Adopting a GBL approach enhances student experience of the Building Learning Power program

by Chad de Kretser

http://thinkspace.csu.edu.au/rugame


“The most important thing in the Olympic Games is not winning but taking part; the essential thing in life is not conquering but fighting well.”  Pierre de Coubertin

 

Life is more fun if you play games.” Roald Dahl, My Uncle Oswald

“And the winner is… Student learning!”

You are formally invited to participate in the inaugural 2015 Quandary Game Project.

This invitation is directed to educators who implement or will be implementing the frameworks as outlined by Guy Claxton, originator of BLP.

Accept this personal invitation to ‘take part’; ‘to play games’ and to announce, ‘the winner is…student learning!’.

In accepting this invitation you will be allowing students to experience the benefits of game based learning. They will also ‘flex’ their ‘learning muscles’ when Building Learning Power (BLP). What is game based learning (GBL) and why should it be used will be explained and supported by influential GBL advocates, such as Gee, Prensky, and McGonigal. A description of the 4 Learning Dispositions and the 17 Learning Practices will give an understanding of the BLP program. A walkthrough of the game ‘Quandary’ will explore and explain the alignment with BLP. A matrix for student reflection will help identify which BLP Learning Dispositions and Practices have been achieved. A summary of the invitation is repeated with an urgency to accept.

Invitation to GBL. (Source: Wise Play, 2014)

Invitation to GBL. (Source: Wise Play, 2014)

What is GBL?

Unless we are either incredibly disciplined (like those people who keep toothbrushes at work) or masochists, we need some incentive, some fun way to make us practice — to want to do it. This is one reason why games are an important piece of learning. Marc Prensky

To understand a new concept it is important to study the ‘part’ before the ‘whole’ with few rules and guidelines. Agreed?Narrowing learning constraints makes it easier to understand and is important for learning. Agreed? If you do, and you have implemented these practices in the classroom, you maybe practicing GBL already!

This classroom practice and belief is understood as ‘scaffolding’. Knowing how to scaffold for various learners is an important role of educators. Agreed? Scaffolding allows learners with the most challenges to succeed in an activity. Agreed? Scaffolding determines the success of a learner. Agreed? Scaffolding helps students successfully complete an activity. Agreed? Scaffolding helps students own their own learning, at their own level and have a positive experience. Agreed? If yes, and you have transferred these beliefs into the classroom, you maybe practicing GBL again!

When playing a ‘game’ scaffolding is happening. The ‘game’ is scaffolded. Playing occurs  within the zone of proximal development (ZPD) where:

the distance between the actual developmental level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance, or in collaboration with more capable peers (Vygotsky, 1978, p. 86).

GBL is a way to accomplish using technology to integrate real world problems, provide scaffolds and tools to enhance learning (Turkay, Hoffman, Kinzer, Chantes, Vicari, 2015, p. 3).

GBL is scaffolding, as it includes all of the above. GBL is also interdisciplinary, with a multimodal pedagogy; it increases student engagement, motivation and performance. Links between the components of the flow state and its possible usages in educational video games can be made with the idea of learning needs as an essential motivational factor of games (St-Pierre, 2011, p. 86).

For Prensky (2001) games are the union or ‘marriage’ of  educational content and games (p. 145). The GBL definition used will include Prensky’s idea of ‘marriage’ of content and game and adopt a modification of Bober (2010). This results in a definition of GBL which has a game as the core activity and as a stimulus for other related activities, which take place in a formal learning environment and has learning as a desired intentional outcome (p. 5).

Why use GBL?

I never try to teach my students anything. I only try to create an environment in which they can learn. Albert Einstein

We have to stop telling, because almost nobody’s listening. Marc Prensky

Games that have good design engage players in critical thinking. GBL is effective in improving learning motivation and academic performance (Liu, Cheng, & Huang, 2011).

GBL requires multiliteracies such as auditory, linguistic, spatial, and visual. This ensures students engage in multimodal literacy with elements of music, video, movement, and image. These elements require understanding of moving images and their functions, and recognition and responsiveness to audio and visual cues.  Various literacies, such as books and games, are modes of literacy that require meaning-making (Gee, 2013) and are situated within social contexts (Gee, 2001). Educators should have a ‘multi literacy mindset’  so that play and a fun learning space exist (Jacobs, 2014).

GBL can harness student passion. A combination of images, of art, and story, ensure players keep playing. Students have passions in these areas. Through interdisciplinary projects student passion can be used in projects or assignments that engages their passion. And students learn to do so in their “own newly-acquired learning style” (Prensky, 2001, p. 19).

Turkay et al. (2015) recognise that GBL requires

cognitive activity such as selecting relevant information, mentally organising it into a coherent structure, and integrating the new knowledge with existing knowledge

Turkay et al. (2015) also include cognitive load theory and the theories of embodied cognition (p. 6).

GBL allows for interaction with peers. GBL requires developing of skills and strategies and encourages the use of cooperative learning exercises which can be effective for learning. Vygotsky believed that a student in the zone of proximal development (ZPD), when given guidance, helps the student achieve (Vygotsky, 1978, p. 86).

However, integrating games in formal education can raise problems. These problems include:

  1. Games not accepted as ‘learning tools’. That is, games are ‘leisure time activities’ or used merely for developing ICT skills.
  2. The ‘transfer of learning’ concern, where the learning that occurs in the game does not or can not transfer to real-life contexts.
  3. Existence of practical barriers. These include issues with the school’s IT equipment and infrastructure and timetable constraints (Brom, Šisler & Slavík, 2010).
  4. Games seen as disreputable and violent, seeing little to no potential for use in school contexts (Shaffer, 2006).

O’Brien (2011) acknowledges that games can be seen as a distraction from learning, a waste of time, a tool for teachers to control behaviour, or even an immoral influence. O’Brien’s solution is to “explicate their (GBL) value for education”. Learning about ‘educational affordances’, will help learning and student motivation (p. 2).

Bourgonjon (2011) suggests playing games is the best way to understand them. This would experientially enhance GBL as indeed a learning tool and give evidence of transfer of learning to real-life contexts.

See Appendix C for a ‘List of Games’ that include over 20 games that can be used in GBL which can get you started playing games.

Edutopia provides a list of GBL Resources and Games.

Major influences of GBL

Marc Prensky  understands that the thinking and processing by students now is different to the thinking and processing that has occurred by previous students of previous generations. Students are “Digital Natives”; are “native speakers” of a digital language. Those born before these ‘Digital Natives’ are “Digital Immigrants”.

Digital immigrants adapt but have an “accent”.  The ‘Digital Immigrants’ are educators who don’t, can’t or won’t speak the language of the ‘Digital Natives’. Thus creating ‘cross-generational dissonance’. Digital natives get information fast and  can multi-task; graphics are valued rather than text and want gratification as fast as they can get it.  This is foreign to digital immigrants – hence the cross-generational dissonance.

For Prensky, traditional education does not meet the needs of the new ‘Digital Immigrants’. The Digital Natives cannot and do not want to go back to traditional ways of thinking and learning.

The result: traditional education needs to adapt to the Digital Natives in content and methodology.  For Prensky there is a ‘legacy content’ which is reading, writing, math and logic; and a ‘future content’, which values digital and technological matters. Combining the two ,which suits digital natives, has a ready made answer in GBL.

James Paul Gee’s (2003) book provides a list of 36 learning principles. These principles are used by educators for designing curriculum. He coined the phrase ‘semiotic domains’.

 

 

Gee uses semiotic domains to explain the use of conventions and vocabularies. For Gee, games can amplify areas, and represent subset of domains for practice. With semiotic domains, there is transferring between domains where what you learn in games is transferred to other contexts.

Gee includes the “psychosocial moratorium principle” (2003, p. 62). Players take risks when they normally would not do so. Players do so in games because the impact is not ‘real’. In a game environment a character may die but ‘gain a life’. In the real world, behaving contrary to social boundaries (and the law) bring serious and ‘real’ consequences. With GBL, students experience this principle in a safe environment.

Jane McGonigal is a game designer who has been making games for 10 years. She wants to make saving the real world as easy as saving the world in online games. She has made three games on this basis. McGonigal (2010)  wants everyone to increase their game playing behaviour if they are to solve the problems facing the world today, because games provide the ideal collaborative, co-operative problem solving environment where players believe that they can achieve.

 

 

McGonigal (2011) argues that the characteristics of games are:

  1. Rules
  2. Goals
  3. Feedback
  4. Participation – that is voluntary

What is BLP?

Students… concentrate more, think harder and find learning more enjoyable. They do better in their tests and external examinations. And they are easier and more satisfying to teach. Guy Claxton

Guy Claxton, the originator of the Building Learning Power program, believes it is not enough

‘to leave school with a clutch of examination certificates’. He argues for students to be “tenacious and resourceful, imaginative and logical, self disciplined and self aware, collaborative and inquisitive.” Building Learning Power (2013).

Claxton has developed a framework to allow teachers to become more effective ‘learning power coaches’. He believes that a working model of learning power helps teachers

design targeted, effective activities that, over time, add up to greater confidence and capacity in facing all kinds of uncertainties and challenges (Building Learning Power, “How its Done”, 2013, para. 4). 

BLP provides two frameworks. The first is a view of what the ‘powerful learner’ is like. The second is a “route map of how schools can build the constituent dispositions of the powerful learner.” (Building Learning Power, “How its Done”, 2013, para. 2).

The BLP program is summarised into 4 Learning Dispositions and 17 Learning Practices. Each disposition has a relevant ‘aspect of learning’ that impacts learning practices. (Table 1). These Learning Dispositions and Practices are the ‘learning muscles’ that students will ‘flex’ as they experience GBL.

Table 1. Building Learning Power – Learning Dispositions and Practices (Source:Author)

Table 1. Building Learning Power – Learning Dispositions and Practices (Source:Author)

Quandary game explanation and exploration

One learns by doing a thing; for though you think you know it, you have no certainty until you try. Sophocles

Quandary is a free game for players aged 8-14; presenting engaging situations about how to build a new colony on the planet Braxos. Set in a futuristic colony, players develop skills of critical thinking, perspective-taking and decision-making. Quandary provides a framework for how to approach ethical decision-making without telling players what to think (Learning Games Network, 2012).

Figure 1. Screenshot of Quandary Start Page. (Source: Author)

Figure 1. Screenshot of Quandary Start Page. (Source: Author)

There are three episodes (See Appendix A – Quandary Game Walkthrough). A look at Episode 1: ‘The Lost Sheep’ will allow exploration of BLP learning dispositions and practices.

This exploration acknowledges that meaningful use of games

within lessons depended far more on the teacher’s effective use of existing pedagogical skills than it did on the development of any new, game-related skills (Becker, 2011, p. 84).

Also acknowledged is the teachers’ role. For this exploration the roles of motivator, debriefer, and facilitator are presumed. As,

a motivator for learning through engaged games; debriefer for helping students reflect on what is being learned; as facilitator for guiding and facilitating learning by sound instructional design  (Park, 2012, p. 104).

Appendix B highlights 5 guidelines that are helpful for integration of games into instruction. (Turkay et al., 2015, p. 15).

Quandary Game: BLP Learning Dispositions and Practices

In Table 2, the exploration identifies three Quandary game instances (instances being stages of the game) and identifies how BLP dispositions and practices are aligned and can be experienced. (See Appendix A for a more detailed exploration, with 12 instances of the game explored and explained).

Table 2. BLP Alignment of Dispositions and Practices. (Source: Author)

Table 2. BLP Alignment of Dispositions and Practices. (Source: Author)

BLP: Student Self Reflection Matrix

There are three methods to gaining wisdom. The first is reflection, which is the highest. The second is limitation, which is the easiest. The third is experience, which is the bitterest. Confucius

In GBL players are allowed to try again if they do not succeed, which is not common in classroom-based learning. The Quandary game allows students to evaluate their errors and play the episode again. They determine their own zone of proximal development (Vygotsky, 1978), and the feedback they receive, can allow students to evaluate and amend their strategies accordingly (Turkay et al., 2015, p. 10).

The BLP Student Self Reflection Matrix (SSRM) gives students an opportunity to evaluate their ‘learning muscles’ (Table 3). Students rate their ‘flexing of learning muscles’ as an experience in each BLP Disposition/Practice (using a scale from 1-10). If the rating is between 7-10, students are experiencing the BLP Learning Disposition/Practice to a high degree. This can be reflected in the ‘Comment’ section as an answer to the question, “What am I experiencing at a high degree?”. If the rating is between 1-6, students are experiencing the BLP Learning Disposition/Practice to a lesser degree. This can be reflected in the ‘Comment’ section as an answer to the question, “What am I experiencing at a lesser degree?” This last comment can provide the motivation to answer the question, “What goal(s) can I set to improve my experience?”

Table 3. BLP Student self Reflection Matrix. (Source: Author)

Table 3. BLP Student self Reflection Matrix. (Source: Author)

Conclusion

GBL has a game as the core activity and is a stimulus for other related activities. GBL takes place in a formal learning environment and learning is the desired intentional outcome. GBL enhances learning motivation and academic performance and is advocated by Gee, Prensky and McGonigal. BLP includes activities that develop ‘confidence and capacity’ in students. The BLP ‘learning muscles’ have been aligned with instances of the Quandary game. The BLP Student Self Reflection Matrix revealed how students can reflect on how they have ‘flexed their learning muscles’ by playing Quandary.

Accept the invitation: ‘take part’; ‘play games’ and announce, ‘the winner is…student learning!’. Now!

 


Appendix A – Quandary Game Walkthrough

Event 1: The Lost Sheep Screenshots Explanation/Description
Instance 1. Start Screen  Instance1. Start Screen At the start of the game you are presented with options to register with an account which allows you to then retrieve your progress
Instance 2. Choose Captain Gender  Instance2. Choose Captain Gender The ‘Play as Guest’ option takes you to your next screen. You choose the gender of your player or Captain.
Instances 3-5. Get Your Facts Right  Instances3-5 Get Your Facts Right Sort between fact, solution or opinion. 12 cards for 12 colonists. Sort cards into correct categories. Points given for choices.
Instance 6. Narrow It Down  Instance6. Narrow It Down Solutions presented. Narrow to two. Opportunity to review, & complete task again to select full possibility of solutions.
Instance 7. Investigate Viewpoints  Instance7. Investigate Viewpoints Select a colonist & present a solution card to get their point of view.
Instance 8. Decision Time  Instance8. Decision Time Select a solution. Recommend to the Council.
Instance 9. Council’s  Respons  Instance9. Council’s  Response Council gives their response.
Instance10. What Will They Think  Instance10. What Will They Think Share the council’s decision, predicting & categorising colonist reactions into ‘Agree’ or ‘Disagree’ options.
Instance 11. Check Earlier Investigation  Instance11. Check Earlier Investigation Question if there was more you could have found out earlier in the investigation.
Instance 12. Concluding Narrative  Instance12. Concluding Narrative Takes you to the narrative that concludes the Episode.

Detailed Exploration of BLP Learning Dispositions and Practices.

The following exploration identifies the Quandary game event and identifies how BLP dispositions and practices are aligned and can be experienced.

Instance 1 – Start Screen: Options to register with an account which allows you to retrieve your progress.

BLP Learning Disposition and Practice:

  • Resourcefulness:
    • Capitalising – draws on full range of resources
    • Making links – allows students to weave a web of understanding

Instance 2 – Choose Captain Gender: The ‘Play as Guest’ option allows you to choose the gender of your player or Captain.

BLP Learning Disposition and Practice:

  • Resourcefulness:
    • Imagining – using your imagination and intuition to put yourself through new experiences

Instance 3 – Read narrative: (has option for ‘read aloud’ opportunities).

BLP Learning Disposition and Practice:

  • Resourcefulness:
    • Capitalising – draws on full range of resources
  • Reflectiveness:
    • Meta-learning – knowing yourself as a learner; how you learn best

Instance 4 – First narrative challenge: “Are you up to the task?”

BLP Learning Disposition and Practice:

  • Resilience:
    • Perseverance – keeping going on

Instance 5 – Get Your Facts Right: Sort between fact, solution or opinion. 12 cards representing 12 colonists, who share either a fact, a solution or opinion. Points gained for correct placement of cards into their categories.

BLP Learning Disposition and Practice:

  • Resourcefulness:
    • Questioning – delving beneath the surface of things
    • Making links – seeing connections between disparate events and experiences
    • Reasoning – calling up your logical and rational skills to work things out methodically and rigorously
  • Reflectiveness:
    • Planning – thinking about where you are going, the action you are going to take
  • Reciprocity:
    • Interdependence – knowing when it’s appropriate to learn on your own or with others and being able to stand your ground in debate
    • Collaboration – knowing how to manage yourself in the give and take of a collaborative venture

Instance 6 – Narrow it Down: Cards selected as ‘solutions’ are presented and narrowed to two. You have opportunity to go back and complete task again in order to get the full complement of solutions available.

BLP Learning Disposition and Practice:

  • Resilience:
    • Absorption – being able to lose yourself in learning; in a state of ‘flow’
    • Noticing – perceiving subtle nuances, patterns and details in experience
  • Resourcefulness:
    • Questioning – delving beneath the surface of things
    • Making links – seeing connections between disparate events and experiences
    • Reasoning – calling up your logical and rational skills to work things out methodically and rigorously
  • Reflectiveness:
    • Planning – thinking about where you are going, the action you are going to take

Instance 7 – Investigate viewpoints: Select a colonist and present a solution card to get their point of view.

BLP Learning Disposition and Practice:

  • Resilience:
    • Absorption – being able to lose yourself in learning; in a state of ‘flow’
    • Noticing – perceiving subtle nuances, patterns and details in experience
  • Resourcefulness:
    • Questioning – delving beneath the surface of things
    • Making links – seeing connections between disparate events and experiences
    • Reasoning – calling up your logical and rational skills to work things out methodically and rigorously

Instance 8 – Decision Time: Based on what you have received from the colonists, you select a Solution to recommend to the Council.

BLP Learning Disposition and Practice:

  • Resilience:
    • Absorption – being able to lose yourself in learning; in a state of ‘flow’
  • Resourcefulness:
    • Making links – seeing connections between disparate events and experiences
    • Reasoning – calling up your logical and rational skills to work things out methodically and rigorously
  • Reflectiveness:
    • Planning – thinking about where you are going, the action you are going to take
    • Revising – being flexible, changing your plans in the light of different circumstances, monitoring and reviewing how things are going and seeing new opportunities
    • Distilling – looking at what is being learned – pulling out the essential features – carrying them forward to to aid further learning

Instance 9 – Council response. Council gives their response.

BLP Learning Disposition and Practice:

  • Resilience:
    • Absorption – being able to lose yourself in learning; in a state of ‘flow’
  • Reciprocity:
    • Empathy and Listening – contributing to other’s experiences by listening to them to understand what they are really saying an putting yourself in their shoes

Instance 10 – What Will They Think? You share the council’s decision predicting and categorising the colonist’s reaction into ‘Agree’ or ‘Disagree’ options.

BLP Learning Disposition and Practice:

  • Resilience:
    • Absorption – being able to lose yourself in learning; in a state of ‘flow’
  • Resourcefulness:
    • Making links – seeing connections between disparate events and experiences
    • Reasoning – calling up your logical and rational skills to work things out methodically and rigorously
  • Reflectiveness:
    • Planning – thinking about where you are going, the action you are going to take
    • Revising – being flexible, changing your plans in the light of different circumstances, monitoring and reviewing how things are going and seeing new opportunities
    • Distilling – looking at what is being learned – pulling out the essential features – carrying them forward to to aid further learning

Instance 11 – Check Earlier Investigation. Challenges you to question if there was more you could have found out earlier in the investigation.

BLP Learning Disposition and Practice:

  • Resilience:
    • Absorption – being able to lose yourself in learning; in a state of ‘flow’
  • Resourcefulness:
    • Making links – seeing connections between disparate events and experiences
    • Reasoning – calling up your logical and rational skills to work things out methodically and rigorously
  • Reflectiveness:
    • Planning – thinking about where you are going, the action you are going to take
    • Revising – being flexible, changing your plans in the light of different circumstances, monitoring and reviewing how things are going and seeing new opportunities
    • Distilling – looking at what is being learned – pulling out the essential features – carrying them forward to to aid further learning

Instance 12 – Concluding Narrative. Narrative that concludes the Episode.

BLP Learning Disposition and Practice:

  • Resilience:
    • Absorption – being able to lose yourself in learning; in a state of ‘flow’
  • Distilling:
    • Looking at what is being learned – pulling out the essential features – carrying them forward to to aid further learning

Throughout the course of the game scores are given for each of choice made.

At the end of Episode 1 you are returned to the Start menu where you can choose to complete the Episode again or continue on to Episodes 2 and 3.


Appendix B – Guideline for Integrating GBL in the Classroom

Screenshot of Integrating games into instruction. (Source: (Turkay et al., 2015, p. 15).

Screenshot of Integrating games into instruction. (Source: (Turkay et al., 2015, p. 15).


Appendix C – List of Games

ASX StockMarket Game – You are given a virtual $50,000 to invest. Your challenge: to make it grow.

http://www.asx.com.au/education/sharemarket-games.htm

AirlineSim – is the online airline simulation game for pros: With its sophisticated planning, reservation, inventory and management systems it allows you to run your own virtual airlines as if it were the real thing! Assemble your fleet and get your carrier off the ground today!

http://www.airlinesim.aero/en

BrainPop –In traditional, blended, and “flipped” learning settings, BrainPOP supports individual, team, and whole-class learning. At school and in informal learning environments, our characters help introduce new topics and illustrate complex concepts. Through “My brainPop,” teachers and students can keep a record of learning accomplishments through quizzes, game play, and activities. By bringing the world of game-based learning into education – through GameUp- we’re doing just that.  Educational games add a new way to captivate students and help them learn in a manner that’s meaningful for them.

https://www.brainpop.com/games/

CityCreator

http://www.citycreator.com/

Conflict Resolution Interactives – conflict resolution content appropriate for different age levels.

http://www.creducation.org/cre/crday/games/

List on Department of Education website

http://www.education.vic.gov.au/about/programs/learningdev/pages/techgames.aspx

Darfur is dying

http://www.darfurisdying.com/

Electro City – You will be given complete control over a small town within New Zealand. What you do with that town is up to you. You can build stuff, destroy stuff, and even leave stuff alone.

http://www.electrocity.co.nz/HowToPlay/default.aspx

GlobalConflicts

http://globalconflicts.eu/about-series/

iCivics –  is a non-profit organization dedicated to reinvigorating civic learning through interactive and engaging learning resources. Our educational resources empower teachers and prepare the next generation of students to become knowledgeable and engaged citizens. The iCivics games place students in different civic roles and give them agency to address real-world problems and issues. They are rooted in clear learning objectives and integrated with lesson plans and support materials.

https://www.icivics.org

MangaHigh – an adaptive games-based maths resource designed for the blended classroom. Original games-based maths content, including 18 original maths games and 60,000 maths questions. Intuitive reporting – Analytics that help you track and analyse individual and class progress. Computers, tablets and phones – No need to worry about downloads, Mangahigh just works on your devices.

https://www.mangahigh.com/en-au/

MinecraftEdu – has been used to teach a wide range of subjects. The game is designed to be open ended which allows content to be built around any subject area. Teachers have successfully used the game to teach History, Math, Art, Programming, Creative Writing, Science, Music, Digital Citizenship, Religion and more. A very active community is creating and sharing content every day.

http://minecraftedu.com/

Never Ending level Game

http://www.levelgame.net/

Portal – The Teach with Portals program offers free content, information and tools to help educators build innovative curricula. Games and tools are delivered through STEAM for SCHOOLS, the school-friendly version of our game distribution service. Educators can learn about and share compelling, engaging and creative content by accessing lesson plans and resources on the Teach with Portals website, and join a teachers-only community forum for peer support and problem-solving.

http://www.teachwithportals.com/

PowerUp

http://www.powerupthegame.org/home.html

Quandary – players must make difficult decisions in which there are no clear right or wrong answers but important consequences – to themselves, to others in the colony and to the planet Braxos. In their interactions with other settlers in the colony, players must consider facts, opinions and solutions, just like in real life.

http://www.quandarygame.org/play

Quest Atlantis – Atlantis Remixed (ARX) is an international learning and teaching project that uses a 3D multi-user environments to immerse children, ages 9-16, in educational tasks. ARX combines strategies used in commercial games with lessons from educational research on learning and motivation.

http://atlantisremixed.org/

RibbonHero – innovative training game for a productivity application.

http://www.ribbonhero.com/

SimCEO – the web’s only dynamic, interactive stock market simulation, simCEO – where students create their own companies, research each others’ companies, and trade shares to influence prices.

https://www.simceo.org/action/demonstration

Virtual City – Develop a city that reflects your personality and attract more and more inhabitants – that’s the aim of this free virtual game !

http://www.my-virtual-city.com/index.php


References:

Becker, K. (2011). Distinctions between games and learning: A review of current literature on games in education. In Gaming and Simulations: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools and Applications (pp. 75-107). Hershey, PA: . doi:10.4018/978-1-60960-195-9.ch105

Bober, M (2010) Games-Based Experiences For Learning, Futurelab

Bourgonjon, J. (2011). Parental acceptance of digital game-based learning. Computers & Education, (1), 1434-1444.

Brom, C., Šisler, V., & Slavík, R. (2010). Implementing digital game-based learning in schools: augmented learning environment of ‘Europe 2045. Multimedia Systems, 16(1), 23-41.

Building Learning Power. (2013). What it is. Retrieved from http://www.buildinglearningpower.co.uk/what_it_is.html

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1975). Beyond boredom and anxiety. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Gee , J.P. ( 2001 ). Reading as situated practice: A new literacy studies perspective. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 43 (5), 412 – 423.

Gee J. P. (2003). What video games have to teach us about learning and literacy (1st ed.). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Gee , J.P. ( 2013 ). Games for learning. Educational Horizons, 91 (4), 16 – 20.

Jacobs , G.E. ( 2014 ). Reimagining multiliteracies: A response to Leander and Boldt .

Learning Games Network (2012). Quandary. Retrieved from http://www.quandarygame.org/

Liu, C.-C., Cheng, Y.-B., & Huang, C.-W. (2011). The effect of simulation games on the learning of computational problem solving. Computers & Education, 57(3), 1907–1918. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2011.04.002

McGonigal, J. (2010, February). Gaming Can Make a Better World. [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.ted.com/talks/jane_mcgonigal_gaming_can_make_a_better_world?language=en#t-263279

McGonigal, J. (2011). Reality Is Broken: Why Games Make Us Better and How They Can Change the World. New York: Penguin Books.

O’Brien, D. (2011). A taxonomy of educational games. In Gaming and simulations: Concepts, methodologies, tools and applications (pp. 1-23). Hershey, PA: . doi:10.4018/978-1-60960-195-9.ch101

Park, H. (2012). Relationship between Motivation and Student’s Activity on Educational Game. International Journal of Grid and Distributed Computing, 5, (1),

Prensky, M. (2001, October). Digital natives, digital immigrants. On the Horizon, 9(5), 113-118.

Prensky, M. (2006). “Don’t bother me mom, i’m learning!”: How computer and video games are preparing your kids for twenty-first century success and how you can help! St. Paul, MN: Paragon House.

Shaffer, D. W. (2006). How computer games help children learn. (J. P. Gee, Ed.). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. http://www.palgraveconnect.com/doifinder/10.1057/9780230601994

St-Pierre, R. (2011). Learning with video games. In P. Felicia (Ed.), Handbook of research on improving learning and motivation through educational games: Multidisciplinary approaches (pp. 74-96). Hershey, PA: . doi:10.4018/978-1-60960-495-0.ch004

Turkay, S., Hoffman, D., Kinzer, C. K., Chantes, P., & Vicari, C. (2015). Toward understanding the potential of games for learning: Learning theory, game design characteristics, and situating video games in classrooms. Computers in the Schools, 31(1-2), 2–22. doi:10.1080/07380569.2015.890879vygostsky

Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Part 3: Invitation

Part 3: Invitation

Inviting organisations, systems or workplaces to meet, respond & adopt the challenge of game-based learning.

In this section:

Master of Education (Knowledge Networks and Digital Innovation).
Developed by the School of Information StudiesCharles Sturt University, 2015.
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