcswebdav/pid-289791-dt-content-rid-651266_1/courses/S-INF532_201530_W_D/module1/1_3_new_paradigm.html

Patnoudes, E. (2012). Why (and how) you should create a personal learning network. Edudemic: Connecting education & technology. Retrieved from http://www.edudemic.com/build-personal-learning-network/

Pegrum, M. (2010). ‘I Link, Therefore I Am’: Network literacy as a core digital literacy. In E-Learning and Digital Media, 7(4), 346-354

Rheingold, H. (2012). Net smart: how to thrive online. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Rheingold, H., Brett, G., Corneli, J., Danoff, C.J., Larson, K., Pierce, C., Ricaurte, P., and Terzi, F. (2015). The Peeragogy Handbook. 3rd Ed. Chicago, IL./Somerville, MA.: PubDomEd/Pierce Press. Retrieved 19 March, 2015 from http://peeragogy.org.

Richardson, W. and Mancabelli, R. (2011). Introduction: The power of networked learning. In Personal learning networks: Using the power of connections to transform education (pp. 1-14). Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree Press.

Van Eck, R. (2006). Digital game-based learning: It’s not just the digital natives who are restless. EDUCAUSE review, 41(2), 16-30.

Welsh, D. (2015, May 20). KN artefact critique [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://thinkspace.csu.edu.au/galloised/2015/05/20/kn-artefact-critique/

Wheeler, S. (2010). Anatomy of a PLE [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://steve-wheeler.blogspot.com.au/2010/07/anatomy-of-ple.html?

Wheeler, S. (2015). Meet Learner 2.0 [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://steve-wheeler.blogspot.cz/2015/05/meet-learner-20.html?

Whitby, T. (2013, August 2). Okay, I’m connected. Now what? [Blog post]. Retrieved from https://tomwhitby.wordpress.com/2013/08/02/okay-im-connected-now-what/

 

 

Get connected with Google+ – a digital artefact

Get connected with Google+ is a short video for teachers promoting the value of using social media for connecting and developing a Personal Learning Network (PLN), showcasing Google+ as one option for a starting point. It can be viewed as a standalone resource but I envisage it being used as an engagement strategy for a face-to-face or online workshop for teachers.

98 teachers responded to my request for input into a survey, either to tweets like this one

or similar requests in Google+ communities, on LinkedIn, Facebook groups and a couple of email lists.

If you were one of those people, thank you very much for your contribution, it was almost overwhelming!

The information shared helped me plan and construct the video and I’ve directly quoted more than twenty people.

The video was created using several freely available tools: Powtoon; Screencastify; Audacity; i-Rig audio recorder; free music from Youtube Creator Studio audio library; royalty-free, no attribution required images from Pixabay, and edited with Windows Moviemaker.

The first version of the video was edited after feedback was sought and received from a number of the original survey respondents – again, if that was you thank you for your time and honesty.

The construction, purpose and effectiveness of the video has been further examined in an exegesis. This document includes a full reference list, links to the summary of survey results and the tools used.