Peering into Digital Futures.

Let’s start at the end: #INF537 Digital Future Colloquium. The final mountain to climb in this four-year journey into Knowledge Networks and Digital Innovation.

Digital Scholarship
Exploring concepts of Digital Scholarship was hard going and at the start seemed a fuzzy concept relevant only to higher education. However, I became intrigued by ideas presented by Martin Weller and his suggestion that “…in a digital, networked, open world people become less defined by the institution to which they belong and more by the network and online identity they establish” (Weller, 2011). This quite liberating idea, relevant to all connected educators, buoyed me to explore further and eventually had me bumping into the very engaging work of George Veletsianos and his concept of Networked Participatory Scholarship (Veletsianos, 2011). Intrigued even more, especially by Veletsianos’ writings in “Emergence and Innovation in Digital Learning” I moved forward to eventually author an Interpretative Essay on Digital Scholarship. This was tough going but immensely rewarding.

On the surface, the interpretative discussion that emerged seems very esoteric but I have embedded into my writing some very nuanced ways that all teachers can find a voice in education. It points the way for bringing digital, networked and open practices into secondary education, to transform social practices that surround education and yes, transform learning. Very importantly, this view of digital scholarship hands evidence-based practice back to teachers in a context where “experts” spend a lot of time talking about teachers and their work, yet, often exclude the voice of teachers themselves and their lived experiences in classrooms (Ryan et al., 2017). It also points to a digital, networked and open pedagogy which I also argue provides a path forward for secondary education. Of course, these ideas must be negotiated at a local level but they are empowering ideas to explore.

And as always the collaborative and reflective approach:

Case Study

From the above theoretical exploration of digital futures, I dove into designing a case study where I pulled together a focus group of Year 9 students so that we could explore together, their views of knowledge and how they think these beliefs affect how they use technology to learn.

This case study idea stemmed from a dive into EER500 Introduction to Educational Research and then EER501 Qualitative Research Methods that culminated in my first attempt at qualitative research where I explored the epistemological beliefs of teachers. In this site of exploration, I discovered the magic of qualitative research and the power in discussing and analysing everyday teaching practice. In my most recent case study, I found joy and professional reward in discussing knowledge beliefs and technology uses with my students. Student voice in much research and wider sectors of education is largely silent. My journey into research methods has been a blessing and informed my practice greatly. I have learned that schools are very focused on treating knowledge from very positivistic points of view. My research journey provided me with powerful insights into new ways of viewing knowledge, students and learning; both my own learning and that of my students.

At this point, albeit very briefly, I would like to declare a bias towards viewing students through a constructivist lens. I therefore see significant value in (re)viewing their learning through a qualitative paradigm and how a predominantly quantitative analysis of their learning creates a distance between us and them. This is a conversation for another post. 🤔

Of course, I have not journeyed alone, as is evidenced by the following Flipgrid and Voicethread media as rich sites of questioning, critical discussion and reflexivity. The 14 comments added at the end of my blog post “Digital Scholarship – A Conversation” also provide examples of the highly collaborative nature of this learning journey and the deep critical questioning and discussion that it entailed.

These collaborative endeavours have been hugely liberating for me. I am a product of an education system that was grounded in the model of tabula rasa – a model that subordinates learning to teaching (Atkinson, 2015). I have now gained deep, deep experience in learning in digital learning environments where learning is a very social and collaborative activity.  I have lived networked participatory scholarship and learning.

Flipgrid: Collaborative Feedback

Voicethread: Reflective Comments

The wider picture
“Power and knowledge are reflexive, they work together to change how people see each other” (O’Toole & Beckett, 2016).

How I see myself  as a learner, how I view my students and how I view the education system has shifted immensely. In a system that still isolates students in their learning, we must show them how to network in their endeavours to learn. We should not subordinate their learning to our teaching. Such attitudes and practices are very liberating for many students. I know, I have seen it in practice as I shift my teaching in very subtle ways. This reflective and reflexive approach also points to the future of education.

For one, we should not approach technology from a deterministic point of view in a hope of transforming education. There is much I could say here suffice to quote Neil Selwyn “…the history of eduction has been characterised by attempts to use the ‘power’ of technology in order to solve problems that are non-technical in nature” (Selwyn, 2016).  Furthermore, I have learnt that educational transformation comes from within, as we learn to see each other and our students in new ways. Of course that shift must include new practices –  it is time that teachers were given agency to shift education. Much #edtech talk robs teachers of this agency. Indeed, simply embedding tech into classrooms can be very ineffective, mundane even. It is teachers leveraging these technologies to build unique ways of doing that is important…the tech has no special power, but teachers working together do. And teachers working with students.

Which takes me back to some inspirational words that I came across at the start of this masters journey. John Seely Brown asks in the following video clip “How do we take these technologies and invent new types of institutional forms, new types of social practices and in fact new types of skills to be able to leverage the capabilities of the technologies?” If education is to shift towards new social practices, to discover new ways of doing then these are the questions to start with…. they propelled me on a four year journey. Watch the following video for inspiration and be prepared to dig deep.

The way forward isn’t that hard to see, you just need to be willing to question, learn and connect.

Please gift me with your thoughts.

Atkinson, D. (2015). The adventure of pedagogy, learning and the not-known. Subjectivity, 8(1), 43-56.

O’Toole, J., & Beckett, D. (2016). Educational research: Creative thinking and doing (2nd ed.). Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Ryan, M., Taylor, M., Barone, A., Della Pesca, L., Durgana, S., Ostrowski, K., Piccirillo, T., & Pikaard, K. (2017). Teacher as researcher, teacher as scholar and teacher as leader. The New Educator, 13(2), 102-116.

Selwyn, N. (2016). Education and technology: Key issues and debates [Kindle version]. Retrieved from

Veletsianos, G., & Kimmons, R. (2012). Networked participatory scholarship: Emergent techno-cultural pressures toward open and digital scholarship in online networks. Computers & Education, 58(2), 766-774.

Weller, M. (2011). The digital scholar: How technology is transforming scholarly practice. A&C Black.

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Digital Scholarship: An Interpretive Essay

Digital Scholarship as Constructivist Leadership

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If teachers want reform in education, they will need to be directly involved in this journey, rather than simply be objects of study (Lierberman, 1992). This paper, therefore, positions digital scholarship in the secondary school setting as an emerging practice that has the potential to transform education, learning and teaching. The wider context is one where “experts” spend a lot of time talking about teachers and their work, yet, often exclude the voice of teachers themselves and their lived experiences in classrooms (Ryan, et al., 2017). With the intent of liberating scholarly practice from “the academy” (O’Toole & Beckett, 2016, p. 15), an inclusive view of “teacher as scholar” (Ryan, et al.) is presented. This inclusive view is supported by a perception that “in a digital, networked, open world people become less defined by the institution to which they belong and more by the network and online identity they establish” (Weller, 2011, p. 12). Emerging technologies and practices are those “not defined by [their] newness, [are] coming into being, not-yetness: and [have] unfulfilled but promising potential” (Veletsianos, 2016 p. 7). Furthermore, digital scholarship in the context of secondary education is also interpreted as “constructivist leadership” (Lowery, 2016).

Networked Participatory Scholarship
Tensions exist in literature as to how to describe and define scholarly activity that builds a reputation via social media tools typified by Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Voicethread and blogs, thereby building a “nimbus of social” around scholarly impetus (Educause, 2014). Exploration of this scholarly Web 2.0 enabled activity drives us towards concepts of digital scholarship whilst encountering terms such as “social”, “conversational”, “open” as well as “Networked Participatory Scholarship” (Veletsianos & Kimmons, 2012 p. 778). Furthermore, depending on the context of discussions, we discover that individuals who employ digital tools in their scholarship are described as social scholars, open scholars or digital scholars (Veletsianos & Kimmons, 2012). Digital scholarship includes a range of scholarly and emerging practices, such as digital, networked and open (Weller, 2011). However, Veletsianos and Kimmons’ (2012) description of the emergent practice of Networked Participatory Scholarship is intriguing as it goes “beyond digital scholarship in both scope and value” (p. 768). This discussion takes ownership of this term as it encompasses the scholar’s “use of participatory technologies and online social networks to share, reflect upon, critique, improve, validate, and further their scholarship” (Veletsianos & Kimmons, 2012, p. 768). This critical approach appears to explicitly support an approach to digital scholarship as a way of academically informing practice.

Teacher as Scholar
The concept of teacher as scholar is not without precedent (Parsegian, 1976; Worrell, 1965) but a rekindling of an older view of teacher as scholar and researcher (Chall, 1986) that rests on the assumption that teachers can transform the scholarship of teaching (Greenhow, Robelia & Hughes, 2009). There are many different interpretations of what constitutes scholarship and how to describe it (Weller, 2011, p. 50) and therefore, the ensuing exploration is anchored in the Boyer model of scholarship (Boyer, 1990). This model, often perceived as institution-centric, is known for its clarity in identifying four separate but overlapping scholarly functions, namely Discovery, Integration, Application and Teaching, also described as the DIAT structure (Garnett & Ecclesfield, 2011). This dynamic and capacious view of scholarship as offered by Boyer acknowledges that “knowledge is generated and acquired not just through research but through teaching as well” (Veletsianos & Kimmons, 2012, p. 767). This is an essential idea to hold onto while exploring digital scholarship in the secondary education setting. The following discussion journeys through Boyer’s framework, as shown in Figure 1 below, so as to provide a lens to provide clarity to digital scholarship in secondary schools.

Figure 1 Boyer’s Scholarly Framework

Scholarship of Discovery
The scholarship of discovery is about research and commitment to freedom of inquiry in a disciplined fashion. It is about thinking freely and seeing propositions of every kind in ever changing light (Boyer, 1990). How might digital scholarship be interpreted in this context of discovery, to liberate lived experiences of education?

Educational research has been democratised so that research is not just the prerogative of the university. By participating in descriptive, interpretive and change-oriented research (O’Toole & Beckett, 2016) the teacher is able to participate in “scholarly responsible [work]… [to discover new] “ways of seeing”…[and to] “test and/or seek verification of established knowledge” (p. 5). This is potentially liberating work in a school setting where teachers are often called to adopt evidence based and data driven practice (Punch & Oancea, 2014; McMillan & Schumacher, 2014) whilst also not having access to scholarly work that is held in journals hidden behind paywalls. In this realm of knowledge discovery, we can interpret Networked Participatory Scholarship as a potential framework to support the burgeoning tradition in education for critical and democratic analysis (Selwyn, 2010). Teachers-scholars in this context should support context-rich research of the often compromised and constrained social realities of technology use “on the ground” in educational settings (Selwyn, 2010).

The context of educational research is one where “today’s technologies are most significant in terms of the ways in which they alter people’s relationships with information and knowledge” (Selwyn, 2016, Loc 1867). Furthermore, in this context the ontological separation of teachers, learners and knowledge is giving way to postmodern views and net-aware theories of learning such as connectivism (Anderson & Dron, 2011; Siemens, 2004; Wheeler, 2012). This renegotiation has significant implications for how knowledge from research in the school setting is encountered. The digital scholar can once again provide transformational leadership by encouraging descriptive and interpretive research (O’Toole & Beckett, 2016). However, as a constructivist leader (Lowery, 2016) they also promote reflective and reflexive practice by exploring ideas that “knowledge is inexorably socially bound” (Lowery, 2016, p. 49).

In schools now typified by comprehensive digital learning environments (Veletsianos, 2016), which themselves are an emerging technology (Martindale & Dowdy, 2016), knowledge constructed from classroom based research, can be disseminated via social networking tools and distributed into networks of practice (Brown & Duguid, 2000). Findings can be quickly published on teacher personal web pages, blogs or open access journals and “join the emergent practice of scholars’ use of participatory technologies and online social networks to share, reflect upon, critique, improve, validate and further their scholarship” (Veletsianos & Kimmons, 2012). The digital scholar, as constructivist leader and researcher, in this instance contributes to the collective knowledge (Downes, 2012) of digital networks.

According to theories of social constructivism (Anderson & Dron, 2011; Anderson, 2016) new ways of seeing may also emerge from such social online interaction. Therefore, in the school system, the digital scholar is a leader who is aware that learning can take place through interaction, in both physical and digital spaces, and where learning is dialogic; with an emphasis on co-creation of knowledge with others (Selwyn, 2016, Loc 1920). These are emerging but potentially significant changes in how a learning community might generate new knowledge, call upon contemporary accounts of technology, knowledge, learning and pedagogy. In this context, digital scholarship can be interpreted as a community endeavour.

Scholarship of Integration
“By integration we mean making connections across the disciplines, placing the specialties in larger context, illuminating data in a revealing way, often educating non-specialists, too” (Boyer, 1990, p. 18).

The University of Adelaide describes the scholarship of integration as “what you know + what I know can = new paths to new knowledge” (University of Adelaide, n.d). This is about enabling knowledge to be opened out by networked effects and used in an inter-disciplinary manner (Garnett & Ecclesfield, 2017). This interdisciplinary practice is driven by a desire and ability to share (Weller, 2011) and with attitudes of openness can result in production and publishing of open education resources (Weller, 2011). These digital artefacts can be published with permissions to be reused, redistributed, revised, remixed and freely shared across digital networks. This ethos of openness is about sharing and being generous (Tedx Talks, 2010). It is interesting to note that these digital strategies mirror Boyer’s call to “move beyond traditional disciplinary boundaries, communicate with colleagues in other fields, and discover patterns that connect” (Boyer, 1990, p. 20). Once again, the networked and participatory scholar does this by making use of digital networks, and enacting relevant open education literacies (Kimmons, 2014). As a co-creation activity classroom students would also be called into this creative process by making use of these OER resources or publishing remixed versions; and thereby practicing visible scholarship.

Within the context of Scholarship of Integration, the digital scholar therefore pushes interdisciplinary approaches to learning to the centre of teaching practice. In this context Digital Scholarship takes place in “overlapping [academic] neighbourhoods” (Boyer, 1990, p. 19).

Scholarship of Application
Also known as scholarship of engagement, this third element asks “How can knowledge be responsibly applied to consequential problems?” (Boyer, 1990, p. 21). This form of scholarship is not just about citizenship nor is it about knowledge “first ‘discovered’ and then ‘applied’ (Boyer, 1990, p. 23). It is about reflective practice and making knowledge useful, moving from theory to practice, and from practice back to theory. (Boyer, 1990; Boyer, 1996). Boyer talks about building bridges and building better lives. For the digital scholar, this can be seen as a metaphor for building digital bridges and again manipulating digital networks as a democratic process to serve the interests of the larger community (Boyer, 1996).

This is a call for action to the Networked Participatory Scholar to activate digital skills and pedagogical knowledge to improve global communities. Such an approach is exemplified by a number of collaborative projects. For instance, The Flat Classroom Project (Lindsay & Davis, 2010) brings middle and senior high school students together in a global collaborative effort. As a clear example of the application of knowledge of digital literacies and networked practices, this project aims to transform learning through global collaboration. A second example is the ‘Code the Future’ global community that brings together educators and technology developers to assist with students with coding (Code The Future, n.d.). In this application of knowledge, the Networked Participatory Scholar again acts as a constructivist leader by embracing “new spaces for democratic dialogue and acts of social justice” (Lowery, 2016) and that theory leads to practice and practice also leads to theory (Boyer, 1990).

Scholarship of Teaching
“[I]nspired teaching keeps the flame of scholarship alive.” (Boyer 1990, p. 24).

 This is a site of an “uncertain pedagogical adventure characterised by novel modes of subjective engagement” (Atkinson, 2015, p. 43) and where the networked participatory scholar may push past dominant conceptions of pedagogy. We began within a context of teaching practitioner as researcher that broke down the false dichotomy between practice and research, that still influences our education system (O’Toole & Beckett, 2010). So, it is too at this site of teaching where pedagogy can promote “subjects/entities [to] emerge from the relationship that do not exist prior to it” (Atkinson). Thus, in this context digital scholarship promotes teaching as a “reflective dialogic practice promoting learning” (Garnett & Ecclesfield, 2011, p. 15) while “participating in the perpetual Beta of knowledge creation through the co-creation of learning” (Garnett & Ecclesfield, 2011, p. 15). Atkinson calls this “pedagogies of the not known” (p. 46) and “pedagogical practices as creative encounters” (p. 52). In this context, the networked and participatory scholar advances learning theory through contextual research and practice, brokers new learning experiences and develops open students (Garnett & Ecclesfield, 2011).

The assumption here is that the practice of digital scholarship will make use of participatory technologies and online social networks to share, critique and improve the scholarship of teaching. The classrooms become the beginning of a journey towards social learning where understanding is socially constructed by participation in “open participatory learning ecosystems” (Brown & Adler, 2008) and learning consists of the ability to traverse these open, digital networks (Downes, 2012).

“We acknowledge that these four categories, and of teaching – divide intellectual functions that are tied inseparably to each other.” (Boyer, 1990)

In the school setting networked and participatory scholars give voice to reform. Working in the space where digital, networked and open approaches to teaching and learning converge they act as constructivist leaders and actively encourage community practice. The digital scholarship that they promulgate bridges theory with practice and pays homage to Boyer’s viewpoint that knowledge is not developed in a linear fashion and teaching shapes both research and practice. The digital practitioner-scholar embodies agile leadership in new cultures of digital learning whilst venturing into the realm of knowledge networks and digital innovation.


Anderson, T. (2016). Theories for learning with emerging technologies. In G. Veletsianos (Ed.) Emergence and innovation in digital learning: Foundations and applications. Athabasca University Press. Retrieved from

Anderson, T. & Dron, J. (2011). Three generations of distance education pedagogy. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning12(3), 80-97.

Atkinson, D. (2015). The adventure of pedagogy, learning and the not-known. Subjectivity8(1), 43-56.

Boyer, E. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the professoriate. The Carnegie Foundation for The Advancement of Teaching. Retrieved from:

Boyer, E. (1996). The scholarship of engagement. Journal of Public Service and Outreach, 1(1), 11-20

Brown, J. S., & Adler, R. P. (2008). Minds on fire: Open education, the long tail, and learning 2.0. Educause Review, 43(1), 16-20.

Brown, J, S., & Duguid, P. (2000). Knowledge and organization: A social-practice perspective. Retrieved from

Code The Future. (n.d.). About Us. Retrieved from

Downes, S. (2012). Connectivism and connective knowledge. National Research Council Canada. Retrieved from

Educause. (2014). Bryan Alexander: A digital scholarship scenario [Video File]. Retrieved from

Garnett, F., & Ecclesfield, N. (2011). Towards a framework for co-creating open scholarship. Research in Learning Technology, 19(1), 5-17.

Kimmons, R. M. (2014). Developing open education literacies with practicing K-12 teachers. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning15(6). Retrieved from

Lieberman, A. (1992). The meaning of scholarly activity and the building of community. Educational researcher, 21(6), 5-12.

Lindsay, J., & Davis, V. (2010). Navigate the digital rapids. Learning & Leading with Technology37(6), 12-15.

Lowery, C. L. (2016). The scholar–practitioner ideal. Journal of School Leadership. 26, 34-60.

Martindale, T., & Dowdy, M. (2016). Issues in research, design, and development of personal learning environments. In G. Veletsianos (Ed.) Emergence and innovation in digital learning: Foundations and applications. Athabasca University Press. Retrieved from

McMillan, J, H., & Schumacher, S. (2014). Research in education: Evidence-based inquiry [Kindle Version]. Retrieved from

O’Toole, J., & Beckett, D. (2013). Educational research: Creative thinking and doing (2nd ed.). Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Parsegian, V. P. (1976). The teacher as scholar. Journal of Teacher Education. 27(4), 301.

Punch, K.F., & Oancea, A.E. (2014). Introduction to research methods in education (Kindle version]. Retrieved from

Ryan, M., Taylor, M., Barone, A., Della Pesca, L., Durgana, S., Ostrowski, K., Piccirillo, T., & Pikaard, K. (2017). Teacher as researcher, teacher as scholar and teacher as leader. The New Educator, 13(2), 102-116.

Siemens, G. (2004). Connectivism. A learning theory for the digital age [Blog Post]. Retrieved from:

Selwyn, N. (2016). Education and technology: Key issues and debates [Kindle version]. Retrieved from

TeDx Talks. (2010). TEDxNYED – David Wiley – 03/06/10. Retrieved from:

University of Adelaide. (n.d.) Boyer scholarship reconsidered. Retrieved from:

Veletsianos, G., & Kimmons, R. (2012). Networked participatory scholarship: Emergent techno-cultural pressures toward open and digital scholarship in online networks. Computers & Education, 58(2), 766-774.

Veletsianos, G. (2016). The defining characteristics of emerging technologies and emerging practices in digital education. In G. Veletsianos (Ed.) Emergence and innovation in digital learning: Foundations and applications. Athabasca University Press. Retrieved from

Weller, M. (2011). The digital scholar: How technology is transforming scholarly practice [Kindle version]. Retrieved from

Wheeler, S. (2012). Theories for the digital age: Connectivism [Blog Post]. Retrieved from

Worrell, F. (1965). Teachers as scholars. Science, 147 (3656), 358-358.

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Case Study Proposal for #INF537

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As part of this capstone subject to the Master of Education program that I am in the process of completing, I need to complete a Case Study.  My proposal is presented below:

Area of Interest: Student Personal Epistemologies and Technology Practices

The Proposal: 

Topic: Student beliefs about knowledge and how these beliefs affect their uses of mobile technology for learning.

Draft Research Question: What are Year 9 students’ beliefs about knowledge and how do they think these beliefs influence their use of technology when learning in a Year 9 science classroom.

Description of project including information, learning, social or organisational needs, problems or concerns to be addressed.

Education is short of classrooms that permit students to engage with technology in ways that prepare them to use technology in the real world (Ertmer et al, 2012). Teachers beliefs about knowledge influence how they integrate technology into the classroom (Ertmer & Ottenberg-Leftwich, 2010).

What students think knowledge is, is a critical component of student learning (Hofer, 2001) but there seems a paucity of research on how student knowledge beliefs influence technology use when learning.

Seeing through others’ eyes is one of the main tenets of qualitative research (Bryman, 2014). Therefore, this case study will explore students’ knowledge beliefs and how these students think their personal epistemologies affect their use of technology, in the science classroom.

Expected outcomes: –

Qualitative narrative data will be collected and coded using NVivo, a computer assisted data analysis tool (Bryman, 2012). Narrative data will be collected via a focus group to allow a viewpoint to be built up out of group interaction (Bryman, 2014). Emergent themes will be explored (Saldana, 2009). The outcome will be the researcher-practitioner critically reflecting on his own theory and practice. Starting from where the student is (O’Tools & Beckett, 2016 p.9) the goal is to “understand” (Bryman, 2014 p. 29) student relationships with knowledge and associated technology behaviors, thereby informing teaching practice in the science classroom.Case study plan


Table 1: Case Study Plan
CSU STUDY Week Date Research Activities
5 7th August Submit draft proposal (This document).

Post proposal to interact to gain peer feedback/comments.

Seek permission from Principal (Already done)

6 14th August Consult and review literature to seek further direction and provide solid theoretical foundation.

Begin to write interview questions for focus group.

Select student participants (4) and seek parental permission via CareMonkey & hardcopy.

Communicate to parents’ ethical framework to protect participant privacy.

7 21st August Continue brief literature review and refine research question

Design questions for semi-structured interview.

8 28th August Submit to School Principal proposed research question and questions for semi-structured interview.

Obtain final permission to proceed from school Principal.

(Assessment item 2 is due Monday 28th August)

9 4th September Away on Year 9 School Camp.
10 11th September Complete group interview on Year 9 Campus.

Record focus group discussion digitally (video) for future transcription. (Focus group, 1hr)

Begin transcription of interview data.

11 18th September Input data in NVivo Software and begin thematic coding

Follow up with focussed interview if required (and time permitting)

(School term break 23rd Sept – 8th October)

12 25th September Continue coding/report writing.
13 2nd October Continue with coding data/final writing.
14 9th October Submit case study Wednesday 11th October/ END.



Bryman, A. (2012). Social research methods (4th ed.). Oxford, UK: OUP

Ertmer, P.A., Ottenberg-Leftwich, A.T. (2010) Teacher technology change: How knowledge, confidence, beliefs, and culture intersect. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 42(3), 255-284

Ertmer, P. A., Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A. T., Sadik, O., Sendurur, E., & Sendurur, P. (2012). Teacher beliefs and technology integration practices: A critical relationship. Computers & Education59(2), 423-435.

Hofer, B. K. (2001). Personal epistemology research: Implications for learning and teaching. Educational Psychology Review13(4), 353-383.

O’Toole, J., & Beckett, D. (2013). Educational research: Creative thinking and doing (2nd ed.). Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Sellar, S. & Cormack, P. (2006, November). (Re)conceptualising Middle Years Pedagogy. Paper presented at the Symposium “Pedagogical Reform in the Middle Years” at the Australian Association for Research in Education Conference, Adelaide.

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Communities of Practice

  1. the actual application or use of an idea, belief, or method, as opposed to theories relating to it.
    “the principles and practice of teaching”

I have been asked to respond to the following two questions:

What are your thoughts and experiences with ‘Communities of practice’ – theory and real life observations?

How important is it to belong to and learn with a community (#such as INF537). Given a choice would you prefer to work/learn alone? Why?

Communities of practice are groups of people who share concerns or a passion for something they do – and very importantly learn how to do it better via regular interaction (Wenger, 2011). The following few Twitter interactions, taken from one of many from my previous week of online interactions,  demonstrate this idea very succinctly.

Earlier this week I reached out with a simple question:

I very quickly obtained a response that presented to me an ocean of ideas and possibilities that collided with mine, providing a rich learning experience.

My discussion also led to me bumping into the following tweet that provided an interesting viewpoint on digital pedagogies, which I have been exploring actively over the last few years.

Each of these chance interactions hints at a limitless exchange of ideas that can lead to very meaningful professional discovery.

Over the last six plus years of very active online participation, I have experienced first hand the networked contexts and encounters that I am currently exploring while being mindful of the digital futures of education and pedagogy. It is within these communities of practice where theories of digital learning become a reality. For example, it is where concepts such as connectivism (the thesis that knowledge is distributed across a network of connections), paragogy (Corneli & Danoff, 2011) and peeragogy (Rheingold, 2012) become part of my everyday practice and scholarship.

With the digital futures of education in mind, it is here that we need to take our peers and students to allow them to learn that good learning is social.


Corneli, J., & Danoff, C. J. (2011) Paragogy. In: Proceedings of the 6th Open Knowledge Conference, Berlin, Germany. Retrieved from

Rheingold, H. (2012). Toward peeragogy. DML Central, 23 [Blog post]. Retrieved from

Wenger, E. (2011). Communities of practice: A brief introduction. Retrieved from


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Digital Scholarship – A Conversation

What are your thoughts on Digital Scholarship?
I am exploring ideas of #digped as part of a Master of Education programme (Knowledge Networks & Digital Innovation) and the relevance of Digital Scholarship to the secondary sector.
In describing Digital Scholarship Martin Weller says people always get bogged down by definitions and so describes digital scholarship as shorthand for the following three things intersecting:
Digital content, distributed by networks, with open and associated practices and technologies.










The intersection of these three approaches provides fertile ground for the transformation of practice ( Weller, 2011) -which I am thinking also applies to teaching practice in the secondary sector.

Via a comment below, you are invited to leave your thoughts on the following questions.

What do YOU think digital scholarship is?

Is digital scholarship a useful and practical term?

Is it relevant to your sector? How?

Will this model of Digital Scholarship lead to traditional pedagogies being challenged?

Or else, post a question if you are not sure of the meaning of the above ideas.

If you came here via twitter please retweet my tweet.

Weller’s blog is here, if you are curious:


Weller, M. (2011). The digital scholar: How technology is transforming scholarly practice. A&C Black.

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Innovation without change? (Again)

I recently participated in an online group colloquia led by Bruce Dixon from Modern Learners, who are doing great things in the education space. Amongst other things, we discussed whether we thought that the schools that we taught in were catering for the modern learners that inhabit our classrooms. The resounding opinion was that they were not. This is no surprise as emerging scholarly analysis shows this loud and clear. In fact, much effort is now directed towards building explanations of why teaching practice is not shifting in response to the changing contexts of teaching. See here my own small amount of research that provides a brief background on this work, with a focus on teacher beliefs about knowledge. In summary, the dominant pedagogies that we all rely on have not changed in any significant way. We embrace the ubiquity of technology and then return to the didactic pedagogy of transmission of knowledge (Wright & Parchoma, 2011).

To prompt discussion, Bruce provided the following idea to reflect on, as first advocated by Seymour Papert. Perhaps we have forgotten that students in our care come to school to learn how to learn.  What are your thoughts here?  What does it mean to learn?

Looking Back.

Why the lack of significant pedagogical change in our education system? I have written elsewhere on this blog about the paradox of innovation without change, which to be brutally honest, means there has been little innovation in teaching practice. It is time to be honest.

Within this context, it is worth giving time to the following ideas.

“Schools and schooling have a long history and practices that persist over time even after the origins of the practice are long forgotten” (Bigum, 2012). Drawing on Actor Network Theory, Bigum argues that past ways of doing things, play a role in not only what can be done but also on what can be imagined is significant. An online version of this paper is available below.

What tracks laid down long ago do you think continue to frame and shape present day pedagogies, so that predominantly transmissionist pedagogies persist in our classrooms?

Please gift me with your thoughts.


Bigum, C. (2012). Edges, exponentials & education: disenthralling the digital. In L. Rowan (Ed.), Transformative approaches to new technologies and student diversity in futures oriented classrooms: Future Proofing Education (pp. 29-43). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer. Retrieved from

Wright, S., & Parchoma, G. (2011). Technologies for learning? An actor-network theory critique of ‘affordances’ in research on mobile learning. Research in Learning Technology, 19(3), 247-258.

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Digital Futures – The Threat of Technology

And so here I am, nearly at the end of a Charles Sturt University, Master of Education – specialising in Knowledge Networks and Digital Innovation.  To finish this learning journey, we (myself and study peers) have been asked to navigate a unit on Digital Futures, designed to open debate and scholarship.

Is technology a threat to education?  This provocation has been offered to us within an educational context where learning scholars acknowledge that technology is an integral element of contemporary education. And yet, while much of the education sector is now dripping in technology, there is little evidence to show that learning outcomes, as we currently measure them, have been improved by this technology.

What do you think the digital future of education entails?

Keep in mind that the rhetoric that surrounds educational technology does not match the messy reality – where many argue, little transformation of teaching and learning has taken place.

You might enjoy the following simple prompt:

I look forward to you joining in on this debate by posting here.


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Characteristics of the Innovator’s Mindset

Image from Chapter 3 “The Innovator’s Mindset” (Couros, 2015)


My response to Chapter 3: The innovator’s mindset: Empowering learning, unleash talent and lead a culture of creativity (Couros, 2015).

OK, so I haven’t blogged in many months, mostly because of the demands of teaching and study which I must admit is testing my resilience: – )   But alas, soonish (by years end) the M.Ed study will be done.

Resilience and innovation.

So, what do I make of Chapter Three of The Innovator’s mindset?  This chapter has overtones of Design Thinking whilst describing innovators as needing to be: empathetic, problem finders/solvers, risk takers, networked, observant, creative, resilient and reflective.  This description of innovation as a mindset is illustrated in the image that heads this blog post. The beauty of such a perspective is that innovation is viewed as a mindset rather than something external to us (teachers & students) such as a series of steps to follow. This is a vital idea to ponder as too often we try to externalize ideas such as innovation (or even the scientific method) as a recipe to follow, whereas the above view of innovation as a mindset encourages a very human-centered approach to innovation. Alleluia to handing a sense of agency to teachers/educators and ultimately students; Couros quotes “What we model is what we get – Jimmy Casas”

An aspect of innovation that I very doggedly focus on in my classrooms is encouraging students to be problem finders/solvers.  Rather than handing recipe like questions to my students, via the use of active note taking strategies, I very persistently have them design their own questions about the material we might be covering.  I have found that driving lessons via teacher led questions encourages students to passively focus only on answering those questions. They might be able to find information to answer the recipe like questions but in reality learn little by doing so.  In our digital age finding information to answer questions is easy….designing questions is harder. Surprisingly, a more learner-centred approach that regularly demands students to formulate their own question is at the outset damn hard work. Such such an active approach requires a significant shift in our student’s thinking as they are not overly confident about making their own questions visible – remember the context of my teaching is at present all Yr 9 boys. Such a shift though is vital in building student centred pedagogies that recognise the 21st Century context we all live and learn in.

In previous posts, I have answered the chapter questions as posed by Couros but here I am going to pose my own:

  • Does innovation come from within or should we apportion it to …umm, technology or our use of technology?
  • Is education currently too focused on a deterministic view of technology that apportions innovation elsewhere; innovation in machines?
  • As a head of eLearning in an educational setting, should I focus on bringing tools into this setting or encouraging innovative mindsets? 🙂

Please gift me with your comments.


Couros, G. (2015). The innovator’s mindset. Empowering learning, unleash talent, and lead a culture of creativity. Available from


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